Pashayi languages

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Pashayi
Native to Afghanistan
Ethnicity Pashayi people
Native speakers
400,000  (2000–2011)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Variously:
aee – Northeastern
glh – Northwestern
psi – Southeastern
psh – Southwestern
Linguasphere 59-AAA-a

Pashayi or Pashai is a group of languages spoken by the Pashai people in parts of Kapisa, Laghman, Nuristan, Kunar, and Nangarhar Provinces in Northeastern Afghanistan. It belongs to the Dardic branch of the Indo-Aryan languages.[2] Most speakers are bilingual in Pashto with a literacy rate of about 25%, with the Pashayi languages having no written form prior to 2003.[3] There are four mutually unintelligible varieties, with only about a 30% lexical similarity:[1]

  • Northeastern: Aret, Chalas (Chilas), Kandak, Kurangal, Kurdar dialects
  • Northwestern: Alasai, Bolaghain, Gulbahar, Kohnadeh, Laurowan, Najil, Nangarach, Pachagan, Pandau, Parazhghan, Pashagar, Sanjan, Shamakot, Shutul, Uzbin, Wadau dialects
  • Southeastern: Damench, Laghmani, Sum, and Upper and Lower Darra-i-Nur dialects
  • Southwestern: Ishpi, Isken, Tagau dialects

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Northeastern at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Northwestern at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Southeastern at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Southwestern at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Masica, Colin P. (1991). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 440. 
  3. ^ Yun, Ju-Hong (2003). "Pashai Language Development Project: Promoting Pashai language, literacy and community development". Conference on language development, language revitalization and multilingual education in minority communities in Asia. 6–8 November 2003. Bangkok, Thailand.