Pashto grammar

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Pashto is a S-O-V language with split ergativity. Adjectives come before nouns. Nouns and adjectives are inflected for gender (masc./fem.), number (sing./plur.), and case (direct, oblique I, oblique II and vocative). The verb system is very intricate with the following tenses: present; subjunctive; simple past; past progressive; present perfect; and past perfect. In any of the past tenses (simple past, past progressive, present perfect, past perfect), Pashto is an ergative language; i.e., transitive verbs in any of the past tenses agree with the object of the sentence. The dialects show some non-standard grammatical features, some of which are archaisms or descendants of old forms that are discarded by the literary language.

Pronouns[edit]

Personal pronouns[edit]

Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd (visible) 3rd (invis.) 1st 2nd 3rd (visible) 3rd (invis.)
Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem.
(English) I you (sing.) he she he (invis.) she (invis.) we you (plur.) they they (invis.)
Direct زه
ته
دی
dai
دا
هغه
hağa
موږ\مونږ
mūẓ̌/mūng
تاسو\تاسی
tāsō/tase[1][2]
دوی
dūy
هغوی
hağūy
Indirect ما
تا
دۀ
دې
هغۀ
hağə
هغې
hağē

Demonstrative pronouns[edit]

دغه dağa (this)

Direct دغه
dağa
Indirect دې

هغه hağa (that)

Singular Plural
Masc. Fem.
Direct هغه
hağa
Indirect هغۀ
hağə
هغې
hağē
هغو
hağō

Possessive pronouns[edit]

Independent forms

Person Singular Plural
1st زما
zamā
زموږ\زمونږ
zamūẓ̌/zamūng[1]
2nd ستا
stā
ستاسو
stāsō
3rd (visible) د دۀ
da də (masc.)

د دې
da dē (fem.)

د دوی
da dūy
3rd (invis.) د هغۀ
da hağə (masc.)

د هغې
da hağē (fem.)

د هغوی
da hağūy

Enclitic forms

Person Singular Plural
1st ـمې
-mē, -mī
ـمو
-mō, -mū
2nd ـدې
-dē, -dī
ـمو
-mō, -mū[1]
3rd ـیې
-yē

Interrogative pronouns[edit]

(English) who whose
Direct څوک
t͡sōk
د چا
da čā
Indirect چا
čā

Nouns[edit]

Case[edit]

Pashto inflects nouns into four grammatical cases: direct, oblique I, oblique II and vocative. The oblique I case is used as prepositional case as well as in the past tense as the subject of transitive verbs, and the oblique II case is used as ablative case.

The following table shows the declension of the masculine noun غر (ğar, meaning "mountain"):

Singular Plural
Direct غر
ğar
غرونه
ğrūna
Oblique I غرۀ
ğrə
غرونو
ğrūnō
Oblique II غره
ğara
غرونو
ğrūnō
Vocative غره
ğra
غرونو
ğrūnō

The following table shows the declension of سړی (saṛai, meaning "man"), a masculine noun with ending "ai":

Singular Plural
Direct سړی
saṛai
سړي
saṛi
Oblique I سړي
saṛi
سړيو
saṛəyō
Oblique II سړيه
saṛəya
سړيو
saṛəyō
Vocative سړيه
saṛəya
سړيو
saṛəyō

The following table shows the declension of ښځه (ṣ̌ədza, meaning "woman"), a feminine noun with ending "a":

Singular Plural
Direct ښځه
ṣ̌əd͡za
ښځې
ṣ̌əd͡zē
Oblique I ښځې
ṣ̌əd͡zē
ښځو
ṣ̌əd͡zō
Oblique II ښځې
ṣ̌əd͡zē
ښځو
ṣ̌əd͡zō
Vocative ښځې
ṣ̌əd͡zē
ښځو
ṣ̌əd͡zō

The following table shows the declension of the feminine noun ورځ (wradz, meaning "day"):

Singular Plural
Direct ورځ
wrad͡z
ورځې
wradzē
Oblique I ورځ
wrad͡z
ورځو
wradzō
Oblique II ورځه
wrad͡za
ورځو
wradzō
Vocative ورځې
wrad͡zē
ورځو
wradzō

Gender[edit]

There are two genders: masculine and feminine.

Number[edit]

There are two numbers: singular and plural.

Definiteness[edit]

There is no definite article. But when necessary, definiteness may be indicated by other means such as demonstratives. Likewise, it may be contraindicated by use of the word for "one", يو; as in "يو روغتون" - "a hospital".

Adjectives[edit]

The adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in gender, number, and case.

Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5
Masculine Singular Direct - -ay
Oblique II -a -aya -i
Vocative -e
Oblique I - -i
Plural Direct
Oblique/Vocative -o -io/-o -yo/-o
Feminine Singular Direct -a -əy -e
Oblique II
Vocative -e
Oblique I
Plural Direct
Oblique/Vocative -o -əyo/-o -yo/-o

Notes:

  • In the plural, both obliques and the vocative merge into a single form.
  • Singular Oblique I and plural Direct always merge into a single form.
  • The above two conditions mean that there can be at most five distinct forms for masculine adjectives (but in fact, no class distinguishes more than four).
  • For feminine adjectives, singular Oblique I and Vocative merge, while singular Direct and Oblique II merge; combined with mergers noted previously, there can be at most three distinct forms for feminine adjectives.
  • Classes 2 and 3 have stem and stress alternations among different cases. Class 3 has a basic distinction between the masculine singular Direct, Oblique II and Vocative, with stem stress, and all other forms, with a (sometimes) different stem and with ending stress (e.g. masc. trīx, fem. traxá "bitter"; masc. sūr, fem. srá "red"; masc. sōṛ, fem. saṛá "cold"; fem. raṇā' "light" with only one stem). Class 2 has the same stress alternation, but has three distinct stems, with stressed stem vowel 'o' or 'u' in masculine singular Direct, Oblique II and Vocative, unstressed stem vowel 'ā' in masculine singular Oblique I and plural Direct, and unstressed stem vowel 'a' in all other forms (e.g. masc. sing. pōx, masc. plur. pāxǝ́, fem. paxá "ripe, cooked").

Affixes[edit]

In a Pashto an affix is called تاړی [tāṛay]. An affix isn addition to the base form or stem of a word in order to modify its meaning or create a new word.

Prefixes[edit]

These are attached at the beginning of words. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Prefix Meaning
يبي this has the same meaning as Latin super-. It means the new word is "above, over or superior" to the root
نا a negative prefix to nouns or particles having the same meaning as English "un, in, dis, non" etc
بې this means "without". When prefixed to words it is equivalent to the English "dis, less" etc
بيا this means again. When prefixed to words it is equivalent to English "re"
هم this means same, equivalent. When prefixed with the word it is equivalent to the English "co and homo"
ګڼ this means crowed and numerous. When prefixed with the word it is equivalent to the English "multi"
دوه this means two. When prefixed with the word it is equivalent to the English "bi"

A list of Examples:

Word English Meaning Prefixed Word English Meaning
يبي
ībī
اتل hero يبي اتل superhero
نا
وړ suitable ناوړ unsuitable
بې
کور home بې کوره homeless
بيا
byā
جوړول to make بيا جوړول to remake
هم
ham
[زولی [نارينه]، زولې [ښځينه age همزولی، همزولې coeval
ګڼ
gəṇ
هېواديز national ګڼ هېواديز multinational
دوه
dwə
نوږي پال noẓ̌ī= gender, pāl = cherisher suffix دوه نوږي پال bisexual [masc. noun]

Suffixes[edit]

These are attached at the end of a word. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Prefix Meaning
توب this is affixed to nouns and adjectives to form masculine concept/abstract nouns.
تیا this is affixed to nouns and adjectives to form feminine concept/abstract nouns.
ي this is affixed to noun to make adjectives.
ي a suffix also used to create nouns of profession.
يز [masculine]
يزه [feminine]
adjectival suffix. Used to make adjectives from nouns.
من suffix that forms nouns and adjectives that mean possessing a quality or object
ور an adjective forming suffix to show endowment/possession.
ښت this is affixed to root words to create masculine concept/abstract nouns.
ګلوي this is affixed to nouns to form feminine concept/abstract nouns mostly to do with association e.g پیژند ګلوي, پلار ګلوي etc
والی this is affixed to nouns and adjectives to form masculine concept/abstract nouns.
ولي this is affixed to nouns and adjectives to form feminine concept/abstract nouns.
ځی this makes nouns denoting place of the action
نه this is the most common suffix used to makes nouns from verb. The new suffixed word has feminine gender.
ون less frequently used than نه. This also creates nouns from verbs
ونکی [masculine]
ونکې [feminine]
The verb's or the compound-verb's ل is dropped and this suffix is added to create an agent noun showing that the noun is the doer of the action [example: جوړول to make - جوړوونکی - maker].
اک this is used to make only two nouns [خوراک and څښاک] denoting consumable noun. Like Japanese particle もの.
تون used to create nouns of place. Meaning the "(main) place of"
پال [masculine]
پاله [feminine]
means someone is the cherisher/nourisher of the word attached. It is like Farsi پرست but unlike پرست only used for agentive nouns not as an adjective.
پالنه makes concept/abstract nouns showing the root's cherishing/fostering. Like Farsi پرستي
واکي makes nouns which signify "mastery of", "rule of" or "endowment with in quality" with the root word. Related to word واک [authority].
وال makes nouns showing that noun is a resident of that place, is engaged in the activity indicated in the root word, possessor of the root word. Like English suffix "er", "or" and "ist".
ګر used to form an actor noun. Denoting maker, doer, worker etc of the root.
چي a agent-noun suffix borrowed from Ottoman Turkish. Only used with borrowed words.
ګوټی a diminutive suffix. Example مېز [table] - مېزګوټی [small table].
وزمه suffix to indicate something is like/similar to the root word but not that word. Also used to denote shades of colour.
ګنۍ suffix for nouns expressing kinship/relationships
وړ [masculine]
وړه [feminine]
this is used exactly as the English -able. Forms adjectives meaning fit/able to be done or suitable to.
يالی [masculine]
يالۍ [feminine]
forms adjectives from nouns. The adjective shows a quality that can be possessed.
غاړی [masculine]
غاړې [feminine]
forms actor/agent nouns that have to do with an art/skill [example: لوبغاړی, سندرغاړی]. Also used to create adjective/nouns related to the throat [غاړه] such as بوږغاړی [harsh sounding]
چک an adjectival suffix showing that the new word is "somewhat" like the root word. Similar to "ish" suffix in English.
ډله this means group. It can be used as suffix to denote team, group, company etc
هار according to Z. A. Pashtoon: "suffix used to form onomatopoeic words indicating the repetition or intensification of a sound". According to H. G. Raverty: a suffix "affixed to nouns signifying sound of any kind, in forming the plural".

A list of Examples:

Word English Meaning Prefixed Word English Meaning
توب
tōb
بربنډ nude بربنډتوب nudeness/nudity
تیا
tyā
روغ healthy روغتيا health
ي
ī
ولس nation ولسي national
ي
ī
ترکاڼ carpenter ترکاڼي carpentry
يز/يزه
īz/īza
وټه economy وټيز
وټيزه
economic
من
man
ځاځ anger ځاځمن angry
ور
war
ګټه profit ګټور advantageous
ښت
aṣ̌t
جوړ made/built جوړښت structure
ګلوي
galwī
پلار father پلارګلوي paternity
والی
wālay
اوږد long اوږدوالی length/height
ولي
walī
ورور brother ورورولي brotherhood
ځی
d͡zay
ښوول to teach ښونځی school
نه
na
غوښتل to demand غوښتنه demand
ون
ūn
بدلول to change بدلون change
ونکی /ونکې
ūnkay/ūnkē
شنل to analyse شنونکی
شنونکې
analyst
اک
āk
څښل
خوړل
to drink
to eat
څښاک
خوراک
drink
food
تون
tūn
پوهنه knowledge پوهنتون university
پال/پاله
pāl/pāla
مېلمه guest مېلمه پال
مېلمه پاله
host
پالنه
pālana
هېواد country هېواد پالنه nationalism
واکي
wākī
خپل self خپلواکي independence
واکي
wākī
پلار father پلارواکي patriarchy
وال
wāl
ليک writing ليکوال writer
ګر
gar
کوډه magic کوډګر magician
چي
chī
توپ cannon توپچي cannoneer
ګوټی
goṭay
کتاب book کتاب ګوټی booklet
وزمه
wazma
هګۍ egg هګۍ وزمه ovate
ګنۍ
ganai
پلار
مور
father
mother
پلارګنۍ
مورګنۍ
paternal-family
maternal-family
وړ/وړه
waṛ/waṛa
غو sex غووړ
غووړه
worthy of having sex with
وړ/وړه
waṛ/waṛa
کار work کاروړ
کاروړه
workable
يالۍ /يالی
yālay/yālai
ننګ honor ننګيالی
ننګيالۍ
honorable
غاړې /غاړی
ğāṛay/ğāṛe
سندر song سندرغاړی
سندرغاړې
singer
چک
cak
سپين white سپين چک whitish
ډله
ḍala
لوب root word of
play
لوبډله team (sports)
هار
hār
پړک slap/clap پړکهار clapping/sounds of claps

Verbs[edit]

Present tense of يم (yəm) "to be":

Person Singular Plural
1st زه يم
zə yəm

زه يمه
zə yəma

موږ يو
mūẓ̌ yū
2nd ته يې
tə yē
تاسو يئ \ ياست
tāsō yəi
(in Western dialect - yāst)[1][3]
3rd دی دی
dai dəi[1]

دا ده
dā da

دوی دي
dūy di

Past tense of يم (yəm) "to be":

Person Singular Plural
1st زه وم
zə wəm

زه ومه
zə wəma

موږ وو
mūẓ̌ wū
2nd ته وې
tə wē
تاسو وئ\واست
tāsō wəi
(in Western dialect - wāst)[1]
3rd (masc.) دی ؤ
dai wō
دوی وو\ول
dūy wū
(in Western dialect - wəl)[2][3]
3rd (fem.) دا وه
dā wa
دوی وې
dūy wē

Infinitive[edit]

This is called Kaṛnūmay [کړنومی] in Pashto that is “the name of a verb”. It shows an infinite action or occurrence. In Pashto the verb acquires the gender and number of a masculine plural noun. They are formed from the verbal root [کړريښه] and end with the verbal suffix: ل. Example:

هغوی په خپلو کې وهل وکړل

Hağūy [Hağwī] pa xpəlō kē wahal wəkṛəl(okṛəl)

Literally: They in themselves in "to beat" done

Meaning: They have fought amongst themselves

The verb وکړل [past tense of verb کړل - perfective state of "to do"] shows agreement with masculine plural object that is the infinitive وهل.

Type of Infinitives[edit]

There are various types of infinitives.

Simple Infinitives[edit]

They are in there morpheme state. Examples: تلل [to go], وتل [to go out], ګرځېدل [to walk], ګرځول [to make someone/thing walk] etc.

Prefixed Infinitives[edit]

These are formed by attaching a prefix to the simple infinitive. These prefixes are usually directional/locative in nature. Examples:
1. را + تلل = راتلل
Rā [locative towards speaker] + Tləl [to go] = Rātləl [to come]
2. ور+ کول = ورکول
War [locative towards third party] + Kawal [to do] = Wərkəwəl [to give]

Compound Infinitives[edit]

There are two categories of compound infinitives. There are also some exceptions to these.

First Category[edit]

These are formed by adding ول [from کول] and ېدل [from کېدل] verbal-suffixes to nouns, adjectives or adverbs. The attaching noun, adjective and adverb should not end in a vowel. Example:
ښخ [buried, adjective] - ښخول [to bury, verb]

Second Category[edit]

These are formed adding auxiliary verbs کول and کېدل to the noun and adjectives. The attaching noun and adjective end in a vowel.Examples:
1. پوښتنه [question, noun] - پوښتنه کول [to question, verb]
2. لېشه [seductive, adjective] - لېشه کېدل [to become seduced, verb]

Exceptions[edit]

There are also exception to the attachment of auxiliary verbs on the basis of vowel endings. Example: سوچ کول etc.

Phrasal Infinitives[edit]

This is done by adding words with infinitives to make a metaphoric meaning.

Examples Literal Meaning
توره کول to do sword to perform a brave act
تڼۍ شلول to tear button(s) to toil/endeavour
Double Infinitives[edit]

These are formed by combining two infinitives.
Either by combining a Simple Infinitive with a Prefixed Infinitive.

Simple Infinitive Prefixed Infinitive Double Infinitive
تلل [going] راتلل [coming] تلل راتلل [coming and going]
ګرځېدل [to walk/wallking] راګرځېدل [to repass] ګرځېدل راګرځېدل [walking about]


Or either by combining two Simple Infinitives.

Simple Infinitive 1 Simple Infinitive 2 Double Infinitive
خوړل [eating] څښل [drinking] خوړل څښل [eating drinking]
وهل [beating/hitting] ټکول [knocking] وهل ټکول [beating]

Prepositions and Postpositions[edit]

Pashto has pre-positions, post-positions and pre-post-positions.

Prepositions[edit]

There are two Preposition in Pashto:
1. د [də] meaning "of"
2. په [pa] meaning "with" and "at"

Example Transliteration Literal Meaning
د ابرهيم لاس Də Ibrahim lās Of Ibrahim hand Ibrahim's hand
ابرهيم په چاړې پړی پرې کړ Ibrahim pa cāṛe paṛay pre kaṛ [ko] Ibrahim with knife rope cut [past-tense کړل] Ibrahim cut the rope with a knife
په دوه بجې Pa dwa baje At 2 o'clock At 2 o'clock

Postpositions[edit]

In Pashto there is the dative post-position: ته.

Example Transliteration Literal Meaning
کور ته ځم Kor ta d͡zam House to (i) am-going I am going to the house

Ambipositions[edit]

Pashto uses a significant amount of ambipositions. These usually have two elements, with the noun object positioned between the two elements.

The firs element is likely to be ones of these four elements:

Pashto Transliteration
په
له
تر tər

The second element is likely to be one of these words:

Pashto Transliteration
لاندې lāndē
پسې pəsē
نه na
پورې porē
سره səra
کې
باندې bāndē
څخه t͡səxa

Here is a list of the most common formations:

Pashto Meaning Example Example's meaning
په ... کې in, at په سيند کې in the river
په ... پسې after په ما پسې after me
په ... باندې on, upon په مېز باندې on the table
له ... سره with له ابرهيم سره with Ibrahim
تر ... لاندې under تر مېز لاندې under the table
له ... څخه from له ابرهيم څخه from Ibrahim
له ... نه from له ابرهيم نه from Ibrahim
د ... نه from د ابرهيم نه from Ibrahim
تر ... پورې till تر پېښور پورې till Peshawar
تر ... وروستو after تر خوراک وروستو after food

In colloquial Pashto, the word له is dropped from نه and سره.

Formal Pashto Colloquial Pashto
ابرهيم نه له ابرهيم نه
ابرهيم سره له ابرهيم سره

The first element must be dropped when the object of the pre-position is a weak pronoun. Examples:

Example Sentence Meaning
ابرهيم ور سره ځي Ibrahim is going with him/her
چاړه مې در نه واخس I took the knife from you
ليک ور باندې ايښی دی The letter is on it

Phrases[edit]

A number of common phrases translate into English prepositional phrases, which in Pashto consist of combinations of prepositional phrases and additional words.

Some Examples:

Components Phrase Meaning Sentence Meaning
له..نه + پخوا
From+Before
له .. نه پخوا before له تا نه پخوا راغله She came (here) before you
له...نه+ بهرر
From+Outside
له ... نه بهر outside له ور نه بهر ولاړ و He was standing outside the door

In phrases that start with the possessive phrase د [də] plus noun, the possessive phrase [də/د] can be substituted for with a weak possessive pronouns. Examples:

Meaning Sentence where د not dropped' Meaning Sentence with weak possessive pronouns Meaning
د ... په اړه
də pə aṛa
about[note 1] د ابرهيم په اړه يې څه ووی What did he say about Ibrahim زما په اړه يې څه ووی What did he say about me
د ... په شان
də pə šān
like د سپوږمۍ په شان ښځه غواړم I want a wife like the moon ستا په شان ښځه غواړم I want a wife like you

Conjunctions[edit]

Pashto utilises conjunctions. These are used as adverbs. Example:

Conjunction Transliteration Literal Meaning English Approximate
هيڅ کله نه hīt͡s kala na nothing when no never, at no time
که هر څنګه ka har t͡sanga if ever how howsoever, in whatever way
راځه چې rād͡za che come that (come) let's
تر اوسه پورې tar osa pore till now upto/till so far, as yet, up till now
تر دغه پورې tar dağ pore till this till as far as this
تر کله پورې tar kala pore till when till till when?, how long?
تر کمه پورې tar kama pore till where till how far, to where

Pashto and Borrowings[edit]

Pashto speakers in contemporary times have borrowed a lot of Persian and Persianised-Arabic[4] words although Pashto equivalents for these words do exist; seeing this there is a growing movement to use Soocha Pashto words instead of foreign borrowings to save the language.[5][6]

Here is a small list of Pashto words and words used in daily speech that is not pure or Soocha Pashto:

Pashto Farsi Arabic
هيله
hīla
اميد
umīd
اړتيا
aṛtyā
ضرورت
zarūrat
تود/توده
tod/tawda
گرم
garm
نړۍ
naṛai
دنيا
dunyā

Borrowed Phonology[edit]

The sounds /q/, /f/ are non-native Pashto sounds borrowed from Arabic and Farsi. The phonemes /q/, /f/ tend to be replaced by [k], [p].[7]

Greeting Phrases[edit]

Greeting Pashto Transliteration Literal Meaning
Hello ستړی مه شی stəṛay ma shay May you not be tired [said to a man]
ستړې مه شې stəṛe ma she May you not be tired [said to a woman]
ستړي مه شئ stəṛī ma shəi May you not be tired [said to people]
Thank You مننه mənəna Acceptance [from the verb منل]
Good Bye په مخه دې ښه pa məkha de x̌ə On your front be good
Good Bye خدای پامان xudai pa amān From: خدای په امان [With/On God's mercy]
Hello په خير راغلی pa xəir rāğlay With blessing (you) came [said to a man]
په خير راغلې pa xəir rāğle With blessing (you) came [said to a woman]

Numbers[edit]

Cardinal Numbers (direct case, masc.)[8]

Pashto Pronunciation
نشت nasht 0
یو yav, yo 1
دوه dva 2
درې dre 3
څلور tsalor 4
پنځه pindzə 5
شپږ špəg 6
اووه ovə 7
اته atə 8
نه، نهه nə, nəha 9
لس las 10
یوولس yavolas 11
دوولس dvolas 12
دیرلس dyārlas 13
څوارلس، څورلس tsvarlas, tsvārlas 14
پنځلس pindzəlas 15
شپاړس špāṛas 16
اووه‌لس ovəlas 17
اته‌لس atəlas 18
نونس, نورلس nunas, nurlas 19
شل šəl 20
یوویشت yavvišt 21
دوه‌ویشت dvavišt 22
درویشت dərvišt 23
څلېرویشت tsalervišt 24
پنځه‌ویشت pindzəvišt 25
شپږویشت špagvišt 26
اوه‌ویشت ovəvišt 27
اته‌ویشت atəvišt 28
نه‌ویشت nəvišt 29
دېرش derš 30
یودېرش yavderš 31
دودېرش dvaderš 32
دریدېرش drederš 33
څلوردېرش tsalorderš 34
پنځه‌دېرش pindzəderš 35
شپوږدېرش špugderš 36
اوه‌دېرش ovəderš 37
اته‌دېرش atəderš 38
نه‌دېرش nəderš 39
څلوېښت tsalvešt 40
پنځوس pindzos 50
شپېته špetə 60
اویا avya 70
اتیا atya 80
نوي nvi, nəvi 90
سل səl 100
یوسلویو yav səlo yav 101
یوسلودوه yav səlo dva 102
یوسلوشل yav səlo šəl 120
دوه‌سوه dva sava 200
دوه سوه او لس dva sava aw las 210
درې سوه dre sava 300
زر zər 1000
یوزرویو yav zəro yav 1001
یوزرودوه‌سوه اوپنځه‌دېرش yav zəro dva sava aw pindzəderš 1235
لک lak 100 000
ملیون milyon 1 000 000
کروړ kroṛ 10 000 000
ملیارد milyard 1 000 000 000

Ordinal Numbers (direct case, masc., sing.)

  • 1st لومړی lumṛai
  • 2nd دويم dwaim
  • 3rd دريم drəyam
  • 4th څلورم t͡saloram
  • 5th پنځم pind͡zam
  • 6th شپږم špaẓ̌am
  • 7th اووم ūwam
  • 8th اتم atam
  • 9th نهم nəham
  • 10th لسم lasam

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ په بارې کې [pə bārē kē] is also used but this is not Pashto and is a word-for-word borrowing from Hindi/Urdu के बारे में/کے بارے میں [kē bārē mēⁿ]. The Hindi word bārē [बारे/بارے] is itself Farsi در بارهٔ [dar bāraye\dar bāreye]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Лебедев К. А. Афганистан: Язык, литература, этнография. — Москва : "Муравей", 2003.
  2. ^ a b PASHTO LANGUAGE: SOLVING THE MYSTERIES OF THE PAST TENSE
  3. ^ a b Short Summary of Pashto Grammar
  4. ^ John R. Perry, "Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic" in Éva Ágnes Csató, Eva Agnes Csato, Bo Isaksson, Carina Jahani, Linguistic convergence and areal diffusion: case studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, Routledge, 2005. pg 97: "It is generally understood that the bulk of the Arabic vocabulary in the central, contiguous Iranian, Turkic and Indic languages was originally borrowed into literary Persian between the ninth and thirteenth centuries"
  5. ^ Ehsan M Entezar (2008). "Afghanistan 101: Understanding Afghan Culture". Xlibris Corporation. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-4257-9302-9. 
  6. ^ Pashto Purification, Pashto Purification Organisation
  7. ^ Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara (1996). A Reference Grammar of Pashto. Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics. p. 15. 
  8. ^ M A Zyar (2012). Pashto Dictionary (Neologisms) (2 ed.). Peshawar: Danish Press. p. 363. 

External links[edit]