aee – Northeastern
glh – Northwestern
psi – Southeastern
psh – Southwestern
Pashayi or Pashai is a group of languages spoken by the Pashai people in parts of Kapisa, Laghman, Nuristan, Kunar, and Nangarhar Provinces in Northeastern Afghanistan. It belongs to the Dardic branch of the Indo-Aryan languages. Most speakers are bilingual in Pashto with a literacy rate of about 25%, with the Pashayi languages having no written form prior to 2003. There are four mutually unintelligible varieties, with only about a 30% lexical similarity:
- Northeastern: Aret, Chalas (Chilas), Kandak, Kurangal, Kurdar dialects
- Northwestern: Alasai, Bolaghain, Gulbahar, Kohnadeh, Laurowan, Najil, Nangarach, Pachagan, Pandau, Parazhghan, Pashagar, Sanjan, Shamakot, Shutul, Uzbin, Wadau dialects
- Southeastern: Damench, Laghmani, Sum, and Upper and Lower Darra-i-Nur dialects
- Southwestern: Ishpi, Isken, Tagau dialects
- Northeastern reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Northwestern reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Southeastern reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Southwestern reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
- Masica, Colin P. (1991). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 440.
- Yun, Ju-Hong (2003). Pashai Language Development Project: Promoting Pashai language, literacy and community development. Conference on language development, language revitalization and multilingual education in minority communities in Asia. 6–8 November 2003. Bangkok, Thailand.
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