Pashto dialects

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Pashto dialects (Pashto: د پښتو ګړدودونه da Pax̌to gəṛdoduna) are divided into two varieties, the "hard" northern variety Pax̌to, and the "soft" southern variety Paṣ̌to. Each variety is further divided into a number of dialects. The southern dialect of Wanetsi is the most distinctive of the dialects.

The geographic dividing line between the southern and the northern variety passes through the Urozgan, Zabul, and Paktika provinces of Afghanistan, then cuts across the Durand Line border between Afghanistan and Pakistan, and runs further northeastwards to the Kohat and Nowshera districts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Hence, the hard Pax̌to is spoken in eastern and northeastern Afghanistan, central, northern, and eastern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and northern and central Federally Administered Tribal Areas; while the soft Paṣ̌to is spoken to the south of it, in southern and western Afghanistan, northern Balochistan, southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and southern Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Ethnologue divides Pashto into Northern, Central, and Southern Pashto, and Wanetsi.[1]

Classification[edit]

1. Southern variety

  • Kandahari dialect (or Southern dialect)
  • Kakar dialect (or Southeastern dialect)
  • Mandokhel-Shirani dialect
  • Marwat-Lodi-Bettani dialect
  • Southern Karlani group
  • Khattak dialect
  • Banuchi dialect
  • Dawarwola dialect
  • Masidwola dialect
  • Wazirwola dialect

2. Northern variety

  • Northern Karlani group
  • Taniwola dialect
  • Khosti dialect
  • Zadran-Mangal dialect
  • Bangash-Orakzai-Turi-Zazi dialect
  • Afridi dialect
  • Khogyani dialect
  • Wardak dialect
  • Kharoti dialect
  • Central Ghilji dialect (or Northwestern dialect)
  • Northern dialect (or Eastern dialect)
  • Yusufzai dialect (or Northeastern dialect)

3. Wanetsi dialect

Prestige varieties[edit]

Literary standard[edit]

Main article: Central Pashto

Literary Pashto, or Standard High Pashto, is the standardized variety of Pashto developed by Radio Television Afghanistan and Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan in Kabul. Its phonetics are based on the Central Pashto dialect (also called Northwestern Pashto), which is spoken in the central Ghilji region (Kabul, northern Wardak, Logar, Ghazni, Gardez, and some other areas in the vicinity), but its vocabulary also derives from the Kandahari dialect. It has adopted neologisms to coin new terms from already existing words or phrases and introduce them into the Pashto lexicon. Educated Standard Pashto is learned in the curriculum that is taught in the primary schools in the country. It is used for written and formal spoken purposes, and in the domains of media and government.[2]

Regional standards[edit]

There are several regional standard forms of Pashto which have high prestige, and serve as a means of communication between the various tribal communities in those regions.

Kandahari regional standard[edit]

Main article: Kandahari Pashto

Kandahari Pashto, also called Southern Pashto, is the prestige variety of Pashto in southern and western Afghanistan, and the Balochistan province of Pakistan.[2]

Northern regional standard[edit]

Northern Pashto, also called Eastern Pashto, is the prestige variety of Pashto in eastern and northeastern Afghanistan, and northern part of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.[2] This dialect is almost identical to Yusufzai Pashto.

Yusufzai regional standard[edit]

Yusufzai Pashto, also called Peshawari or Northeastern Pashto, is the prestige variety of Pashto in central, northern, and eastern parts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

Phonetic differences[edit]

The differences between the standard varieties of Pashto are primarily phonological, and there are simple conversion rules.[3] The morphological differences between the standard varieties are very few and unimportant. Two of the key phonemes whose pronunciation vary between the different Pashto dialects are ښ and ږ. The southern dialect of Kandahar is the most conservative with regards to phonology, because it retains the original pronunciation of these two phonemes as voiceless and voiced retroflex sibilants, respectively, and does not merge them into other phonemes.[4]

However, the dialects spoken by the tribes from the Karlani confederacy of Pashtuns are lexicologically different and very varied. Moreover, the Karlani dialects have a tendency towards a change in the pronunciation of vowels. Depending on the particular dialect, the standard Pashto [a], [ā], [o], [u] may change into [ā], [â/å/o], [ȯ/ȫ/e], [i], respectively.[5] In the Karlani dialects of Waziristan, Bannu, and Tani (southern Khost), which follow the vowel shift to the greatest extent, these four vowels normally change into [ā], [o], [e], [i], respectively.

The nine phonemes represented in the column headings below show key phonetic differences between the dialects. Five of them are consonants written in the Pashto alphabet, and four are vowels written in the Latin script; sounds are transcribed in the IPA:

Dialect Location ښ ږ څ ځ ژ a ā o u
Kandahari (or Southern)[2] Southern and western Afghanistan, including Kandahar [ʂ] [ʐ] [t͡s] [d͡z] [ʒ] [a] [ɑ] [o] [u]
Kakar (or Southeastern) Northern Balochistan, including Quetta [ʃ] [ʒ] [t͡s] [d͡z] [ʒ, z] [a] [ɑ] [o] [u]
Wanetsi[6] Harnai and Sinjawi [ʃ] [ʒ] [t͡s, t͡ʃ] [z, d͡ʒ] [z] [a] [ɑ] [o] [u]
Mandokhel-Shirani Shirani, Zhob, and Darazinda [ʃ] [ʒ] [t͡s] [z] [z] [a] [ɑ] [o] [u]
Marwat-Lodi-Bettani Lakki Marwat, Jandola, Tank, and northern Dera Ismail Khan [ʃ] [ʒ] [t͡ʃ] [d͡ʒ] [z] [a] [ɑ] [o] [u]
Khattak Karak, southern and eastern Kohat, and southwestern Nowshera [ʃ] [ʒ] [t͡s] [z] [ʒ] [ɑ] [ɔ] [ɤ] [u]
Banuchi Bannu [ʃ] [ʒ] [s] [z] [ʒ] [ɑ] [o] [e] [i]
Dawarwola Tochi in North Waziristan [ʃ] [ʒ] [t͡s, s] [z] [ʒ] [ɑ] [o] [e] [i]
Masidwola From Janimela, South Waziristan to Shuidar, North Waziristan [ʃ, ɕ] [ʒ, ʑ] [t͡ʃ] [d͡ʒ] [ʒ, ʑ] [ɑ] [o] [e] [i]
Wazirwola Darweshkhel (Wazir) areas in South and North Waziristan [ʃ, ɕ] [ʒ, ʑ] [t͡s, s] [z] [ʒ, ʑ] [ɑ] [o] [e] [i]
Taniwola Tani, Gurbuz, and Mandozayi, in southern Khost [x] [ɡ] [t͡s] [z] [ʒ] [ɑ] [o] [e] [i]
Khosti Central and northern Khost [x] [ɡ] [t͡s] [z] [ʒ] [ɑ] [ɒ] [ɵ] [u]
Zadran-Mangal The Zadran-Mangal Arc in eastern Loya Paktia [x] [g] [t͡s] [d͡z] [ʒ] [ɑ] [o] [o, e] [u, i]
Bangash-Orakzai-Turi-Zazi Kurram, Aryob, Zazi Maidan, Orakzai, Hangu, and northwestern Kohat [x] [ɡ] [t͡s] [z] [ʒ] [ɑ] [ɔ] [ɤ] [u]
Afridi Khyber and Darra Adamkhel [x] [ɡ] [t͡s] [z] [ʒ, d͡ʒ] [ɑ] [ɔ] [ɤ] [u]
Khogyani Khogyani, Sherzad, and Pachir aw Agam, in southwestern Nangarhar [x] [ɡ] [t͡s] [z] [ʒ] [ɑ] [ɒ] [ɵ] [u]
Wardak[2] Chak, Saydabad, Jaghatu, and Jilga, in southern Maidan Wardak [ç] [ʝ] [t͡s] [d͡z] [ʒ, z] [ɑ] [ɒ] [ɵ] [u]
Kharoti Urgun, Gomal, Barmal, Omna, Surobi, and Sar Hawza, in eastern Paktika [ç] [ʝ] [t͡s] [z] [ʒ, z] [a] [ɑ] [o] [u]
Central Ghilji (or Northwestern)[2] Central Ghilji region
(Kabul, northern Wardak, Ghazni, Gardez, etc.)
[ç] [ʝ] [t͡s] [z] [ʒ, z] [a] [ɑ] [o] [u]
Northern (or Eastern)[2] Eastern and northeastern Afghanistan, and northern FATA
(Jalalabad, Kunar, Kunduz, Bajaur, etc.)
[x] [ɡ] [t͡s] [z] [ʒ] [a] [ɑ] [o] [u]
Yusufzai (or Northeastern) Central, northern, and eastern Pakhtunkhwa
(Peshawar, Dir, Swat, Swabi, Mansehra, etc.)
[x] [ɡ] [s] [z] [d͡ʒ] [a] [ɑ] [o] [u]
  • Dialects belonging to the southern non-Karlani variety, the southern Karlani variety, the northern Karlani variety, and the northern non-Karlani variety, respectively, are color-coded.

Lexical comparison[edit]

English gloss Kandahari Kakar Wanetsi[6] Marwat Khattak Banuchi Wazirwola Taniwola Afridi Khogyani Wardak[2] Central Ghilji Northern Yusufzai Pashto lexeme
Pashto Paṣ̌to Pašto Pašto Pašto Pāštȫ Pāšte Pāšte Pāxte Pāxtȫ Pāxtȯ Pāx̌tȯ Pax̌to Puxto Puxto پښتو
four tsalor tsalor tsalor čalor tsālȫr sāler tsālwer tsāler tsālwȫr tsālȯr tsālȯr tsalor tsalor salor څلور
six špaẓ̌ špaž špož špaž špež špež špež špeg špeg špeg špeǵ špaǵ špag špag شپږ
woman ṣ̌ədza šədza šəza šəǰa šəzā šəzā šəzā xəzā xəzā x̌əzā x̌ədzā x̌ədza xəza xəza ښځه
father plār plār piyār plār plår plor plor plor plår plâr plâr plār plār plār پلار
many ḍer zyāt ḍer zyāt tsaṭ ḍer zyāt ḍer zyåt pirā zyot rəṭ zyot rəṭ zyot ḍer zyåt ḍer zyât ḍer zyât ḍer zyāt ḍer zyāt ḍer zyāt ډېر زيات
few ləẓ̌ ləž ləž ləž ləž ləški ləški ləg ləg ləg ləǵ ləǵ ləg ləg لږ
how tsənga tsənga tsona čərang tsərāng sərāng tsərāng tsərge tsərāng tsəngā tsəngā tsənga tsənga singa څنګه
who tsok tsok čok čok tsȫk sek tsek tsek tsȫk tsȯk tsȯk tsok tsok sok څوک
to drink čṣ̌əl čšəl ğwətang čšəl čšəl čšəl čšəl tsəxəl tsəxəl tsəxəl čx̌əl čx̌əl tskəl skəl څښل
foot pṣ̌a pša špa, ğədəi pša pšā pšā pšā pxā pxā pxā px̌ā px̌a pxa xpa پښه
we muẓ̌ muž moš muž muž miž miž mig mu mu muǵ muǵ mung mung موږ
my zmā zmā mā eğē emā emå emo emo emo emå emâ emâ zmā zəmā zamā زما
your stā stā tāğa etā etå eto eto eto etå etâ etâ stā stā stā ستا
girl nǰiləi nǰiləi čuwara ǰinkəi wȫṛkəi weṛkye weṛkye weṛkye wȫṛkye wȯṛkəi wȯṛkəi ǰiləi ǰinəi ǰinē نجلۍ
boy halək halək waṛīz, čorī kṛāčay wȫṛkāi weṛkā weṛkāi weṛkāi wȫṛkāi wȯṛkāi wȯṛkāi halək halək halək هلک
Sun lmar lmar mērə nmar merə stərgā myerə stərgā ğormə stərgā myerə stərgā merə stərgā lmerə stərgā lmer lmar nmar nwar لمر
egg hagəi hagəi hoya angəi wȫyā yeyā yeyā yeyā wȫyā ȯyā ȯyā hagəi hagəi, hā hagē, hā هګۍ
yes/no wo/ya wo/na wo/na ya/na ē/nā ē/nā yē/nā ē/nā wȯ/nā wȯ/nā wo/na wo/na ao/na هو\نه
home kor kor kor kor kȫr ker ker ker kȫlə kȯr kȯr kor kor kor کور
I am yəm yəm ī yəm yəm yəm yəm yəm yəm yəm yəm یم
I go dzəm dzəm drimī ǰəm tsəm tsə tsə tsəm tsəm tsəm dzəm zəm zəm ځم
tongue žəba zəba zbə zəba žəbā žəbā žəbā žəbā ǰəbā žəbā zəbā zəba žəba ǰəba ژبه
it exists sta sta sta sta štā štā štā štā štā štā stā sta šta šta شته
bear yiẓ̌ yiž yirž yiž yiž yiž yiž yig yig yig yiǵ yiǵ yig yig ايږ
ant meẓ̌ay mežay merža mežay mežāi mežāi mežāi megāi megāi megāi məǵātāi meǵay megay megē مېږی
English gloss Kandahari Kakar Wanetsi Marwat Khattak Banuchi Wazirwola Taniwola Afridi Khogyani Wardak Central Ghilji Northern Yusufzai Pashto lexeme

In general, the Karlani dialects, both in southern and northern varieties, show more vocabulary differences than the non-Karlani southern and northern dialects. However, the most distinctive of the Pashto dialects is Wanetsi. Although Wanetsi follows the normal phonetic rules of the southern dialects near it, it is still greatly different from them in lexicon:

Wanetsi Kandahari Translation
səl hundred
šwī šəl twenty
(a)ğa da of
tərža təẓ̌ay thirsty
tōw, tōwa tod, tawda hot
ğandəm ğanəm wheat
māst myāst month
atā atyā eighty
wžəndz ẓ̌mundz comb
sunzən stən needle
brēstəṇ bṛastən quilt
činostang kṣ̌enāstəl to sit down
wayang wayəl to say
ze kī zə kawəm I do

Examples of sentences showing the difference between Wanetsi and the regional standard Kandahari:[5]

Wanetsi Kandahari Translation
اندي وګوړي چي موښ پيار غه څټ لېژدي وي
indī waguṛī čī mōš piyār ğa tsaṭ lēždī wī
په دې کلي کې زموږ د پلار ډېر غويان وو
pə de kəli ke zmuẓ̌ da plār ḍer ğwayān wu
In this village our father had many bulls.
شمزې و خوارږه شوې مي دې غوزين
šamze o xwāržə šwe mī de ğōzīn
شلومبې او خواږه شوده هم چښي
šlombe aw xwāẓ̌ə šawdə ham čṣ̌i
[They] also drink buttermilk and sweet milk.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Language Family Trees. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Coyle, Dennis Walter (August 2014). "Placing Wardak among Pashto varieties" (PDF). University of North Dakota:UND. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  3. ^ Herbert Penzl. "Orthography and Phonemes in Pashto (Afghan)". Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 74, No. 2. (Apr. - Jun., 1954), pp. 74-81.
  4. ^ Michael M.T. Henderson, Four Varieties of Pashto
  5. ^ a b Morgenstierne, Georg (15 December 1983). "AFGHANISTAN vi. Paṧto". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 24 January 2015. 
  6. ^ a b Hallberg, Daniel G. 1992. Pashto, Waneci, Ormuri. Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 4.