||This article needs attention from an expert on the subject. The specific problem is: definition of "particle" needs to be clarified. (September 2013)|
In grammar, a particle is a function word which must be associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning, i.e. which does not have its own lexical definition. On this definition, particles are a separate part of speech and are distinct from other classes of function words, such as articles, prepositions, conjunctions and adverbs.
Languages vary widely in how much they use particles, some using them extensively and others more commonly using alternative devices such as prefixes/suffixes, inflection, auxiliary verbs and word order.
Related concepts and Ambiguities
Depending on its context, the meaning of the term may overlap with such notions as "morpheme", "marker", or even "adverb" as in English phrasal verbs such as out as in get out. Under a strict definition, which demands that a particle be uninflected, English deictics like this and that would not be classed as such (since they have plurals and are therefore inflected), and neither would Romance articles (since they are inflected for number and gender).
The foregoing assumes that any function word incapable of inflection is by definition a particle. However, that definition conflicts with the statement (above) that particles have no specific lexical function per se, since non-inflecting words which function as articles, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections etc. clearly do have lexical function. The difficulty disappears if particles are taken to be a separate class of words, one of whose characteristics (which they share with some words of other classes) is that they do not inflect.
Particles in different languages
Infinitival and adverbial particles
- the infinitive to, as in to walk, although this can also be viewed as an integral part of the infinitive form of the verb
- adverbial portions of phrasal verbs, such as off in we put it off too long, although these can also be viewed as adverbs or prepositions.
- the negator not, although this is arguably better defined as an adverb.
Interjections, sentence connectors, and conjunctions
If a particle is defined simply to be any function word which cannot be inflected, then conjunctions, prepositions and interjections would be classed as particles (at least in English) although they are traditionally classed as separate parts of speech based on their function. According to this definition, the English definite article the would also be a particle as it is uninflected.
A German modal particle serves no necessary syntactical function, but expresses the speaker's attitude towards the utterance. Modal particles include ja, halt, doch, aber, denn, schon and others. Some of these also appear in non-particle forms. Aber, for example, is also the conjunction but. In Er ist Amerikaner, aber er spricht gut Deutsch, "He is American, but he speaks good German", aber is a conjunction connecting two sentences. But in Er spricht aber gut Deutsch!, the aber is a particle, with the sentence perhaps best translated as "What good German he speaks!" The particles appear more often in relaxed spoken and casually written registers of German.
In Chinese languages, particles are one of two major word classes. The other class includes noun, verbs and adjectives. Linguists do not agree on whether or not Chinese pronouns and adverbs should be classified as particles.
Japanese and Korean
The term particle is often used in descriptions of Japanese and Korean, where they are used to mark nouns according to their case or their role (subject, object, complement, or topic) in a sentence or clause. These particles may function as endings and therefore as bound morphemes rather than independent words, in particular in Old Japanese. Some of these particles are best analysed as case markers and some as postpositions. There are sentence-tagging particles such as Japanese and Chinese question markers.
Polynesian languages are almost devoid of inflection and particles are used extensively to indicate mood, tense and case. Suggs, discussing the deciphering of the rongorongo script of Easter Island, describes them as "all-important". In Māori for example, the versatile particle "e" can signal the imperative mood, the vocative case, the future tense or the subject of a sentence formed with most passive verbs. The particle "i" signals the past imperfect tense, the object of a transitive verb or the subject of a sentence formed with "neuter verbs" (a form of passive verb), as well as the prepositions "in", "at" and "from".
- McArthur, Tom: "The Oxford Companion to the English Language", pp. 72-76, Oxford University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-19-214183-X For various keywords
- http://www.canoo.net/services/OnlineGrammar/Wort/Ueberblick/Flexionslos.html?lang=en&darj=1 Interjections
- Martin Durrell, Using German, Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition (2003), p. 156-164.
- http://japanese.about.com/blparticles.htm List of Japanese particles
- http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/portnerp/nsfsite/KoreanParticlesMiokPak.pdf List of Korean particles
- http://siamsmile.webs.com/thaiparticles/thaiparticles.html Large list of Thai particles and exclamations with explanations and example sentences.
- Suggs, Robert C. The Island Civilizations of Polynesia.
- Foster, John. He Whakamarama: A Short Course in Maori.