Participation (decision making)
Participation in social science refers to different mechanisms for the public to express opinions - and ideally exert influence - regarding political, economic, management or other social decisions. Participatory decision making can take place along any realm of human social activity, including economic (i.e. participatory economics), political (i.e. participatory democracy or parpolity), management (i.e. participatory management), cultural (i.e. polyculturalism) or familial (i.e. feminism).
For well-informed participation to occur, it is argued that some version of transparency, e.g. radical transparency, is necessary, but not sufficient. It has also been argued that those most affected by a decision should have the most say while those that are least affected should have the least say in a topic.
Objectives of participation 
Participation activities may be motivated from an administrative perspective or a citizen perspective on a governmental, corporate or social level. From the administrative viewpoint, participation can build public support for activities. It can educate the public about an agency's activities. It can also facilitate useful information exchange regarding local conditions. Furthermore, participation is often legally mandated. From the citizen viewpoint, participation enables individuals and groups to influence agency decisions in a representational manner. How well participation can influence the relation between citizen and their local government, how it increases trust and boosts peoples willingness to participate Giovanni Allegretti explains in an interview using the example of participatory budgeting.
Classifying participation 
Sherry Arnstein discusses eight types of participation in A Ladder of Citizen Participation (1969). Often termed as "Arnstein's ladder", these are broadly categorized as:
- Citizen Power: Citizen Control, Delegated Power, Partnership.
- Tokenism: Placation, Consultation, Informing.
- Non-participation: Therapy, Manipulation.
She defines citizen participation as the redistribution of power that enables the have-not citizens, presently excluded from the political and economic processes, to be deliberately included in the future.
Archon Fung presents another classification of participation based on three key questions: Who is allowed to participate, and are they representative of the population? What is the method of communication or decision-making? And how much influence or authority is granted to the participation?
Specific participation activities 
- Town hall meeting
- Advisory committee
- Citizens' jury
- Opinion poll
- Participatory design
- Participatory budgeting
Corporate Participation 
See also 
Most of corporation political participation involves campaigning. Corporations are big fund raisers and donors for political candidates.
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- Eva-Maria Verfürth (February 2013). "More generous than you might think". dandc.eu.
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- Fung, A. (2006), "Varieties of Participation in Complex Governance", Public Administration Review-Washington Dc- 66: 66–75, retrieved 2010-06-12
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- Pretty, Jules N. (1995). "Participatory Learning For Sustainable Agriculture". World development 23 (8): 1247–1263.
- Rocha, E.M. (1997), "A ladder of empowerment", Journal of Planning Education and Research 17 (1): 31, retrieved 2010-06-12
- Greenwood, M. (2007), "Stakeholder Engagement: Beyond the Myth of Corporate responsibility", Journal of Business Ethics, retrieved 2012-08-15
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- p-Government: Online participatory government
-  Reed MS (2008) Stakeholder participation for environmental management: a literature review. Biological Conservation 141: 2417–2431 (for final published version see: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0888-8892)
- Participatory Economics Book Page (Participatory Decision Making)
- "Future in the Alps" Database with best practice examples of new forms of decision making in the Alps
- "Participatory Learning and Action series" A leading informal journal on participatory learning and action approaches and methods, providing a forum for those engaged in participatory work - community workers, activists and researchers - to share their experiences, conceptual reflections and methodological innovations with others.
- "Participation and the FAO" The Participation Website was established in 1999 by the Informal Working Group on Participatory Approaches and Methods to Support Sustainable Livelihoods and Food Security (IWG-PA) from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The objective of the Participation Website is to bring together under one virtual roof, a broad cross-section of stakeholders interested in participatory approaches and methods in support of sustainable rural livelihoods and food security.
- "p-Government" The author proposes a new model of electronic governance based on the shared vision and collaboration of all the stakeholders. This new governance model shall be known as p-government or participatory government.