|Sound pressure||p · SPL|
|Particle velocity||v · SVL|
|Sound intensity||I · SIL|
|Sound power level||SWL|
|Sound exposure level||SEL|
|Sound energy density||E|
|Sound energy flux||q|
|Speed of sound|
Particle velocity is the velocity v of a particle (real or imagined) in a medium as it transmits a wave. In many cases this is a longitudinal wave of pressure as with sound, but it can also be a transverse wave as with the vibration of a taut string.
When applied to a sound wave through a medium of a fluid like air, particle velocity would be the physical speed of a parcel of fluid as it moves back and forth in the direction the sound wave is travelling as it passes.
Particle velocity should not be confused with the speed of the wave as it passes through the medium, i.e. in the case of a sound wave, particle velocity is not the same as the speed of sound. The wave moves relatively fast, while the particles oscillate around their original position with a relatively small particle velocity. Particle velocity should also not be confused with the velocity of individual molecules.
Equations in terms of other measurements
The velocity v can be related to the particle displacement and acceleration for single frequency plane wave of frequency f using
It is further related to the instantaneous acoustic intensity vector I (not the time-averaged acoustic intensity) according to
|ξ||m, meters||particle displacement|
|ω = 2πf||radians/s||angular frequency|
|p||Pa, pascals||sound pressure|
|E||W·s/m³||sound energy density|
|Pac||W, watts||sound power or acoustic power|
Particle velocity level
The particle velocity level or the sound velocity level tells the ratio of a sound incidence in comparison to a reference level of 0 dB in a medium, mostly air.
It shows the ratio of the particle velocity v1 and the particle velocity v0.
The particle velocity level is:
where v1 and v0 are the velocities.
The particle velocity level has the letter "Lv".
The unit of the particle velocity level is named "dB".
Notice: The dB is dimensionless.
If v0 is the standard reference particle velocity of:
we use "dB SVL". (SVL = sound velocity level).