Passive radiator (speaker)
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A speaker enclosure using a passive radiator usually contains an "active driver" (or main driver), and a passive radiator (also known as a "drone cone"). The active driver is a regular driver, and the passive is typically the same or similar, but without a voice coil and magnet assembly. It is only a suspended cone, not attached to a voice coil or electrical circuit. The passive radiator usually has some means to adjust its mass, thereby allowing the speaker designer to change the box tuning. Internal air pressure produced by movements of the active driver cone moves the passive radiator cone as well.
Passive radiators are used instead of a reflex port for much the same reasons—to tune the frequency response, particularly in small volume enclosures and when small diameter drivers are used, for better low frequency performance. Especially in situations in which a port would be inconveniently sized (usually too long for practical box configurations). They are also used to eliminate port turbulence and reduce motion compression caused by high velocity airflow in small ports (especially small diameter ones). Passive radiators are tuned by mass variations (Mmp), changing the way their compliance interacts with motion of the air in the box. The weight of the cone of the passive radiator should be approximately equivalent to the mass of the air that would have filled the port which might have been used for that design. Passive radiators do not behave exactly as their equivalent bass-reflex designs in that they cause a notch in system frequency response at the PR's free air resonant frequency; this causes a steeper roll-off below the system's tuned frequency Fb, and poorer transient response. Due to the lack of vent turbulence and vent pipe resonances, many prefer the sound of PRs to reflex ports. PR speakers, however, are more complex to design and likely to be more expensive as compared to standard reflex enclosures.
The frequency response of a passive radiator will be similar to that of a ported cabinet, with two exceptions. The system low frequency roll-off in a passive radiator design will be slightly steeper, and will have a notch (dip) in frequency response due to the Vas (compliance, or stiffness of the speaker cone) of the passive radiator. The goal in designing a passive radiator is to adjust the tuning so that this notch is below audible levels.