Parvancorina

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Parvancorina
Temporal range: Ediacaran, around 558–555Ma
Parvancorina species.png
Schematic reconstructions of P. sagitta and P. minchami
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: incertae sedis: Arthropoda?
Genus: Parvancorina
Glaessner 1958
Type species
P. minchami
Glaessner 1958
Species
  • P. minchami Glaessner, 1958
  • P. sagitta Ivantsov, 2004

Parvancorina is a genus of shield-shaped bilaterally symmetrical fossil animal that lived in the late Ediacaran seafloor. It has some similarities with the Cambrian trilobite-like arthropods.

Etymology[edit]

The generic name is derived from a crasis compound word from the Latin parva ancora (small anchor).

The specific name of the type species, P. minchami, honors Mr. H. Mincham, the private collector, who in 1957 had collected and presented a number of fine specimens of Ediacaran fossils to the South Australian Museum.

The specific name of P. sagitta from the Latin sagitta (arrow).

Occurrence[edit]

P. minchami fossils were first discovered in the Ediacara Member of the Rawnslay Quartzite, Flinders Ranges in South Australia.[1] This species also known from deposites of the Verkhovka, Zimnegory and Yorga Formations in the White Sea area of the Arkhangelsk Region, Russia. Additionally, similar poorly preserved Parvancorina sp. fossils were found in Lyamtsa Formation of this Russian region.[2]

P. sagitta is found in the Verkhovka formation on the Solza River, White Sea area of the Arkhangelsk Region, Russia.[3]

Australian fossils

Description[edit]

It has a raised ridge down the central axis of symmetry. This ridge can be high in unflattened fossils. At the 'head' end of the ridge there are two quarter circle shaped raised arcs attached. In front of this are two nested semicircular lines. Teeth seem to come from the raised parts pointing into the centre spaces.[citation needed] These may show as raised lines.

The fossils are normally about 1 cm in each of width and length, but can be up to 2 cm.

Affinity[edit]

In attempting to determine its phylogenic relationships, Parvancorina has been compared with various primitive, trilobite-like arthropods, such as Skania fragilis from the Burgess Shale Biota, Canada, and Primicaris larvaformis from the Chengjiang Biota, China.[4][5] However, the growth form of Parvancorinais unusual for an arthropod,[2][6] and its apparent sessile mode of life appears to rebut an arthropod affinity,.[7] Furthermore, the strong resemblance of P. sagitta to the primitive, mollusk-like bilateran Temnoxa also throws more doubt on an arthropod affinity.[3]

Lifestyle and habitus[edit]

The living organisms typically lived with their "heads" parallel to the current direction,[8] although overfolding of the fossils from all sides contradicts any form of stalked attachment to the sea floor.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Glaessner, Martin F. (1958). "New Fossils from the Base of the Cambrian in South Australia". Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 81: 185–188. 
  2. ^ a b Naimark, E. B., Ivantsov A. Yu. (2009). "Growth variability in the late Vendian problematics Parvancorina Glaessner". Paleontological Journal 43 (1): 12–18. doi:10.1134/S003103010901002X. 
  3. ^ a b Ivantsov, A.Y.; Malakhovskaya, Y.E.; Serezhnikova, E.A. (2004). "Some Problematic Fossils from the Vendian of the Southeastern White Sea Region". Paleontological Journal 38 (1): 1–9. 
  4. ^ Lin, J. P.; Gon, S. M.; Gehling, J. G.; Babcock, L. E.; Zhao, Y. L.; Zhang, X. L.; Hu, S. X.; Yuan, J. L.; Yu, M. Y.; Peng, J. (2006). "A Parvancorina-like arthropod from the Cambrian of South China". Historical Biology 18 (1): 33–45. doi:10.1080/08912960500508689.  edit
  5. ^ Glaessner, M. F. (1980). "Parvancorina - an Arthropod from the Late Precambrian Fauna of the Ediacara Fossil Reserve". Records of the South Australia Museum 13: 83–90. 
  6. ^ Ivantsov A. Yu.; E. B. Naimark (2007). "The Rise and Fall of the Vendian (Ediacaran) Biota. Origin of the Modern Biosphere. Transactions of the International Conference on the IGCP Project 493, August 20–31, 2007, Moscow.". Moscow: GEOS. pp. 13–18.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  7. ^ a b Paterson, John (2010). International Palaeontology Congress. London. 
  8. ^ Droser, Mary L. "Anchors away: Anatomy of an Ediacaran sea floor dominated by Parvancorina". Geological Society of America: Abstracts with Programs 39 (6): 332. 

External links[edit]