Pashto dialects

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Pashto dialects (Pashto: د پښتو ګړدودونه da Pax̌to gəṛdodūna) can be divided into two main varieties, a "harsh" northern variety and a "soft" southern variety, whose dividing line passes through Zabul and Paktika provinces and then cuts right across the Durand line, the frontier between Afghanistan and Pakistan. The harsh "Pax̌to" is spoken in eastern and northeastern Afghanistan, central and northern Pakhtunkhwa and northern Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), and the soft "Paṣ̌to" south of it, in southern Afghanistan, north Balochistan, southern FATA and southern Pakhtunkhwa. The harsh variety is spoken by more Pashtuns. The SIL Ethnologue divides Pashto into four dialects: Northern, Central and Southern Pashto, and Waneci.[1]

Dialects[edit]

The differences between the main southern and northern dialects are primarily phonological and there are simple conversion rules.[2] The morphological differences between them are very few and unimportant. However, the east-central dialects, from Afridi and Wardaki to Zadrani and Wazirwola, are lexicologically different and very varied, and moreover, they have a tendency towards a change in the pronunciation of vowels. In the east-central dialects of Tani (southern Khost), Waziristan and Bannu which follow the vowel shift most radically, standard Pashto [a], [ɑ], [u], [o] change to [ɑ], [o], [i], [e], respectively. In Balochistan, the Waneci dialect is so divergent that it may even be considered a separate language which branched off from Pashto in the early Middle Iranian stage.[3] The southern dialect of Kandahar is the most conservative with regards to phonology, retaining the retroflex fricatives and the alveolar affricates, which have not merged with other phonemes.[4]

One of the primary features of the dialects is the difference in the pronunciation of these seven phonemes represented in the column headings below (five of them are consonants written in the Pashto alphabet, and two are vowels written in the Latin script); sounds are transcribed in the IPA:

Dialect Location ښ ږ څ ځ ژ Ā U
Southern Southern Afghanistan, including Kandahar [ʂ] [ʐ] [t͡s] [d͡z] [ʒ] [ɑ] [u]
Southeastern Northern Balochistan, including Quetta [ʃ] [ʒ] [t͡s] [d͡z] [ʒ] [ɑ] [u]
Waneci Harnai and Sinjawi [ʃ] [ʒ] [t͡s, t͡ʃ] [d͡z, d͡ʒ] [ʒ, z] [ɑ] [u]
Marwat Lakki Marwat [ʃ] [ʒ] [t͡ʃ] [d͡ʒ] [ʒ] [ɑ] [u]
Khattak Karak [ʃ] [ʒ] [t͡s] [z] [ʒ] [o] [u]
Bannuchi Bannu [ʃ] [ʒ] [s] [z] [ʒ] [o] [i]
Wazirwola Waziristan [ɕ, ʃ] [ʑ, ʒ] [t͡s] [z] [ʑ, ʒ] [o, u] [i]
Tani Tani, southern Khost [ç] [ɡ] [s] [z] [ʒ] [o] [i]
Khosti Northern and eastern Khost [ç] [ɡ] [t͡s] [t͡s] [ʒ] [o] [u]
Zadran Zadran area of eastern Loya Paktia [ç] [ʝ] [t͡s] [d͡z] [ʒ] [o] [u, i]
Afridi Khyber [x] [ɡ] [t͡s] [z] [d͡ʒ] [o] [u]
Bangash-Turi Kurram, Hangu, Orakzai and Kohat [x] [ɡ] [t͡s] [z] [d͡ʒ] [ɒ] [u]
Northwestern Ghazni and Logar [ç] [ɡ] [t͡s] [d͡z] [ʒ] [ɑ] [u]
Wardak Southern Wardak [ç] [ʝ] [t͡s] [d͡z] [ʒ] [ɒ] [u]
Central Central Ghilzai areas [ç] [ʝ] [t͡s] [z] [ʒ] [ɑ] [u]
Northern Eastern and northeastern Afghanistan [x] [ɡ] [t͡s] [z] [ʒ] [ɑ] [u]
Northeastern Central and northern Pakhtunkhwa, and northern FATA. (including Peshawar,Dir,Swat,etc) [x] [ɡ] [s] [z] [d͡ʒ] [ɑ] [u]

Phonological and lexicological differences[edit]

English gloss Kandahar Quetta Harnai[3] Bannu Miramshah Tani Tirah Maidan Maidan Shar Kabul Peshawar
Pashto Paṣ̌to Pašto Pašto Pāštē Pāštē Pāx̌tē Pāxto Pax̌to Pəxto Puxto
four tsalor tsalor čalər/tsaler sālēr tsālwēr tsālēr tsālwor tsalor tsalor salor
six špaẓ̌ špaž špož špēž špēž špēg špēg špaγ̌ špag špag
how tsənga tsənga tsona sərāng tsərāng tsərgē tsərāng tsənga tsənga singa
we muẓ̌ muž moš miž miž mig mu muγ̌ mung mung
my zmā zmā mā eghē ēmo ēmo ēmo ēmo zmâ zəmā zamā
your stā stā tāgha ēto ēto ēto ēto stâ stā stā
boy halək halək waṛīz, čorī wēṛkā wēṛkai wēṛkai wēṛkai halək halək halək
girl nǰiləi nǰiləi čuwara wēṛkyē ǰəlkiyē ǰəlkiyē wēṛkyē ǰiləi ǰinəi ǰinē
foot pṣ̌a pša špa, ghədəi pšā pšā px̌ā pxā px̌a pxa xpa
Sun lmar lmar mērə myērə stərgā ghormə stərgā myērə stərgā myērə stərgā lmar nmar nwar
who tsok tsok čok sēk tsēk tsēk tsok tsok tsok sok
many ḍēr zyāt ḍēr zyāt tsaṭ pirā zyot rəṭ zyot rəṭ zyot ḍēr zyot ḍēr zyât ḍēr zyāt ḍēr zyāt
little ləẓ̌ ləž ləž ləški ləški ləg ləg ləγ̌ ləg ləg
to drink čṣ̌əl čšəl ghwətəl čšəl čšəl tsəx̌əl tsəxəl tsəx̌əl tskəl skəl
egg hagəi hagəi hoya yēya yēya yēya woya hagəi hagəi/hā hagē/hā
yes wo wo wo ēh ēh ēh ēh wo wo ao
I am yəm yəm ī yəm yəm yəm yəm yəm
I go dzəm dzəm drimī sə, drimə tsə, drimə tsəm, driməm tsəm, druməm dzəm, druməm zəm zəm
tongue žəba žəba zbə žəbā žəbā žəbā ǰəba žəba žəba ǰəba
home kor kor kor kēr kēr kēr kolə kor kor kor
it exists sta sta sta štā štā štā štā sta šta šta
bear yiẓ̌ yiž yirz yiž yiž yig yig yiγ̌ yig yig
father plār plār piyār plor plor plor plor plâr plār plār
English gloss Kandahar Quetta Harnai Bannu Miramshah Tani Tirah Maidan Maidan Shar Kabul Peshawar

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Language Family Trees. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International.
  2. ^ Herbert Penzl. "Orthography and Phonemes in Pashto (Afghan)". Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 74, No. 2. (Apr. - Jun., 1954), pp. 74-81.
  3. ^ a b Hallberg, Daniel G. 1992. Pashto, Waneci, Ormuri. Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 4.
  4. ^ Michael M.T. Henderson, Four Varieties of Pashto