Party divisions of United States Congresses

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Historical graph of party control of the Senate and House as well as the Presidency

[1]

Party Senate House
Democratic 49 55
Republican 41 35
Democratic-
Republican
12 13
Federalist 3 2
Pro-
Administration
3 2
Whig 2 2
National
Republican
1 1
Anti-
Administration
0 1
Split Control 1 1

The following table lists the party divisions for each United States Congress.

Numbers in boldface denote the majority party at that particular time, while italicized numbers signify a Congress in which the majority party changed mid-Congress.

Congress Years Senate House of Representatives President
Total Anti-
Admin
Pro-
Admin
Others Vacan
cies
Total Anti-
Admin
Pro-
Admin
Others Vacan
cies
1st 1789–1791 26 8 18 65 28 37 George Washington
2nd 1791–1793 30 13 16 1 69 30 39
3rd 1793–1795 30 14 16 105 54 51
Congress Years Total Democratic-
Republicans
Federalists Others Vacan
cies
Total Democratic-
Republicans
Federalists Others Vacan
cies
President
4th 1795–1797 32 11 21 106 59 47 George Washington
5th 1797–1799 32 10 22 106 49 57 John Adams
6th 1799–1801 32 10 22 106 46 60
7th 1801–1803 34 17 15 2 107 68 38 1 Thomas Jefferson
8th 1803–1805 34 25 9 142 103 39
9th 1805–1807 34 27 7 142 114 28
10th 1807–1809 34 28 6 142 116 26
11th 1809–1811 34 27 7 142 92 50 James Madison
12th 1811–1813 36 30 6 143 107 36
13th 1813–1815 36 28 8 182 114 68
14th 1815–1817 38 26 12 183 119 64
15th 1817–1819 42 30 12 185 146 39 James Monroe
16th 1819–1821 46 37 9 186 160 26
17th 1821–1823 48 44 4 187 155 32
18th 1823–1825 48 43 5 213 189 24
Congress Years Total Democrats National
Republicans
Others Vacan
cies
Total Democrats National
Republicans
Others Vacan
cies
President
19th 1825–1827 48 26 22 213 104 109 John Quincy Adams
20th 1827–1829 48 27 21 213 113 100
21st 1829–1831 48 25 23 213 136 72 5 Andrew Jackson
22nd 1831–1833 48 24 22 2 213 126 66 21
23rd 1833–1835 48 20 26 2 240 143 63 34
24th 1835–1837 52 26 24 2 242 143 75 24
Congress Years Total Democrats Whigs Others Vacan
cies
Total Democrats Whigs Others Vacan
cies
President
25th 1837–1839 52 35 17 242 128 100 14 Martin Van Buren
26th 1839–1841 52 30 22 242 125 109 8
27th 1841–1843 52 22 29 1 242 98 142 2 William H. Harrison[2]
28th 1843–1845 52 23 29 223 147 72 4 John Tyler
29th 1845–1847 58 34 22 2 228 142 79 7 James K. Polk
30th 1847–1849 60 38 21 1 220 110 116 4
31st 1849–1851 62 35 25 2 233 113 108 11 1 Zachary Taylor[3]
32nd 1851–1853 62 36 23 3 233 127 85 21 Millard Fillmore
33rd 1853–1855 62 38 22 2 234 157 71 6 Franklin Pierce
Congress Years Total Democrats Republicans Others Vacan
cies
Total Democrats Republicans Others Vacan
cies
President
34th 1855–1857 62 39 22 1 234 83 108 43 Franklin Pierce
35th 1857–1859 64 39 20 5 237 131 94 13 James Buchanan
36th 1859–1861 66 38 26 2 237 101 113 23
37th 1861–1863 50 11 31 7 1 178 42 106 28 2 Abraham Lincoln[4]
38th 1863–1865 51 12 29 183 80 103
39th 1865–1867 52 10 42 191 46 145 Andrew Johnson
40th 1867–1869 53 11 42 193 49 143 1
41st 1869–1871 74 11 61 2 243 73 170 Ulysses S. Grant
42nd 1871–1873 74 17 57 243 104 136 3
43rd 1873–1875 74 19 54 1 293 88 203 2
44th 1875–1877 76 29 46 1 293 181 107 3 2
45th 1877–1879 76 36 39 1 293 156 137 Rutherford B. Hayes
46th 1879–1881 76 43 33 293 150 128 14 1
47th 1881–1883 76 37 37 2 293 130 152 11 James Garfield[5]
48th 1883–1885 76 36 40 325 200 119 6 Chester A. Arthur
49th 1885–1887 76 34 41 1 325 182 140 2 1 Grover Cleveland
50th 1887–1889 76 37 39 325 170 151 4
51st 1889–1891 84 37 47 330 156 173 1 Benjamin Harrison
52nd 1891–1893 88 39 47 2 333 231 88 14
53rd 1893–1895 88 44 38 3 3 356 220 126 10 Grover Cleveland
54th 1895–1897 88 39 44 5 357 104 246 7
55th 1897–1899 90 34 46 10 357 134 206 16 1 William McKinley[6]
56th 1899–1901 90 26 53 11 357 163 185 9
57th 1901–1903 90 29 56 3 2 357 153 198 5 1 Theodore Roosevelt
58th 1903–1905 90 32 58 386 178 207 1
59th 1905–1907 90 32 58 386 136 250
60th 1907–1909 92 29 61 2 386 164 222
61st 1909–1911 92 32 59 1 391 172 219 William H. Taft
62nd 1911–1913 92 42 49 1 391 228 162 1
63rd 1913–1915 96 51 44 1 435 290 127 18 Woodrow Wilson
64th 1915–1917 96 56 39 1 435 231 193 8 3
65th 1917–1919 96 53 42 1 435 210 216 9
66th 1919–1921 96 47 48 1 435 191 237 7
67th 1921–1923 96 37 59 435 132 300 1 2 Warren G. Harding[7]
68th 1923–1925 96 43 51 2 435 207 225 3 Calvin Coolidge
69th 1925–1927 96 40 54 1 1 435 183 247 5
70th 1927–1929 96 47 48 1 435 195 237 3
71st 1929–1931 96 39 56 1 435 163 267 1 4 Herbert Hoover
72nd 1931–1933 96 47 48 1 435 217 217 1
73rd 1933–1935 96 59 36 1 435 313 117 5 Franklin D. Roosevelt[8]
74th 1935–1937 96 69 25 2 435 322 103 10
75th 1937–1939 96 75 17 4 435 333 89 13
76th 1939–1941 96 69 23 4 435 262 169 4
77th 1941–1943 96 66 28 2 435 267 162 6
78th 1943–1945 96 57 38 1 435 222 209 4
79th 1945–1947 96 57 38 1 435 243 190 2 Harry S. Truman
80th 1947–1949 96 45 51 435 188 246 1
81st 1949–1951 96 54 42 435 263 171 1
82nd 1951–1953 96 48 47 1 435 234 199 2
83rd 1953–1955 96 46 48 2 435 213 221 1 Dwight D. Eisenhower
84th 1955–1957 96 48 47 1 435 232 203
85th 1957–1959 96 49 47 435 234 201
86th 1959–1961 98 64 34 437 283 153 1
87th 1961–1963 100 64 36 437 262 175 John F. Kennedy[9]
88th 1963–1965 100 67 33 435 258 176 1 Lyndon B. Johnson
89th 1965–1967 100 68 32 435 295 140
90th 1967–1969 100 64 36 435 248 187
91st 1969–1971 100 58 42 435 243 192 Richard Nixon[10]
92nd 1971–1973 100 54 44 2 435 255 180
93rd 1973–1975 100 56 42 2 435 242 192 1 Gerald Ford
94th 1975–1977 100 61 37 2 435 291 144
95th 1977–1979 100 61 38 1 435 292 143 Jimmy Carter
96th 1979–1981 100 58 41 1 435 277 158
97th 1981–1983 100 46 53 1 435 242 192 1 Ronald Reagan
98th 1983–1985 100 46 54 435 269 166
99th 1985–1987 100 47 53 435 253 182
100th 1987–1989 100 55 45 435 258 177
101st 1989–1991 100 55 45 435 260 175 George H. W. Bush
102nd 1991–1993 100 56 44 435 267 167 1
103rd 1993–1995 100 57 43 435 258 176 1 Bill Clinton
104th 1995–1997 100 48 52 435 204 230 1
105th 1997–1999 100 45 55 435 207 226 2
106th 1999–2001 100 45 55 435 211 223 1
107th 2001–2003 100 50/50[11] 50/49[12] 0/1[13] 435 212 221 2 George W. Bush
108th 2003–2005 100 48 51 1[13] 435 205 229 1
109th 2005–2007 100 44 55 1[13] 435 202 231 1 1
110th 2007–2009 100 49 49 2[14] 435 236 199
111th 2009–2011 100 56–58[15] 40–42[16] 2[14] 0-1 435 257 178 Barack Obama
112th 2011–2013 100 51 47 2[17] 435 193 242
113th 2013–2015 100 53 45 2[18] 435 201 234
Congress Years Total Democrats Republicans Others Vacan
cies
Total Democrats Republicans Others Vacan
cies
President
Senate House of Representatives
Graphical representation of party divisions in U.S. Congress, 1933-2009

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Party In Power - Congress and Presidency - A Visual Guide To The Balance of Power In Congress, 1945-2008". Uspolitics.about.com. Retrieved September 17, 2012. 
  2. ^ President Harrison died April 4, 1841, one month into his term, and was succeeded by John Tyler, who served for the remainder of the term.
  3. ^ President Taylor died July 9, 1850, about one year and four months into the term, and was succeeded by Millard Fillmore, who served for the remainder of the term.
  4. ^ President Lincoln was assassinated and died April 15, 1865, about a month after beginning his second term as president. He was succeeded by Democrat Andrew Johnson, who served the remainder of the term.
  5. ^ Garfield died September 23, 1881, roughly six months into his term, and was succeeded by Chester Arthur, who served for the remainder of the term.
  6. ^ McKinley died September 14, 1901, about six months into his second term, and was succeeded by Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt served for the remainder of the term and was elected president in 1904.
  7. ^ President Harding died August 2, 1923, about two years and five months after becoming president, and was succeeded by vice-president Calvin Coolidge. Coolidge served for the remainder of the term and was subsequently elected president in 1924.
  8. ^ Roosevelt died April 12, 1945, about three months into his fourth term as president, and was succeeded by Harry S. Truman. Truman served the remainder of the term and was elected president in 1948.
  9. ^ Kennedy died November 22, 1963, about two years and ten months into the term, and was succeeded by Lyndon B. Johnson. Johnson served the remainder of the term and was elected president in 1964.
  10. ^ Nixon resigned August 9, 1974, about a year and seven months into his second term as president, and was succeeded by Gerald R. Ford, who served for the remainder of the term.
  11. ^ The Democratic Party controlled the 107th Congress from January 3 to January 20, 2001 (50/50 tie with Vice President Gore as the deciding vote) and from May 24, 2001 to January 3, 2003 (after Senator Jim Jeffords left the Republican Party to become an Independent and caucus with the Democrats).
  12. ^ The Republican Party controlled the 107th Congress from January 20, 2001 (50/50 tie with Vice President Cheney as the deciding vote) until May 24, 2001, when Senator Jim Jeffords left the Republican Party to become an Independent and caucus with the Democrats.
  13. ^ a b c In the 107th Congress (after May 24, 2001), and in the 108th Congress and 109th Congress, Independent Jim Jeffords of Vermont, chose to caucus with the Democratic Party.
  14. ^ a b In the 110th Congress and 111th Congress, the two independent members of the Senate, chose to caucus with the Democratic Party, and thus are considered to be a part of the majority.
  15. ^ From January 27 to April 28, 2009, when Senator Arlen Specter (R-Pennsylvania) joined the Democratic caucus, there were 56 Democratic Senators, 41 Republicans, two independents and one undecided seat in Minnesota. That vacancy was filled as an additional Democratic seat on July 7, 2009, with the swearing-in of Al Franken, bringing the totals to 58 Democrats, 40 Republicans and 2 independents. Seven weeks later, on August 25, Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.) died, lowering the Democratic total to 57 for a month until Paul G. Kirk Jr. (D) was appointed and sworn in as Sen. Kennedy's interim replacement on September 25, 2009. Just over four months later, on February 4, 2010, Scott Brown (R) who had won a special election for the seat, succeeded Paul Kirk, returning the Republican caucus to 41, and again reducing the Democratic caucus to 57 plus two independents. [The Democratic caucus dropped again briefly to 56 in the 18 days between the death of Sen. Robert Byrd (D-West Virginia) on June 28, 2010 and the seating of his interim successor, Carte Goodwin (also D) on July 16.] The appointed Democratic Senator from Illinois, Roland Burris was succeeded on November 29, 2010 by Mark Kirk, a Republican elected earlier that month, once again dropping the Democratic caucus to 56 with 2 independents facing 42 Republicans for the last month of the 111th Congress. December 2011 Congressional Directory, page 324
  16. ^ From January 3 to April 28, 2009, prior to Senator Arlen Specter's switch to the Democratic Party, there were 41 Republican Senators. The Republican caucus returned to 41 on February 4, 2010, with the swearing in of Scott Brown (R-Mass.) to fill the Democratic seat of Edward Kennedy and Paul Kirk. After Mark Kirk (R-Ill.) replaced Roland Burris as Senator from Illinois on November 29, 2010, the Senate in the last month of the 111th Congress stood at 42 Republicans, 56 Democrats and 2 independents.
  17. ^ In the 112th Congress, the two independent members of the Senate, Joseph Lieberman, Independent Democrat of Connecticut, and Bernie Sanders, Independent of Vermont, chose to caucus with the Democratic Party, and thus are considered to be a part of the majority.
  18. ^ In the 113th Congress, the two independent members of the Senate, Bernie Sanders of Vermont, and Angus King of Maine, chose to caucus with the Democratic Party, and thus are considered to be a part of the majority.

References and external links[edit]