Particularly Dangerous Situation

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A Particularly Dangerous Situation (PDS) is a type of enhanced wording first used by the Storm Prediction Center (a national guidance center of the National Weather Service, the meteorological agency of the United States) on certain severe weather watches. It is issued at the discretion of the forecaster composing the watch and implies that there is an enhanced risk of very severe and life-threatening weather, usually a major tornado outbreak or (much less often) a long-lived, extreme derecho event, but possibly another weather hazard.[1]

PDS watches are quite uncommon; less than 3% of watches issued by the SPC from 1996 to 2005 were PDS watches, or an average of 24 each year.[2] When a PDS watch is issued, there are often more PDS watches issued for the same weather system, even on the same day during major outbreaks, so the number of days per year that a PDS watch is issued is significantly lower.

PDS tornado watches are issued when there is a higher than normal risk of multiple strong to violent tornadoes – especially those that are predicted to be long-track in nature, with path lengths of more than 20 miles – in the watch area (usually amounting to damage consistent with EF4 or EF5 tornadoes), in addition to including significant wind and hail damage. While there are no set criteria for a PDS watch to be issued, they are usually issued when the potential exists for a major tornado outbreak. These types of tornado watches represent about 90% of PDS watches issued by the Storm Prediction Center.[2]

PDS tornado warnings are currently issued on an experimental basis by the 38 National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices within the Central Region.[3] The criteria for a PDS warning is when a tornado on the ground has been spotted or confirmed, or a significant tornado is expected (due to radar signatures). While the intention of this experimental warning may be to replace the loosely-defined tornado emergency, PDS tornado warnings are structured as the second highest level of tornado warning within the Impact Based Warning system (an experiment – which also includes tags within warning products illustrating radar indications or physical observations of tornadoes, and damage potential – participated by the 33 Weather Forecast Offices within the Central Region, and will expand to eight additional offices within the Western, Eastern and Southern regions in the spring of 2014[4]); a tornado emergency, the highest warning level, is used within the United States for destructive tornadoes approaching more densely populated areas. These are the first warnings issued with PDS wording, and like PDS flash flood watches, are issued by local forecast offices.[5][6]

PDS severe thunderstorm watches are issued when there is a higher than normal risk of severe thunderstorm winds capable of major structural damage (in addition to large hail and perhaps a few isolated tornadoes), usually due to a strong and persistent derecho. These watches are very rare (accounting an average of only two each year), as the risk for tornadoes must remain low enough to not warrant a tornado watch (a normal tornado watch would be issued if the tornado risk is significant alongside the extreme wind threat).[2]

PDS flash flood watches are issued when there is a higher than normal risk of widespread, life-threatening flash flooding. These watches are issued by local NWS Weather Forecast Offices, not the Storm Prediction Center.

PDS wind chill warnings are issued when there is an enhanced risk of frost bite, hypothermia, and eventually death due to extremely low wind chills. These warnings are issued by the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices rather than the Storm Prediction Center.

Background[edit]

The first PDS tornado watch was issued by Robert H. Johns for the April 2, 1982 tornado outbreak across the southern and central Great Plains.[7] While historically applied only to severe thunderstorm, tornado and flash flood watches (i.e., Severe Local Storm "polygonal" events), PDS wording could theoretically be applied to other types of weather watches (such as winter storm, high wind, hurricane, or fire weather watches) when an enhanced threat for such conditions exists. These watches have generally (but not always) been issued during a high risk or an upper-end moderate risk either of severe storms from the SPC's convective outlooks or of flash flooding from the Weather Prediction Center's Excessive Rainfall Outlooks.

On April 24, 2011, the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Memphis, Tennessee issued the first PDS flash flood watch to highlight the threat for widespread, significant and potentially life-threatening flash flooding due to repeated rounds of severe thunderstorms.

Sample PDS Tornado Watch[edit]

This PDS Tornado Watch shown below, was issued covering Alabama during the early stages of the extreme tornado outbreak that killed over 300 people (which clearly verified) as explained above.

NOTE: The blue text in the alert below indicates links; the color of all text in the original alert issued was black, except for the text "THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION", which was rendered in red in the actual alert.[8]

  URGENT - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED
  TORNADO WATCH NUMBER 235
  NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
  145 PM CDT WED APR 27 2011
  
  THE NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER HAS ISSUED A
  TORNADO WATCH FOR PORTIONS OF 
  
         MUCH OF ALABAMA
         NORTHWEST GEORGIA
         SOUTHEAST MISSISSIPPI
         SOUTHERN MIDDLE TENNESSEE
  
  EFFECTIVE THIS WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON AND EVENING FROM 145 PM UNTIL
  1000 PM CDT.
  
  ...THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION...
  
  DESTRUCTIVE TORNADOES...LARGE HAIL TO 4 INCHES IN DIAMETER...
  THUNDERSTORM WIND GUSTS TO 80 MPH...AND DANGEROUS LIGHTNING ARE
  POSSIBLE IN THESE AREAS.
  
  THE TORNADO WATCH AREA IS APPROXIMATELY ALONG AND 80 STATUTE
  MILES EAST AND WEST OF A LINE FROM 45 MILES NORTHEAST OF
  HUNTSVILLE ALABAMA TO 60 MILES WEST SOUTHWEST OF EVERGREEN
   ALABAMA.  FOR A COMPLETE DEPICTION OF THE WATCH SEE THE
  ASSOCIATED WATCH OUTLINE UPDATE (WOUS64 KWNS WOU5).
  
  REMEMBER...A TORNADO WATCH MEANS CONDITIONS ARE FAVORABLE FOR
  TORNADOES AND SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS IN AND CLOSE TO THE WATCH
  AREA. PERSONS IN THESE AREAS SHOULD BE ON THE LOOKOUT FOR
  THREATENING WEATHER CONDITIONS AND LISTEN FOR LATER STATEMENTS
  AND POSSIBLE WARNINGS.
  
  OTHER WATCH INFORMATION...CONTINUE...WW 230...WW 231...WW
  232...WW 233...WW 234...
  
  DISCUSSION...A CLASSIC TORNADO OUTBREAK SITUATION IS DEVELOPING
  ACROSS MUCH OF AL AS DISCRETE TORNADIC SUPERCELLS FORM OVER MS AND
  TRACK ACROSS THE WATCH AREA.  STRONG LOW LEVEL AND DEEP LAYER
  VERTICAL SHEAR...COMBINED WITH A MOIST AND MODERATELY UNSTABLE AIR
  MASS...WILL POSE A DANGEROUS RISK OF STRONG/VIOLENT AND POTENTIALLY
  LONG-TRACK TORNADOES.
  
  AVIATION...TORNADOES AND A FEW SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS WITH HAIL
  SURFACE AND ALOFT TO 4 INCHES. EXTREME TURBULENCE AND SURFACE
  WIND GUSTS TO 70 KNOTS. A FEW CUMULONIMBI WITH MAXIMUM TOPS TO
  500. MEAN STORM MOTION VECTOR 25040.
  
  
  ...HART

Sample PDS Severe Thunderstorm Watch[edit]

Although, as mentioned, PDS Severe Thunderstorm Watches are very rare, they are issued when the tornado threat is low and when the wind gusts and hail sizes are forecast to be very high. This PDS Severe Thunderstorm Watch shown here, was from May 30, 2011:

NOTE: Blue text indicates links, and the color of all text in the original alert issued was black, except for the text "THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION", which was red in the actual alert.[9]

  URGENT - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED
  SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH NUMBER 405
  NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
  840 PM CDT MON MAY 30 2011
  
  THE NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER HAS ISSUED A
  SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH FOR PORTIONS OF 
  
         PARTS OF NORTHWEST IOWA
         PARTS OF CENTRAL KANSAS
         MUCH OF EASTERN NEBRASKA
         SMALL PART OF SOUTHEASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA
  
  EFFECTIVE THIS MONDAY NIGHT AND TUESDAY MORNING FROM 840 PM UNTIL
  200 AM CDT.
  
  ...THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION...
  
  WIDESPREAD DAMAGING WINDS
  WIND GUSTS TO 90 MPH LIKELY
  SCATTERED LARGE HAIL
  ISOLATED HAIL TO 1.5 INCHES IN DIAMETER POSSIBLE
  ISOLATED TORNADOES
  
  THE SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH AREA IS APPROXIMATELY ALONG AND 75
  STATUTE MILES EAST AND WEST OF A LINE FROM 35 MILES NORTHWEST OF
  SIOUX CITY IOWA TO 50 MILES SOUTH SOUTHEAST OF RUSSELL KANSAS. 
  FOR A COMPLETE DEPICTION OF THE WATCH SEE THE ASSOCIATED WATCH
  OUTLINE UPDATE (WOUS64 KWNS WOU5).
  
  REMEMBER...A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH MEANS CONDITIONS ARE
  FAVORABLE FOR SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS IN AND CLOSE TO THE WATCH
  AREA. PERSONS IN THESE AREAS SHOULD BE ON THE LOOKOUT FOR
  THREATENING WEATHER CONDITIONS AND LISTEN FOR LATER STATEMENTS
  AND POSSIBLE WARNINGS. SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS CAN AND OCCASIONALLY
  DO PRODUCE TORNADOES.
  
  OTHER WATCH INFORMATION...CONTINUE...WW 402...WW 403...
  
  DISCUSSION...INTENSE SQUALL LINE HAS DEVELOPED N/S ACROSS CENTRAL
  NEB AND CONTINUES TO DEVELOP SWD AS IT MOVES EWD. VERY STRONG PRES
  RISE/FALL COUPLET IS DRIVING THE LINE EWD WITH THE FORCING FROM
  LARGE SCALE TROUGH ROTATING ACROSS THE NRN/CENTRAL PLAINS PROVIDING
  BOTH SHEAR AND UPWARD MOTION TO RESULT IN POTENTIAL FOR VERY
  DAMAGING WINDS. IN ADDITION BRIEF TORNADOES ARE STILL POSSIBLE BUT
  DAMAGING WINDS NOW ARE THE DOMINANT THREAT.
  
  AVIATION...A FEW SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS WITH HAIL SURFACE AND ALOFT
  TO 1.5 INCHES. EXTREME TURBULENCE AND SURFACE WIND GUSTS TO 80
  KNOTS. A FEW CUMULONIMBI WITH MAXIMUM TOPS TO 550. MEAN STORM
  MOTION VECTOR 23040.
  
  
  ...HALES

Sample PDS Flash Flood Watch[edit]

This watch shown here, was the first PDS Flash Flood Watch and was issued by the National Weather Service forecast office in Memphis, Tennessee on April 24, 2011, as mentioned above.[10]

NOTE: The blue text in the alert below indicates links; the color of all text in the original alert issued was black, including the text "THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION", which was not rendered in red in the actual alert.

 URGENT - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED
 FLOOD WATCH
 NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MEMPHIS TN
 239 PM CDT SUN APR 24 2011
 
 ...VERY HEAVY RAINFALL THROUGH THE MIDDLE OF THIS WEEK WILL LIKELY
 LEAD TO SIGNIFICANT...WIDESPREAD FLASH FLOODING...
 
 ...THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION...
 
 .A BOUNDARY WILL CONTINUE TO REMAIN STATIONARY ACROSS SOUTHERN
 MISSOURI INTO KENTUCKY THROUGH MONDAY. REPEATED ROUNDS OF
 THUNDERSTORMS WILL TRACK ALONG THE FRONT BRINGING HEAVY RAINFALL.
 THEN A LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM WILL TRACK ALONG IT INTO MISSOURI AND
 PUSH THE FRONT FURTHER SOUTH TO ALONG THE I-40 CORRIDOR MONDAY
 NIGHT THROUGH TUESDAY NIGHT. THIS WILL SHIFT THE HEAVY RAIN AXIS
 FURTHER SOUTH TO ALONG AND JUST NORTH OF THE I-40 CORRIDOR. 
 
 A SECOND LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM WILL TRACK ALONG THE NEWLY STALLED
 BOUNDARY AND SET OFF ADDITIONAL TRAINING THUNDERSTORMS LATE
 TUESDAY NIGHT AND WEDNESDAY. THE FINAL COLD FRONT WILL PASS
 THROUGH LATE WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON...ENDING THE PERSISTENT HEAVY
 RAINFALL.
 
 ARZ026>028-035-036-048-049-058-MSZ001>014-TNZ003-004-019>021-
 048>055-088>092-250400-
 /O.NEW.KMEG.FF.A.0007.110426T0000Z-110428T0000Z/
 /00000.0.ER.000000T0000Z.000000T0000Z.000000T0000Z.OO/
 CRAIGHEAD-POINSETT-MISSISSIPPI-CROSS-CRITTENDEN-ST. FRANCIS-
 LEE AR-PHILLIPS-DESOTO-MARSHALL-BENTON MS-TIPPAH-ALCORN-
 TISHOMINGO-TUNICA-TATE-PRENTISS-COAHOMA-QUITMAN-PANOLA-LAFAYETTE-
 UNION-WEAKLEY-HENRY-DYER-GIBSON-CARROLL-LAUDERDALE-TIPTON-HAYWOOD-
 CROCKETT-MADISON-CHESTER-HENDERSON-DECATUR-SHELBY-FAYETTE-
 HARDEMAN-MCNAIRY-HARDIN-
 INCLUDING THE CITIES OF...JONESBORO...HARRISBURG...BLYTHEVILLE...
 WYNNE...WEST MEMPHIS...FORREST CITY...HELENA...SOUTHAVEN...
 OLIVE BRANCH...CORINTH...IUKA...TUNICA...BOONEVILLE...
 CLARKSDALE...BATESVILLE...OXFORD...NEW ALBANY...MARTIN...
 DRESDEN...PARIS...DYERSBURG...HUMBOLDT...MILAN...HUNTINGDON...
 COVINGTON...JACKSON...LEXINGTON...BARTLETT...GERMANTOWN...
 COLLIERVILLE...MEMPHIS...MILLINGTON...SOMERVILLE...BOLIVAR...
 SAVANNAH
 239 PM CDT SUN APR 24 2011
 
 ...FLASH FLOOD WATCH IN EFFECT FROM MONDAY EVENING THROUGH
 WEDNESDAY EVENING...
 
 THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN MEMPHIS HAS ISSUED A
 
 * FLASH FLOOD WATCH FOR PORTIONS OF EAST ARKANSAS...NORTH MISSISSIPPI
   AND WEST TENNESSEE...INCLUDING THE FOLLOWING AREAS...IN EAST
   ARKANSAS...CRAIGHEAD...CRITTENDEN...CROSS...
   LEE...MISSISSIPPI...PHILLIPS...POINSETT AND ST. FRANCIS. IN
   NORTH MISSISSIPPI...ALCORN...BENTON...COAHOMA...DESOTO...
   LAFAYETTE...MARSHALL...PANOLA...PRENTISS...QUITMAN...TATE...
   TIPPAH...TISHOMINGO...TUNICA AND UNION. IN WEST TENNESSEE...
   CARROLL...CHESTER...CROCKETT...DECATUR...DYER...FAYETTE...
   GIBSON...HARDEMAN...HARDIN...HAYWOOD...HENDERSON...HENRY...
   LAUDERDALE...MADISON...MCNAIRY...SHELBY...TIPTON AND WEAKLEY.
 
 * FROM MONDAY EVENING THROUGH WEDNESDAY EVENING.
 
 * THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION.
 
 * TOTAL RAINFALL AMOUNTS OF 5 TO 8 INCHES ARE EXPECTED ALONG AND
   NORTH OF I-40 WITH 2 TO 5 INCHES EXPECTED SOUTH OF I-40. LOCALLY
   HIGHER AMOUNTS ARE LIKELY.
 
 * RAINFALL AMOUNTS SUCH AS THESE MAY LEAD TO WIDESPREAD...
   SIGNIFICANT...AND LIFE THREATENING FLASH FLOODING. THIS EVENT
   MAY BE AS SEVERE AS THE MAY 1–2, 2010 FLOODING IN PLACES. FLASH
   FLOODING OF CITIES...RURAL AREAS...RIVERS...AND SMALL STREAMS
   ARE POSSIBLE.
 
 PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...
 
 A FLASH FLOOD WATCH MEANS THAT CONDITIONS MAY DEVELOP THAT LEAD
 TO FLASH FLOODING. FLASH FLOODING IS A VERY DANGEROUS SITUATION.
 
 YOU SHOULD MONITOR LATER FORECASTS AND BE PREPARED TO TAKE ACTION
 SHOULD FLASH FLOOD WARNINGS BE ISSUED.
 
 &&
 
 $$
 
 ARZ008-009-017-018-MOZ113-115-TNZ001-002-250400-
 /O.EXT.KMEG.FF.A.0006.000000T0000Z-110428T0000Z/
 /00000.0.ER.000000T0000Z.000000T0000Z.000000T0000Z.OO/
 RANDOLPH-CLAY-LAWRENCE-GREENE-DUNKLIN-PEMISCOT-LAKE-OBION-
 INCLUDING THE CITIES OF...WALNUT RIDGE...PARAGOULD...KENNETT...
 CARUTHERSVILLE...UNION CITY
 239 PM CDT SUN APR 24 2011
 
 ...FLASH FLOOD WATCH NOW IN EFFECT THROUGH WEDNESDAY EVENING...
 
 THE FLASH FLOOD WATCH IS NOW IN EFFECT FOR
 
 * PORTIONS OF EAST ARKANSAS...SOUTHEAST MISSOURI AND WEST
   TENNESSEE...INCLUDING THE FOLLOWING AREAS...IN EAST ARKANSAS...
   CLAY...GREENE...LAWRENCE AND RANDOLPH. IN SOUTHEAST MISSOURI...
   DUNKLIN AND PEMISCOT. IN WEST TENNESSEE...LAKE AND OBION.
 
 * THROUGH WEDNESDAY EVENING.
 
 * THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION.
 
 * ADDITIONAL RAINFALL AMOUNTS OF 6 TO 9 INCHES ARE EXPECTED.
   LOCALLY HIGHER AMOUNTS ARE LIKELY. THIS...IN COMBINATION OF
   THE 2 TO 4 INCHES THAT HAVE ALREADY FALLEN MAY LEAD TO TOTAL
   RAINFALL AMOUNTS IN EXCESS OF 12 INCHES IN MANY LOCATIONS.
 
 * RAINFALL AMOUNTS SUCH AS THESE WILL LIKELY LEAD TO WIDESPREAD...
   SIGNIFICANT...AND LIFE THREATENING FLASH FLOODING. THIS EVENT
   MAY BE AS SEVERE AS THE MAY 1-2 2010 FLOODING IN MANY PLACES.
   FLASH FLOODING OF CITIES...RURAL AREAS...RIVERS...AND SMALL
   STREAMS ARE POSSIBLE.
 
 PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...
 
 A FLASH FLOOD WATCH MEANS THAT CONDITIONS MAY DEVELOP THAT LEAD
 TO FLASH FLOODING. FLASH FLOODING IS A VERY DANGEROUS SITUATION.
 
 YOU SHOULD MONITOR LATER FORECASTS AND BE PREPARED TO TAKE ACTION
 SHOULD FLASH FLOOD WARNINGS BE ISSUED.
 
 &&
 
 $$
 
 BORGHOFF

Sample PDS Tornado Warning[edit]

PDS Tornado Warnings are issued when a tornado is confirmed to be producing significant damage in a populated area. One of the first PDS tornado warnings, if not the first, was issued on April 14, 2012 as shown below, by the National Weather Service in Wichita, Kansas.

NOTE: The blue text in the alert below indicates links; the color of all text in the original alert issued was black, including the text "THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION", which was not rendered in red in the actual alert. The wording "SIGNIFICANT" on the tornado damage threat was changed to "CONSIDERABLE" starting with the 2013 tornado season.[11]

  BULLETIN - EAS ACTIVATION REQUESTED
  TORNADO WARNING
  NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE WICHITA KS
  543 PM CDT SAT APR 14 2012

  THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN WICHITA HAS ISSUED A

  * TORNADO WARNING FOR...
     SOUTHEASTERN ELLSWORTH COUNTY IN CENTRAL KANSAS...
     NORTHWESTERN MCPHERSON COUNTY IN CENTRAL KANSAS...
     NORTHEASTERN RICE COUNTY IN CENTRAL KANSAS...
     SOUTHWESTERN SALINE COUNTY IN CENTRAL KANSAS...

  * UNTIL 630 PM CDT

  * AT 542 PM CDT...A CONFIRMED LARGE AND EXTREMELY DANGEROUS TORNADO
    WAS LOCATED 5 MILES SOUTHEAST OF GENESEO...AND MOVING NORTHEAST AT
    35 MPH.

THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION.

  HAZARD...DAMAGING TORNADO.

  SOURCE...LAW ENFORCEMENT CONFIRMED TORNADO.

  IMPACT...MAJOR HOUSE AND BUILDING DAMAGE LIKELY AND COMPLETE
           DESTRUCTION POSSIBLE. NUMEROUS TREES SNAPPED. MAJOR POWER
           OUTAGES IN PATH OF TORNADO HIGHLY LIKELY. SOME ROADS
           POSSIBLY BLOCKED BY TORNADO DEBRIS. COMPLETE DESTRUCTION
           OF VEHICLES LIKELY.

  * LOCATIONS IMPACTED INCLUDE...
    MARQUETTE AND LINDSBORG.

  * PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...
    THIS TORNADO WARNING REPLACES THE SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WARNING THAT
    WAS IN EFFECT FOR THE SAME AREA.

  &&

  LAT...LON 3878 9782 3853 9763 3836 9811 3849 9824

  TIME...MOT...LOC 2243Z 236DEG 31KT 3848 9806

  TORNADO...OBSERVED

  TORNADO DAMAGE THREAT...SIGNIFICANT

  HAIL...2.50IN

  $$

  BILLINGS

Sample PDS Wind Chill Warning[edit]

This PDS Wind Chill Warning shown below, was issued by the National Weather Service in the Twin Cities on January 5, 2014.

NOTE: The blue text in the alert below indicates links; the color of all text in the original alert issued was black, except for the text "THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION", which was not rendered in red in the actual alert.[12]

629 
WWUS43 KMPX 050957
WSWMPX

URGENT - WINTER WEATHER MESSAGE
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE TWIN CITIES/CHANHASSEN MN
357 AM CST SUN JAN 5 2014

...HISTORIC AND LIFE-THREATENING COLD AIR HAS ARRIVED...
...THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION...

.THE COLDEST AIRMASS SINCE 1996 CONTINUES TO MOVE SOUTHEAST OUT
OF CANADA AND INTO MINNESOTA AND WISCONSIN. WIND CHILL VALUES WILL
RANGE BETWEEN 30 AND 45 BELOW TODAY AND CONTINUE TO FALL THROUGH
MONDAY MORNING. AIR TEMPERATURES TONIGHT WILL DROP INTO THE 20S
AND 30S BELOW ZERO. GUSTY WEST OR NORTHWEST WINDS COMBINED WITH
THESE EXTREMELY COLD TEMPERATURES WILL PRODUCE WIND CHILLS OF 50 
TO 65 BELOW ZERO LATE TONIGHT AND EARLY MONDAY.

WIND CHILLS COLDER THAN 50 BELOW CAN CAUSE EXPOSED FLESH TO
FREEZE IN ONLY 5 MINUTES. A WIND CHILL WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN MINNESOTA AND WEST CENTRAL WISCONSIN THROUGH
NOON TUESDAY.

THE GUSTY WINDS WILL ALSO BRING AREAS OF BLOWING SNOW TO MUCH OF
THE AREA TODAY AND TONIGHT. WHERE GUSTS REACH 35 TO 45 MPH OVER
WESTERN AND SOUTHERN MINNESOTA...VISIBILITIES MAY OCCASIONALLY BE
REDUCED TO LESS THAN A HALF MILE IN NEAR BLIZZARD CONDITIONS. THIS
WILL BRING AN ADDITIONAL LEVEL OF DANGER TO ANYONE STRANDED.

MNZ041-047-048-054>057-064-065-067-073>075-082>085-091>093-052115-
/O.CON.KMPX.WC.W.0001.000000T0000Z-140107T1800Z/
DOUGLAS-STEVENS-POPE-LAC QUI PARLE-SWIFT-CHIPPEWA-KANDIYOHI-
YELLOW MEDICINE-RENVILLE-SIBLEY-REDWOOD-BROWN-NICOLLET-WATONWAN-
BLUE EARTH-WASECA-STEELE-MARTIN-FARIBAULT-FREEBORN-
INCLUDING THE CITIES OF...ALEXANDRIA...MORRIS...GLENWOOD...
MADISON...BENSON...MONTEVIDEO...WILLMAR...GRANITE FALLS...
OLIVIA...GAYLORD...REDWOOD FALLS...NEW ULM...ST. PETER...
ST. JAMES...MANKATO...WASECA...OWATONNA...FAIRMONT...BLUE EARTH...
ALBERT LEA
357 AM CST SUN JAN 5 2014

...WIND CHILL WARNING REMAINS IN EFFECT UNTIL NOON CST TUESDAY...

A WIND CHILL WARNING REMAINS IN EFFECT UNTIL NOON CST TUESDAY. 

* THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION!

* WIND CHILL VALUES: 35 TO 65 BELOW...WITH THE COLDEST READINGS
  TONIGHT AND MONDAY MORNING.
 
* IMPACTS: EXPOSED FLESH WILL FREEZE IN 10 MINUTES WITH WIND
  CHILLS OF 35 BELOW...AND IN 5 MINUTES WITH WIND CHILLS OF 50
  BELOW OR COLDER.

* OTHER IMPACTS...WINDS GUSTING BETWEEN 35 AND 45 MPH THIS
  AFTERNOON AND TONIGHT WILL LEAD TO BLOWING SNOW WITH
  VISIBILITIES OCCASIONALLY DROPPING TO 1/2 MILE OR LESS IN NEAR
  BLIZZARD CONDITIONS. SHOULD YOUR VEHICLE BECOME STRANDED...YOUR
  LIFE WILL BE AT RISK. CONSIDER POSTPONING ALL TRAVEL.

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...

A WIND CHILL WARNING MEANS THE COMBINATION OF VERY COLD AIR AND
STRONG WINDS WILL CREATE DANGEROUSLY LOW WIND CHILL VALUES. THIS
WILL RESULT IN FROST BITE AND LEAD TO HYPOTHERMIA OR DEATH IF
PRECAUTIONS ARE NOT TAKEN.

&&

$$

MNZ042>045-049>053-058>063-066-068>070-076>078-WIZ014>016-023>028-
052115-
/O.CON.KMPX.WC.W.0001.000000T0000Z-140107T1800Z/
TODD-MORRISON-MILLE LACS-KANABEC-STEARNS-BENTON-SHERBURNE-ISANTI-
CHISAGO-MEEKER-WRIGHT-HENNEPIN-ANOKA-RAMSEY-WASHINGTON-MCLEOD-
CARVER-SCOTT-DAKOTA-LE SUEUR-RICE-GOODHUE-POLK-BARRON-RUSK-
ST. CROIX-PIERCE-DUNN-PEPIN-CHIPPEWA-EAU CLAIRE-
INCLUDING THE CITIES OF...LONG PRAIRIE...LITTLE FALLS...
PRINCETON...MORA...ST. CLOUD...FOLEY...ELK RIVER...CAMBRIDGE...
CENTER CITY...LITCHFIELD...MONTICELLO...MINNEAPOLIS...BLAINE...
ST. PAUL...STILLWATER...HUTCHINSON...CHASKA...SHAKOPEE...
BURNSVILLE...LE SUEUR...FARIBAULT...RED WING...AMERY...
BALSAM LAKE...RICE LAKE...BARRON...LADYSMITH...HUDSON...
NEW RICHMOND...RIVER FALLS...PRESCOTT...MENOMONIE...BOYCEVILLE...
DURAND...PEPIN...CHIPPEWA FALLS...BLOOMER...EAU CLAIRE...ALTOONA
357 AM CST SUN JAN 5 2014

...WIND CHILL WARNING REMAINS IN EFFECT UNTIL NOON CST TUESDAY...

A WIND CHILL WARNING REMAINS IN EFFECT UNTIL NOON CST TUESDAY. 

* THIS IS A PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS SITUATION!

* WIND CHILL VALUES: 35 TO 65 BELOW...WITH THE COLDEST READINGS
  TONIGHT AND MONDAY MORNING.

* IMPACTS: EXPOSED FLESH WILL FREEZE IN 10 MINUTES WITH WIND
  CHILLS OF 35 BELOW...AND IN 5 MINUTES WITH WIND CHILLS OF 50
  BELOW OR COLDER.

* OTHER IMPACTS...AREAS OF BLOWING SNOW ARE POSSIBLE AS WINDS GUST
  AS HIGH AS 35 MPH THIS AFTERNOON AND TONIGHT.

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...

A WIND CHILL WARNING MEANS THE COMBINATION OF VERY COLD AIR AND
STRONG WINDS WILL CREATE DANGEROUSLY LOW WIND CHILL VALUES. THIS
WILL RESULT IN FROST BITE AND LEAD TO HYPOTHERMIA OR DEATH IF
PRECAUTIONS ARE NOT TAKEN.

&&

$$

BORGHOFF

References[edit]

  1. ^ NOAA (2004-04-18). "Storm Prediction Center Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)". Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  2. ^ a b c Dean, Andrew R. (2006-11-07). "PDS watches: how dangerous are these "particularly dangerous situations?" (2006 - 23SLS_23sls)". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  3. ^ "Impact Based Warning Experimental Product". Crh.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  4. ^ National Weather Service (2014). "Impact Based Warnings". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 12, 2014. 
  5. ^ "NWS Expirements". NWS. Retrieved 15 April 2012. 
  6. ^ "'CATASTROPHIC': Experimental Tornado Warnings to be Explicit". AccuWeather. 2012-04-05. Retrieved 2014-03-12. 
  7. ^ Lewis, John (2007-11-03). "A Forecaster's Story: Robert H. Johns". Electronic Journal of Severe Storms Meteorology 2 (7). 
  8. ^ NOAA (2011-04-27). "Storm Prediction Center: Particularly Dangerous Situation (PDS) Tornado Watch 235". Retrieved 2011-04-27. 
  9. ^ NOAA (2011-05-30). "Storm Prediction Center: Particularly Dangerous Situation (PDS) Severe Thunderstorm Watch 405". 
  10. ^ "IEM Valid Time Extent Code (VTEC) App". Mesonet.agron.iastate.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  11. ^ NOAA (2013-01-28). "Impact Based Warnings". Retrieved 2011-04-14. 
  12. ^ National Weather Service (2014-01-05). "Iowa Environmental Mesonet NWS Product Archive". Retrieved 2014-01-06. 

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