Pashalik of Scutari
|Pashalik of Scutari|
|Pashallëku i Shkodrës|
|-||1778-1796||Kara Mahmud Bushati|
|Historical era||Early modern period|
The Pashalik of Iskodra, or Pashalik of Shkodra, (1757-1831) was a semi-autonomous pashalik under the Ottoman empire created by the Albanian Bushati family from the previous Sanjak of Scutari, which was situated around the city of Shkodër in modern-day Albania and parts of modern-day Montenegro. At its peak during the reign of Kara Mahmud Bushati the pashalik encompassed much of Albania, large parts of Kosovo, western Macedonia and southwestern Montenegro.
The weakening of Ottoman central authority and the timar system of land ownership brought anarchy to the Albanian-populated region of the Ottoman empire. In the late eighteenth century, two Albanian centers of power emerged: Shkodër, under the Bushati family; and Janina, under Ali Pasha of Tepelenë. Both regions cooperated with and defied the Sublime Porte as their interests required.
In 1757, Mehmed Bushati, having eliminated two rival families and heading the Tabak esnaf of Shkodra as their spiritual Sheikh proclaimed himself pasha of Shkodër. Mehmet Bushati known as Mehmet the Old (Plaku) transformed the Sanjak of Scutari, created in 1479, into a semi-autonomous Pashalik of Shkodra. He was praised by Istanbul for ending the Arab and Berber pirates' reign of terror over the Venetian ships in the Adriatic.
Mehmed Bushati's son and third successor, Kara Mahmud Bushati, pursued a policy of military expansion and established his control over northern Albania up to the Toskeria and Kosovo. He launched two attacks on Montenegro (1785, 1796) and against Venice in revenge for the Bey of Tunis[clarification needed]. He defeated several Ottoman expeditions dispatched to subdue him for his uncontrolled behavior. Kara Mahmdud subdued Montenegrin tribes and forced the Venetians to pay him a tribute (haraj). He courted both the Austrian and Russian empires, receiving a promise from Vienna that they would recognise him as lord of all Albania in return for an alliance against the Sublime Porte. However, after taking money from the Austrians he decapited the Viennese emissaries, sent their heads to Istanbul and pledged loyalty to the sultan. In response, the Ottomans ex post facto pardoned Kara Mahmud for his attacks against Venice and reappointed him governor of Shkodër.
In 1796, the Montenegrins and Albanian Catholic tribes of Piper and Palabardh defeated an expedition launched against them by the Shkodran Muslims and decapitated Kara Mahmud Bushati. His skull is still on display in Cetinjski manastir in Montenegro. His death signalled a decline in autonomy for the pashalik. Kara Mahmud's successor Ibrahim Bushati cooperated with the Ottoman empire until his own death (1810). He was appointed Beylerbey of Rumelia and subdued the Serbs during his military expeditions against Belgrade.
The Bushati dynasty's rule came to an end when an Ottoman army under Mehmed Reshid Pasha laid siege to the Fatih castle at Shkodër and forced the surrender of the last pasha Mustafa Bushati who had rebelled against the sultan whom they accused as Giaour - infidel (1831). This defeat not only ended a planned alliance between the Albanians and the Bosnians, who were similarly seeking autonomy and shariah, but also brought about the dissolution of the pashalik and the establishment 30 years later of the vilayets of Scutari and of Kosovo. An uprising in Scutari in 1833-1836 failed to reestablish the autonomy enjoyed under the Bushatis. With the dismemberment of the Pashalik of Shkodra, Montenegro got rid of the Muslim Pashalik of Shkodra, which kept it in check for many decades.
- Mehmed Bushati (1757-1774)
- Mustafa Bushati (1774-1778)
- Kara Mahmud Bushati (1778-1796)
- Ibrahim Bushati (1796-1810)
- Mustafa Reshiti (1810-1831)
- Bahl, Taru; Syed, M. H. (2003). Encyclopaedia of Muslim World. New Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-261-1419-1.
- Jazexhiu, Olsi (2002). The Albanian Pashalik of Shkodra under Bushatlis 1757 – 1831. Kuala Lumpur: IIUM.
- Castellan, Georges (2002). Histoire de l'Albanie et des albanais. N.p.: Editions Armeline. ISBN 978-2-910878-20-7.
- Elsie, Robert (2005). Albanian literature: a short history. London: I. B. Tauris in association with The Centre for Albanian Studies. ISBN 978-1-84511-031-4.
- Jelavich, Barbara ( 1999). History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-27458-6.
- Vickers, Miranda (1999). The Albanians: a modern history. New York: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-541-9.
- Zickel, Raymond; Iwaskiw, Walter R. (1994). Albania: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: GPO for Library of Congress.
- Vickers, Miranda (1999). The Albanians: A Modern History. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9781860645419. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- Iseni, Bashkim (2008). La question nationale en Europe du Sud-Est: genèse, émergence et développement de l'identité nationale albanaise au Kosovo et en Macédoine. Peter Lang. ISBN 9783039113200. Retrieved 5 March 2013.