Parvocellular neurosecretory cell
Parvocellular neurosecretory cells are small neurons within paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. The axons of the parvocellular neurosecretory cells of the PVN project to the median eminence, at the base of the brain, where their neurosecretory nerve terminals release peptides into blood vessels in the hypothalamo-pituitary portal system. The blood vessels carry the peptides to the anterior pituitary gland, where they regulate the secretion of hormones into the systemic circulation.
The parvocellular neurosecretory cells include those that make:
- Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which acts as the primary regulator of TSH and a regulator of prolactin
- Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which acts as the primary regulator of ACTH
- Vasopressin, which acts as a secondary regulator of ACTH secretion acting synergistically with CRH and a regulator of prolactin
- Oxytocin, which acts as a regulator of prolactin
- Neurotensin, which acts as a regulator of luteinizing hormone and prolactin
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- Ghamari-Langroudi, M.; Vella, K. R.; Srisai, D.; Sugrue, M. L.; Hollenberg, A. N.; Cone, R. D. (13 October 2010). "Regulation of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone-Expressing Neurons in Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus by Signals of Adiposity". Molecular Endocrinology 24 (12): 2366–2381. doi:10.1210/me.2010-0203.
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- Sawchenko, PE; Swanson, LW; Vale, WW (March 1984). "Co-expression of corticotropin-releasing factor and vasopressin immunoreactivity in parvocellular neurosecretory neurons of the adrenalectomized rat.". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 81 (6): 1883–7. PMID 6369332.
- Horn, A. M.; Robinson, I. C. A. F.; Fink, G. (1 February 1985). "Oxytocin and vasopressin in rat hypophysial portal blood: experimental studies in normal and Brattleboro rats". Journal of Endocrinology 104 (2): 211–NP. doi:10.1677/joe.0.1040211. PMID 3968510.
- Freeman, ME; Kanyicska, B; Lerant, A; Nagy, G (October 2000). "Prolactin: structure, function, and regulation of secretion.". Physiological reviews 80 (4): 1523–631. PMID 11015620.
- Johnston, CA; Negro-Vilar, A (January 1988). "Role of oxytocin on prolactin secretion during proestrus and in different physiological or pharmacological paradigms.". Endocrinology 122 (1): 341–50. PMID 3335212.
- Watanobe, H; Takebe, K (April 1993). "In vivo release of neurotensin from the median eminence of ovariectomized estrogen-primed rats as estimated by push-pull perfusion: correlation with luteinizing hormone and prolactin surges.". Neuroendocrinology 57 (4): 760–4. PMID 8367038.