Partido da Imprensa Golpista
Partido da Imprensa Golpista (PIG, English: Pro-coup Press Party) is a term which became  used among left-wing Brazilian websurfers since 2007 to characterize an alleged attitude of the Brazilian mass media towards President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the 2006 presidential election. The term was popularized by journalist Paulo Henrique Amorim in his blog. Whenever he uses the term, Amorim writes it with an "i" in lowercase as a pun with the name of the web portal "iG". where he was an articulist, before being abruptly dismissed on March 18, 2008, in an action which he describes as a process of "ideological cleansing".
The term is also constantly used by journalists Luiz Carlos Azenha and Rodrigo Vianna on their blogs, which also helped to spread its popularity. However, the term gained wider notoriety when it was first used in the Brazilian Congress on a speech by Pernambuco Congressman Fernando Ferro, a member of the Workers' Party. He ironically suggested that film director and Rede Globo commentator Arnaldo Jabor should run for "President of the PIG".
- 1 Definition
- 2 Historical background
- 3 Inconsistencies of the term creator
- 4 Role of the internet
- 5 "Members"
- 6 Press Censorship in Brazil
- 7 Left-wing censorship in Latin America, and leftist propaganda
- 8 Foro de São Paulo connections
- 9 Criticism
- 10 Globo and the Brazilian Military dictatorship
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Paulo Henrique Amorim's own explanation for the meaning of the expression appears whenever he mentions it in his articles. According to him, "In no serious democracy in the world, conservative, low-quality and even sensationalistic newspapers, and one single television network matter as much as they do in Brazil. They have become a political party – the PiG, Pro-coup Press Party".
Amorim argues that even some politicians have become part of the PiG. He argues that "the political parties are no longer an instrument of the coup but they have become the coup itself. Pretending [to do] objective journalism, they not only do the job of a press that omits information; but do the job of a press that lies, distorts and deceits. Former President FHC was among the first politicians who realized that the political strength he needed could be found in the PIG, and thus nowadays he enjoys the image of being a prominent world leader".
Paulo Henrique maintains that the mainstream Brazilian press historically defends coup d'états whenever the Brazilian President is not elected from among members of the ruling elites. The PIG, according to Amorim, had its origin with Carlos Lacerda, whom he says "helped to kill Getúlio Vargas". It continued its "struggle against democracy" throughout the governments of Juscelino Kubitscheck and João Goulart, when finally "it openly defended and promoted the Brazilian military putsch of March 1964". According to him, the mass media also "hammered Rio's governor Brizola throughout his two terms in office, and now conspires against Lula".
Political scientist Wanderley Guilherme dos Santos, which had predicted the overthrow of President João Goulart in 1964, argued in an interview given to CartaCapital in 2005 that the "mainstream media led Vargas to commit suicide based on nothing; it almost prevented Juscelino from taking office based on nothing; it led to Jânio resignation, taking advantage of his craziness, based on nothing; it tried to prevent Goulart's inauguration based on nothing".
Inconsistencies of the term creator
Although Paulo Henrique Amorim, the creator of the term, and one of its largest broadcasters, behave as contrary to the Brazilian press, he has worked for many of these agencies, and attacked leftist politicians accused of corruption, politicians to whom he now defends. Amorim has also been sued for racism.
In September 1998, at the eve of the dispute between Lula (Brazilian left candidate, from PT party) and FHC (seen as the right candidate, but with center-left trend, from PSDB party), Paulo Henrique Amorim on TV Bandeirantes led a crusade against Lula with the basest arguments. Wished to withdraw the financial transaction that allowed the union leader Lula buying an apartment in São Bernardo do Campo. In an ongoing battle, long, persistent in all editions of the main news program of Bandeirantes, Amorim attacked Lula.
Lula sued Paulo Henrique Amorim and TV Bandeirantes, who apologized to PT publicly. When the PT was opposition, Paulo Henrique Amorim attacked Lula. However, after the PT become government, Paulo Henrique Amorim became his staunch supporter.
About the resignation of the IG portal, the site has a page that informs simply discontinued the contract with the journalist :
"Over time, contract costs and market conditions made it impossible to maintain it. Taking the decision , all termination conditions are met and the journalist properly indemnified . Employees of the blog "Conversa Afiada" blog, present at the headquarters of IG at the time it was dispatched the notice of termination, and the site removed from the network, were given the opportunity to take away the materials needed, but they did not. Paulo Henrique Amorim preferred to act under the force of a warrant of search and seizure to remove their belongings and copy the file from his site, what he could have done without judicial review. Discontinue collaboration is part of corporate life and the lives of journalists . Paulo Henrique has gone through companies such as Editora Abril, Jornal do Brasil, TV Globo, TV Bandeirantes, TV Cultura and TV UOL " - all supposedly part of the "party media coup".
In 2012, Amorim was ordered to pay compensation of R$ 30,000 to journalist Heraldo Pereira(Globo), having stated on his blog that Pereira was a "black with white soul," which was considered a manifestation of racism, at a session held in Justice Court of the Federal District.
Role of the internet
According to writer Fernando Soares Campos, "without the internet, Lula would have hardly been elected; if he had, he would not take office; if he had taken office, he would have been ousted with ease". He argues that "the PIG is strong, is Goliath, but the internet is filled with Davids". Campos says that the mere existence of the internet interferes with the monopoly of information by large media groups, and this interference hampers coups.
|“||There is no such thing as public opinion. There is only published opinion. – Winston Churchill||”|
According to Paulo Henrique Amorim, only three Brazilian families control the whole of the mainstream Brazilian media: the Marinhos (Roberto Marinho, Organizações Globo), the Mesquitas (Julio de Mesquita, Grupo Estado) and the Frias (Octávio Frias, Grupo Folha). According to Amorim, they dominate and condition news in Brazil, through their various newspapers, radio stations, news agencies and internet blogs. They have provoked what Amorim calls "a massacre" of the smaller Brazilian regional press, as a consequence of the control they exert on all of the mainstream information, in order to manipulate the Brazilian public opinion.
Professor Sérgio Mattos, writing in 2005 on the media control and censorship (in Brazil and the world), also cited the influence of these tycoons, adding, however, two other groups (one of which, the Sirotsky, represent a "monopoly in cross," explained further below):
|“||The Marinho family has always been close to the political power, taking advantage of the privileged position that helped it to build and dominate the Brazilian communications industry. However, other families also maintain the concentration of media ownership in the country, such as the Civita, owners of the Abril Group, the Sirotsky, of the RBS Group, the Frias, of the Folha Group, among other regional groups in the ownership of multimedia networks.||”|
Mattos's work, however, precedes the creation of the word "PIG" and although talk about the manipulation of information by the media, is much more a warning about the dangers of state control (open or hidden) over the press, warning which was hailed as "very useful" in the book review done by the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo in 2006.
In May 2013, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Brazil, Joaquim Barbosa, in a speech in Costa Rica during the World Press Freedom Day, recognized not only that there is a lack of political and ideological diversity in the Brazilian press, but also identified a right-wing bias in that group:
|“||(...)I would point out to the weak political and ideological diversity in the press business. Brazil now has only three major national and broad sheets, all of them more or less leaned to the right in the field of ideas.||”|
Concentration of the media in Brazil
|“||It must be noted that in Brazil there is an environment very conducive to concentration. Sectorial legislation has historically been timid, by express intention of the legislator, by failing to include direct provisions that limit or control the concentration of ownership, which, incidentally, goes in the opposite direction of what happens in countries like France, Italy and the United Kingdom, which are concerned with the plurality and diversity in the new scenario of technological convergence (Lobato, Folha de S.Paulo, 10/14/2001)".||”|
Lima also points to other factors that would make even easier the process of media concentration, particularly with regard to broadcasting: the failure of legal norms that limit the equity interest of the same economic group in various broadcasting organizations; a short period (five years) for resell broadcasting concessions, facilitating the concentration by the big media groups through the purchase of independent stations, and no restrictions to the formation of national broadcasting networks. He cites eloquent examples of horizontal, vertical, crossed and "in cross" concentration (a Brazilian peculiarity).
- a) Horizontal concentration: oligopoly or monopoly produced within an area or industry; television (pay or free) is the Brazilian classical model. In 2002 the cable networks Sky and NET dominated 61% of the Brazilian market. In the same year, 58.37% of all advertising budgets were invested in TV - and in this aspect, TV Globo and its affiliates received 78% of the amount;
- b) Vertical concentration: integration of the different phases of production and distribution, eliminating the work of others (independent producers). In Brazil, unlike the United States, it is common for a TV network to produce, advertise, market and distribute most of its programming. The aforementioned TV Globo is known for its soap operas exported to dozens of countries around the world; it keeps under permanent contract the actors, authors, and the whole production staff. The final product is broadcast by a network of newspapers, magazines, radio stations and websites owned by Globo Organizations.
- c) Cross ownership: ownership of different kinds of media (TV, newspapers, magazines, etc.) by the same group. Initially, the phenomenon occurred in broadcasting (radio and television) and print media (newspapers and magazines), with emphasis on the group of "Diários Associados." At a later stage appeared the RBS Group (affiliated to TV Globo), with operations in the markets of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Besides being the owner of radio stations (AM and FM) and TV (free and paid), and of the main local newspapers, has two Internet portals. The opinion of its commentators is thus replicated by a multimedia system that makes extremely easy to spread the point of view (on any subject) advocated by the group;
- d) Monopoly "in cross": reproduction into local level, of the particularities of cross ownership. Research carried out in the early 1990s, detected the presence of this singularity in 18 of the 26 Brazilian states. Manifests itself, almost always, a) by the presence of a TV channel with great audience, often linked to TV Globo and b) the existence of two daily newspapers, in which the one with the largest circulation, is linked to the major TV channel and to a network of AM and FM radio stations, that almost always reproduces articles and the editorial line of the newspaper "O Globo". In 2002, another survey (which did not include the pay TV), found the presence of the "monopoly in cross" in 13 major markets in Brazil.
Even the UNESCO office in Brasilia has expressed its concern over the existence of an outdated code of telecommunications (1962), which no longer meets the expectations generated by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 in the political and social fields, and the inability of the Brazilian government to establish an independent regulatory agency to manage the media.
Press Censorship in Brazil
In 2010, there were already complaints about the growth of press censorship in Brazil, via the Judiciary. "The Brazilian electoral legislation is favoring censorship into the journalism practice", was the assessment of the experts who participated in the panel " Freedom of Speech and democratic state " during a democracy forum in the São Paulo city .
Participated in the discussion journalist and columnist of the "Veja" magazine, Reinaldo Azevedo, the famous TV's comedian 's from Casseta & Planeta, Marcelo Madureira, and professor of ethics and political philosophy Roberto Romano.
Reinaldo Azevedo said that the legislation affect mainly the internet and television . "Television , especially , is obliged to give the same space to people who has something to tell, and who hasn't nothing to say."
In the Romano evaluating, court decisions also undermine freedom of expression. "There is a movement not only in Brazil, but internationally, to control the power of the state, through the Judiciary" . Romano cited a case of censorship to the newspaper "O Estado de S. Paulo" as an example .
The comedian Marcelo Madureira said mostly the mood is extremely hurt with the Brazilian electoral legislation, which currently prohibits comedians to make jokes about politicians, legislation that was created in the leftist PT government .
Left-wing censorship in Latin America, and leftist propaganda
Although the Paulo Henrique Amorim theory (and left-people that supports the idea of "Partido da Imprensa Golpista") spread that the press wants to control the people, the attitudes of the left, in retaliation for the alleged authoritarianism of the right, is another authoritarianism: as leftist governments achieve power in Latin America, there is a growing state censorship and even killings of journalists, setting a real threat to freedom of expression and in Latin America. "Partido da Imprensa Golpista" can be considered a type of Bolivarian Propaganda to make people hate the left oppositors.
Threats of rulers of the region to the media staged debates of the 69th General Assembly of the SIP held until Tuesday in Denver, in the United States . "The Latin American governments have dedicated themselves to sow hatred and fear - said IAPA president Jaime Mantilla, by presenting a study of the restrictions on the press in Latin America." Mantilla directs the "Diario Hoy", of Ecuador, which in June approved a controversial law regulating the media just branded by media organizations and human rights activists of "gag law" . The initiative allows the government to monitor the publication of news and punish media.
- This is a direct government interference in news content, as he decides who can practice the profession and who can own a medium - denounced Solines Juan Carlos, former president of the National Council of Telecommunications of Ecuador .
One of the most controversial reports is on Venezuela, where journalists highlighted an increase in the number of lawsuits against anti-government media Chavista . A week ago, President Nicolás Maduro created a state agency to control the publication of news . He already had encouraged before the punishment of journalists and media that addressed the shortage of products, recurring problem in Venezuela . Reporters also criticized the sales channel Globovision, one of the few remaining critical of the government, businessmen linked to Chavez .
- There is a demolition plan to sustain democracies messianic leaders who want to perpetuate themselves in power - warned Claudio Paolillo, President of the Committee on Freedom of the Press and Information of the SIP and magazine journalist Uruguayan " Advanced " .
According to the BBC, US politicians have said TeleSUR is a propaganda tool for Chávez. Villa del Cine, a state-owned film and television studio started in 2006, has also been criticized as a "propaganda factory", according to Nichols and Morse and independent film makers. Chávez said that Villa del Cine would help break the "dictatorship of Hollywood".
The Chávez government has been accused by Human Rights Watch of abusing its control over broadcasting frequencies, where they can punish radio and television stations that are thought to broadcast anti-Chavista programming. A new media law promotes self-censorship within most of the opposition media. Through the use of propaganda, Chavez has continually verbalized his successes on television which has resulted in a large popular base of support.
According to Michael Kraft, writing in the Charlotte Conservative, Bolivarian propaganda has been disseminated in Venezuela and abroad. The state is in charge of all public television stations and public radio stations, including Radio Nacional de Venezuela the only radio station with full national coverage. According to the Associated Press, opposition candidate María Corina Machado "complained about what she called a government-orchestrated propaganda machine that churns out spots ridiculing Chavez's critics, runs talk shows dominated by ruling party hopefuls and picks up all of the president's speeches".
In 1999, Chávez began to promote his revolution through print media, mostly in local newspapers like Barreto’s Correo del Presidente, focusing the messages on the transformation of Venezuela into a first world nation within ten years. He used cadenas (obligatory televised transmission, often taking over regular programming for hours) that became an effective weapon to fight criticism by running continuously to all audiences both in urban and rural sections of Venezuela. In 2001, he transformed Aló Presidente from a radio show to a full-fledged live, unscripted, television show running all hours of the day promoting the Bolivarian Revolution, blaming the Venezuelan economic problems on its northern neighbor, the United States as a "mass-market soapbox for the policies and musings" of Chávez, who the Boston Globe described as "a media savvy, forward-thinking propagandist [who] has the oil wealth to influence public opinion". The show airs every Sunday, depicts Chavez (wearing red, the color of the revolution) as the charismatic leader, passionate about the well being of his country. Many Venezuelan's tune in because Mr. Chavez is known for unveiling new financial assistance packages every weekend. Since 1999, President Chavez has spent an average 40 hours a week on television promoting his "Bolivarian Revolution".
In 2005, the new Law of Social Responsibility modified the penal code to simplify ways people could sue for opinions emitted against them, resulting in limits on political talk shows and self-censorship of the press (Law of Social Responsibility 2005). Privately owned RCTV was closed in 2007 when thee administration did not renew their broadcasting license. Globovisión, the last television channel to avoid government criticism, faced a $2.1 million fine on October 2011 for an alleged violation of the broadcasting statute. As of 2012, the state controls the majority of media sources within the country, inundating audiences with pro-Chávez, pro-"Bolivarian Revolutionary" ideals throughout the urban and rural areas. Pro-Chávista ideals infiltrate radio stations, local and cable television channels, newspapers, the internet, and public buildings (with murals).
Bolivarian propaganda uses emotional arguments to gain attention, exploit the fears (either real or imagined) of the population, create external enemies for scapegoat purposes, and produce nationalism within the population, causing feelings of betrayal for support of the opposition. The images and messages promote ideological mobilization, including Chávez as a "liberator", the positive effects of the Bolivarian Revolution (including social reforms), and power deriving from the people. The overall goal of the Bolivarian propaganda machine is to reflect society's wants and goals for an improved Venezuela.
The Bolivarian Revolution is advertised through all outlets: TV, radio, Internet (with websites like the Venezuelan Solidarity Campaign), magazines (like Viva Venezuela), newspapers, murals, billboards, memorabilia (action figures, t-shirts, posters), schools (through the lesson plans and books), movies, symphonies (Orquesta Sinfónica Simón Bolívar), festivals, and public service vehicles (like buses and ambulances). The face of Chávez is everywhere, portraying similarities to Simón Bolívar; the typical images that accompany the pro-socialist messages are the Bolshevik red star, Che Guevara portraits, Simón Bolívar portraits, red barrettes, Venezuelan flags, evil Uncle Sam, Uncle Sam as a snake, and Chávez with the superman logo.
Foro de São Paulo connections
Foro de São Paulo (FSP; English: São Paulo Forum) is a conference of leftist political parties and other organizations from Latin America and the Caribbean.
During the early 1990s, the FSP was seem as expressing the emergence of a new Latin American leftist paradigm: non- authoritarian, de-militarized and grassroots-friendly. However, there is a marked contradiction between the fiery and quasi-revolutionary rhetoric about "socialism of the 21st Century" indulged in sometimes by many FSP's leaders, and the plain fact that the positions of power held by such leaders depend, on most cases, on their holding positions in governments which have emerged through the electoral road. In a statement made in 2008 in Lima, before a gathering of Peruvian businessmen, however, Brazil's President Lula would declare, approvingly, that the FSP had "educated" the Left in the understanding of the existence of possibilities of running for elections and gaining power through the democratic way - - a declaration that prompted a comment from AFP, reproduced at the Rede Globo site, to the effect that the hallmark of FSP's activities had been its "very moderate" character.
Foro de São Paulo concluded its 16th meeting held in 2010 in Buenos Aires, celebrating initiatives of governments in the region to try to increase state control of the media industry . According to the resolution adopted by the group, the media law passed in Argentina in 2009 - down by the courts in 2010 - must be a " key reference " to other countries . In addition to sharing the awards equally between the state, social movements and the private sector, the law requires the Argentinean Grupo Clarin, the country's largest - to unravel broadcasting licenses for TV and radio . The standard contributes to the " plurality and diversity of voices ," according to the Forum, and shows that the state should have a starring role in the political sector and needs to " put limits on media concentration ." The Forum also highlighted that social sectors in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay could raise doubts about the " credibility of the mass media " and that this resulted in lower sales levels and hearing in the case of newspapers and TV . Reiterating its full support to the Cuban Revolution, the group also " denounced a fierce media campaign " against the Caribbean country that tries to provoke discrediting the authorities of the regime led by Raúl Castro . Based in São Paulo, in 1990, by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the then government leader Fidel Castro, the Forum could articulate left the continent . Together, the parties have become a front of opposition to the neoliberal wave established in the last decade . Today, the parties in the governing Foro 11 Latin American countries and have different proposals for economic and political model . While some want to deploy the socialist model similar to Cuba, others advocate more egalitarian regimes, but without the extinction of the market. During the meeting held in Argentina, the executive secretary of the Forum and PT leader, Valter Pomar, read a letter sent by President Lula to event participants . Besides celebrating the advances from the left on the continent, Lula criticized the " right was pedestrian control of power by popular will ." In the final declaration, the Forum noted that " demonstrates satisfaction " to see the PT candidate for president, Dilma Rousseff leading in the polls on voting intentions .
As one of the mains drivers of the word "PiG", Paulo Henrique Amorim is accused by the conservative journalist Reinaldo Azevedo to promote two eternal campaigns: one electoral, and another against the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo and your managing editor. Azevedo said that everything would be done under the auspices of the Brazilian Government, through the advertising budget of a state bank, the Caixa Econômica Federal.
According to opponents of the term, the press just denounce irregularities in public administration, like several well-known cases of corruption. J.R. Guzzo, "Veja"'s columnist, questioned the word "PiG", saying that when the press publishes complaints is accused by government of "destabilizing" Brazil. So, the use of the term would be an attempt to put the population against the press.
However, the President of the Associação Nacional de Jornais – ANJ ("National Newspaper Association") herself, Maria Judith Brito, said that Brazilian press has assumed the role of a political agent in the 2010 presidential election. Brito herself is an executive of the Folha de S. Paulo newspaper. Interestingly, she was once a candidate for councilwoman for the Workers' Party. In her own words, Judith argues that the media has taken the role of the opposition to the Lula administration:
|“||Press freedom is a greater good that should not be limited. In this general right, the counterpoint is always a question of media responsibility and, of course, the media are doing, in fact, the role of opposition in this country since the opposition is deeply weakened. And this role of opposition and investigation, no doubt, greatly bothers the government.||”|
About her speech, journalist Luciano Martins Costa, from Observatório da Imprensa, commented that:
|“||The biggest risk to the press comes from the press itself, when the newspapers come together to act as a political party.(...) When the press abandons its axis, we all lose. Especially the press.||”|
Manifesto "For democracy and press freedom"
On September 22, 2010, in an act in front of the law school of the University of São Paulo (USP), lawyers, artists and intellectuals launched a document that claimed to be "a manifesto in defense of democracy and freedom of the press and expression" . was attended by former minister of the Brazilian Supreme Court Carlos Veloso, and lawyers as Hélio Bicudo and Miguel Reale Jr., former minister of the ex-president Fernando Henrique Cardoso.
Hélio Bicudo was vice-mayor of São Paulo in the Marta Suplicy's administration, having been away from the Workers Party in 2005. It was he who read, in the microphone, the text of the manifesto, which talked about the risks of authoritarianism :
|“||It is inconceivable that one of the most important democracies in the world is haunted by a hypocritical form of authoritarianism, which, in the certainty of impunity, no longer cares more cherish honesty||”|
There was also criticism of the actions of groups accused of acting against the press :
|“||It's demeaning that the government encourage and fund the action of groups calling openly restrictions on press freedom , proposing mechanisms authoritarian submission of journalists and media companies to determinations of a political party and its interests||”|
Former Justice Minister Miguel Reale Júnior said that journalists are being threatened :
|“||Simply enter the PT websites to see the threats that are being made to journalists, to know which news media that have to be jammed first. There is a climate of radicalization. There is no more freedom to report what embarrasses the country, who are the dirty tricks inside the Palácio do Planalto.||”|
In his opinion, the act would happen on September 23, 2010, sponsored by labor unions and the PT (acts to criticise the press), is " a process of radicalization immensely dangerous." Reale Júnior said :
|“||Insofar as he began to denounce the press , saying that does not need an opinion leader , to say that "we are the opinion", this is substantially a fascist view. He, with his position as President, left his chair of the presidency, to be blower against the press. This is dangerous.||”|
Bicudo also said that President Lula is a "full time President" and criticized him forusing the Presidency secutiry on rallies: :
|“||He tries to discredit the press , trying to demoralize all who oppose your personal power . He ( Lula ) has an opinion , but you can not use the machinery of government to exercise that opinion - said Weevil , for whom Brazil is on the verge of the risk of a authoritarian government.||”|
The PSDB candidate for president, José Serra, said on September 22, 2010, in an interview, that there is in the country today " blackmail on the Brazilian press". According to him, the freedom of the press "is the condition for the existence of democracy".
The response for this document was the "Manifesto Filósofos Pró-Dilma" ("Scholars Supporting Dilma Rousseff for President"), of October 6, 2010. The document criticizes the surrender of José Serra, a moderate politician, to the impositions of the conservative coalition that gave him support, particularly with regard to the smear campaign against the religious belief (or lack thereof) of the opposing candidate and her position on the abortion question as a public health issue. Serra was also criticized for having pledged to maintain and expand one of the major social programs of Lula, the "Bolsa Familia" - after having spent several years denouncing it as mere "handouts to the poor:"
|“||Citizenship requires what Kant characterized as independence: the citizen must be "his own master" with access to "some property (and any skill, craft, art or science may count as property) that allows him to support himself". The wealth distribution programs implemented by Lula protected the country against the global economic crisis by strengthening internal market's growth. They also enhanced democracy by creating a solid basis for citizenship for millions of Brazilians. It is clear that such programs empower people so they can achieve greater autonomy, rather than keeping them in permanent need.||”|
Globo and the Brazilian Military dictatorship
|“||Since the June protests, a chorus returned to the streets: "The truth is hard, Globo supported the dictatorship." In fact, it is a truth, and, in fact, a hard truth. Following many years of internal discussions, the Globo Organizations recognizes that, in the light of history, this support was a mistake.||”|
On August 31, 2013, the newspaper "O Globo" published an editorial that recognized for the first time its support to the 1964 coup d'état that overthrew elected President João Goulart and established a military dictatorship that lasted until 1985. The editorial came out about two months after the violent protests in all of Brazil, initially seen only as against the government (at all levels - municipal, regional, and federal), but which eventually reach the very Rede Globo, historically criticized for its explicit support of the military dictatorship. The editorial caused little or no impact on other organs of the Brazilian mass media (some of them also identified in the editorial as supporters of the generals' regime). For example, the Rede Record, Rede Globo's main competitor, whose current owners has no links with the dictatorial period, merely reproduced the editorial in your site R7, without comments.
However, in the year in which the military movement completed two decades in Brazil, in 1984, Roberto Marinho, O GLOBO owner, published an editorial signed on the first page . In it to justify their adherence to the military in 1964, made clear his belief that intervention was essential to the maintenance of democracy and then to contain the outbreak of urban warfare . And also revealed that the ratio of editorial support to the regime, though lasting, was not simple all the time . In his words : " We have remained faithful to their objectives (of the revolution) , although conflicting on several occasions with those who wished to take ownership of the revolutionary process , forgetting that the events began , as recognized by Marshal Costa e Silva , ' inescapable requirement for the Brazilian people . " Without people, there would be no revolution, but merely a ' statement ' or ' blow ', with which we would not be supportive . " O GLOBO demanded Getúlio Vargas one constituent institutionalize the Revolution of 30, was against the Estado Novo, supported the 1946 Constitution and advocated the possession of John F. Kennedy in 1955 , when it was challenged by civilian and military sectors .
During the dictatorship in 1964 , he has always positioned himself against the persecution of left journalists, harboring many in the newspaper office. There are many testimonials that account he made sure to keep O GLOBO employees called to testify : accompanying them personally to prevent disappeared. Sometimes asked to give a list of "communists" who worked in the newspaper, but always denied it.
Marinho said a famous phrase to General Juracy Magalhães, Justice Minister of Castello Branco : "Take care of your communist, I take care of mine." In the twenty years during which the dictatorship lasted, O GLOBO, even without withdrawing support to the military, always demanded the restoration of them in the shortest time possible, democratic normalcy .
- 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt
- Beyond Citizen Kane
- Chojoongdong, a similar South Korean phenomenon
- Bolivarian propaganda
- Francisco Fernandes Ladeira (2012-01-31). Observatório da Imprensa, ed. "Um peso e várias medidas" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2012-01-31. "Opiniões alternativas ao status quo são, propositalmente, ignoradas. Afinal, não vivemos em um país democrático? Diante dessa realidade, não é por acaso que o acrônimo PIG – partido da imprensa golpista – tem sido cada vez mais utilizado no Brasil."
- Gilberto de Souza (2012-01-22). Correio do Brasil, ed. "As Ilhas Malvinas e o fim do Império Britânico na América Latina" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2012-01-31. "No Brasil, o mesmo esquema, patrocinado por Londres e Washington, sacramentou o império da Rede Globo e a ascensão de outras poucas empresas do hoje conhecido Partido da Imprensa Golpista (PIG), em um movimento semelhante ao ocorrido na vizinhança."
- Bahia Todo Dia (ed.). "'O PIG é o Partido da Imprensa Golpista'" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2012-01-31. "Responsável pela popularização da sigla PIG (Partido da Imprensa Golpista) - usada para se referir a órgãos de imprensa considerados tendenciosos -, o jornalista Paulo Henrique Amorim esteve em Salvador no último dia 8 de julho"
- "Conversa Afiada".
- Paulo Henrique Amorim (2008-03-29). "Esclarecimento III" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2013-04-13.
- Altamiro Borges (2010-05-20). "Altamiro Borges: Limpeza ideológica?" (in Portuguese). viomundo.com.br. Retrieved 2013-04-13.
- "Lula é ovacionado de pé na OIT, PIG na internet "não sabe"" (in Portuguese). viomundo.com.br. Retrieved 2010-01-17.
- "EDUARDO GUIMARÃES E O PIG DO EQUADOR" (in Portuguese). viomundo.com.br. Retrieved 2010-01-17.
- "Imprensa golpista ontem e hoje: como enfrentar o PIG?" (in Portuguese). rodrigovianna.com.br. Retrieved 2010-01-17.
- "TIM, Oi e Telefonica querem dar golpe na Confecom: elas já entraram para o PIG? Vamos reagir!" (in Portuguese). rodrigovianna.com.br. Retrieved 2010-01-17.
- PT na Câmara (ed.). "Energia, trabalho e cidadania" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2012-01-31. "É um dos maiores críticos da mídia conservadora, para a qual criou a sigla PIG (Partido da Imprensa Golpista), que se tornou bastante popular na Internet."
- Luiz Carlos Azenha (April 12, 2012). "Fernando Ferro: "Se tiver alguém do PT envolvido nisso, na investigação vai aparecer"" (in Portuguese). viomundo.com.br. Retrieved April 14, 2012. "(...)foi o criador do famoso PIG, o Partido da Imprensa Golpista, para se referir a grupos de mídia que se engajaram em campanhas contra o governo do ex-presidente Lula, algumas delas baseadas em fiapos de informação, quando não em fantasias"
- "Deputado sugere Partido da Imprensa com Jabor na presidência". Vermelho. September 20, 2007. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
- Translated from: "Em nenhuma democracia séria do mundo, jornais conservadores, de baixa qualidade técnica e até sensacionalistas, e uma única rede de televisão têm a importância que têm no Brasil. Eles se transformaram num partido político – o PiG, Partido da Imprensa Golpista."
- UCB. Paulo Henrique Amorim fala sobre “PIG” e jornalismo na Internet. Brasília: Oficina de Produção de Notícias, Curso de Comunicação Social, Universidade Católica de Brasília; October 27, 2009
- Dias, Mauricio. FHC apoiaria “Golpe Branco.: Wanderley Guilherme dos Santos, entrevista à Carta Capital, 10 de junho de 2005. São Paulo: Revista Carta Capital, 10 de junho de 2005
- Complaint against Lula paralyzes campaign
- Paulo Henrique Amorim is the bravest journalist from Brazil to attack the reputation of the opposition
- The IG departure of Paulo Henrique Amorim
- Paulo Henrique Amorim pay compensation for racism
- Paulo Henrique Amorim is convicted of libel against Heraldo Pereira
- Campos, Fernando Soares (May 19, 2009). "Sem a internet, Lula já teria caído". Observatório da Imprensa. ISSN 1519-7670. Retrieved 2012-12-28.
- Churchill Quotes
- Mattos, Sérgio (2005). Mídia controlada: a história da censura no Brasil e no mundo (in Portuguese). Paulus. p. 142. ISBN 8534924074.
- Carlos Eduardo Lins da Silva (2006). "Livro acende o necessário debate em torno da censura" (in Portuguese). Folha de S. Paulo. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
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- Castro, D. (2003-03-10). "TV fatura R$ 5,7 bi e cresce 6% em 2002". Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese).
- Ortiz, R. et al. (1989). Brasiliense, ed. Telenovela-História e Produção. São Paulo.
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- Amaral, R.; Guimarães, C. (1994). Journal of Communications, ed. Media Monopoly in Brazil 44 (4, Autumm ed.). pp. 30–32.
- Amaral, R.; Guimarães, C. (1994). Journal of Communications, ed. Media Monopoly in Brazil 44 (4, Autumm ed.). p. 30.
- Daniel Herz; Görgen, James; Osório, Pedro Luiz (2002-03-06). CartaCapital, ed. "Quem são os donos" (pdf) (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- Prof. Murilo César Ramos. University of Brasília, ed. "Communications regulatory framework in Brazil: media, telecommunications, internet" (pdf). Retrieved 2012-10-16.
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- "Electoral law favors censorship of the press, analysts say". G1. March 1, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2013. (Portuguese)
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- "Chavez bid to counter Hollywood". BBC News. June 4, 2006. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
- Sreeharsha, Vinod (November 22, 2005). "Telesur tested by Chávez video". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 26, 2012. "These clips bolster critics who claim the network is and will be a propaganda tool for Chávez."
- Nichols and Morse (2010), p. 326.
- Ingham, James (November 1, 2007). "Venezuelan cinema, Chávez style". BBC News. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
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- [unreliable source?] Kraft, Michael (24 July 2007). "Chavez Propaganda Machine". Charlotte Conservative. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
- Bogardus, Kevin (September 22, 2004). "Venezuela Head Polishes Image With Oil Dollars: President Hugo Chavez takes his case to America's streets". Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
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- Lakshmanan, Indira (27 July 2005). "Channeling his energies Venezuelans riveted by president's TV show". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- McCaughan (2005), p. 196.
- Schoen (2009), p. 154.
- McCaughan (2005), p. 95.
- Carroll, Rory (23 May 2007). "Chavez silences critical TV station - and robs the people of their soaps". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
- Manwaring (2005), p. 11.
- Turner (2007), p. 14.
- Moloney, Anastasia (29 January 2007). "Photo Feature: Chavez's Propaganda". World Politics Review. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
- Manwaring (2005), p. 10.
- See, for instance, William I. Robinson,"The São Paulo Forum: is there a new Latin American left?", Monthly Review, December 1992, available at 
- cf. Inés Hayes, "XIV São Paulo Forum: Left parties debate the current historic conjuncture", available at 
- Reinaldo Azevedo (2010-08-21). "Under command of PT, Sao Paulo Forum celebrates press censorship". Veja (magazine) (in Portuguese). Editora Abril. (Portuguese)
- Reinaldo Azevedo (2010-05-26). "Paulo Henrique Amorim works for PT". Veja (magazine) (in Portuguese). Editora Abril. (Portuguese)
- J.R. Guzzo (2009-07-22). "Gente do ramo". Veja (magazine). Editora Abril. "From hearing what they are saying in the government and its surroundings, for example, journalists are among the worst disasters that this country has to face at the moment, more or less at the same level occupied by the white elite of the South and other enemies of popular causes."
- Ideological intolerance and the world as it is
- Pedro Doria. "Not Corporatist" (in Portuguese).
- Sergio Leo (2009-04-08). "Blogs and journalism, one can not be another - or not" (in Portuguese).
- Osamigosdopresidentelula.blogspot.com, ed. (2005-11-17). "Os Amigos do Presidente Lula: A dona Judith Brito que você não conhece" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2011-03-10.
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- Luciano Martins Costa (2010-03-25). Observatório da Imprensa, ed. "Imprensa versus governos" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2010-03-30.
- Bob Fernandes (2010-10-20). ""Se Dilma vencer, democracia estará em risco", diz Bicudo". Terra Magazine (in Portuguese).
- "Launched in SP manifesto for democracy". G1 (in Portuguese). 2010-09-22.
- "Manifesto in defense of democracy and press freedom is launched in São Paulo". O Globo (in Portuguese). 2010-09-22.
- Josias de Souza (2010-09-26). "Hélio Bicudo: ‘País pode caminhar para ditadura civil’". Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese).
- "International Scholars Support Dilma Rousseff for the Presidency of Brazil". Retrieved 2011-11-02.
- Pepe Escobar (November 3, 2010). Asia Times, ed. "The day Obama dreamed of being Lula". Retrieved April 14, 2012.
- O Globo, ed. (2013-08-31). "Apoio editorial ao golpe de 64 foi um erro" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- Janet Tappin Coelho (2013-09-02). The Independent, ed. "Globo media organisation apologises for supporting Brazil’s dictatorship". Retrieved 2013-09-22.
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