|Music for Holidays|
Songs before the meal
Songs before the meal include:
- The Seder (Kadesh Urchatz): a table of contents of the seder ceremony, naming the 15 sections of the seder.
- Kiddush: The Kiddush is traditionally sung to a special melody used only on the Three Pilgrimage Festivals.
- Ma Nishtana: The Four Questions are traditionally asked by the youngest child at the table who is able.
- Avadim Hayinu: A single sentence stating, "We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt—now we are free."
- Vehi Sheamda: In every generation arises those who would destroy us, but the holy one saves us from their hands.
- Dayenu: It would have been enough for us.
- B'tzeit Yisrael: When Israel went forth from Egypt, the house of Jacob from barbarous people.
- Ma Lecha Hayam: A poetic description of the sea turning back, mountains skipping like rams, the hills like lambs.
"Ma Nishtanah" (the "Four Questions") is the four questions sung at the Passover seder by the youngest child at the table who is able. The questions are asked as part of the haggadah, after the Yachatz (יחץ), as part of the Maggid (מגיד).
"Dayenu" is a Hebrew song, traditionally sung during the celebration of Passover. The word itself essentially means "It would have been enough for us." "Day" is the Hebrew word for "enough" and the suffix "enu" means "our".
The song goes through a series of gifts believed granted by God to the Israelites (such as Torah or Shabbat), proclaiming that any of them alone would have been sufficient, to express greater appreciation for them as a whole.
It is 15 verses long, sequentially recounting each divine intervention in the story of the Exodus. After each divine act, the chorus "(if God had done only this) it would have been enough for us" is sung.
Songs after the meal
"Eliyahu HaNavi" (Elijah the Prophet) entreats the prophet Elijah, an invited guest at the Passover meal, to return soon with the messiah. This song is also part of the traditional Saturday night Havdalah service.
Bim'hera v'yameinu yavoh eleinu,
In haste and in our days may he come to us
This is often sung at the opening of the door for Elijah, upon pouring the fourth cup.
Songs of the Nirtzah
The following are traditionally sung in the Nirtzah, the last of the 15 sections of the seder, devoted almost exclusively to singing.
"L'Shana haba'ah bi'Yerushalayim": The whole line means "Next year in Jerusalem!"
Ki Lo Naeh
Ki Lo Naeh: The verses of this song of praises are in order of the Hebrew alphabet.
"Adir Hu" (Mighty is He): a hymn naming the virtues of God in order of the Hebrew alphabet, expressing hope that God will rebuild the Holy Temple speedily. Most of the virtues of God are adjectives (for instance, Holy (Kadosh) is he); however, a few are nouns (for instance, Lord is he). The traditional melody is a bouncy, major one. Other melodies, however, have been composed for the alphabetical song.
Echad Mi Yodea
"Echad Mi Yodea" (Who Knows One?): Starting at one and going up to thirteen, each verse describes a different religious or worldly concept associated with its number. For example, the fifth verse is about the five books of Moses whereas the ninth verse describes the nine months of pregnancy. After singing each new verse, all the preceding verses are repeated in decreasing order back down to one. The pattern is similar to the Christian songs Green Grow the Rushes, O (which was originally written in Hebrew) or The Twelve Days of Christmas.
"Chad Gadya" ("One Kid" 'i.e., baby goat]) is an Aramaic song describing the consuming of each entity by the next, from a goat, through a cat, dog, a stick, fire, water, an ox, a butcher, and the angel of death, all the way up to God. Many think it metaphorically tells the history of the Jews from their beginning to the future Messianic time.