Pasteurellaceae

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Pasteurellaceae
Haemophilus ducreyi 01.jpg
Haemophilus ducreyi
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Pasteurellales
Family: Pasteurellaceae
Castellani & Chalmers, 1919
Genera

Actinobacillus
Aggregatibacter
Haemophilus
Lonepinella
Mannheimia
Pasteurella
Phocoenobacter

The Pasteurellaceae comprise a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. Most members live as commensals on mucosal surfaces of birds and mammals, especially in the upper respiratory tract. The family includes several pathogens of vertebrates, most notably Haemophilus influenzae. This species causes several diseases in humans (though not flu, as was originally thought). Other Pasteurellaceae cause gingivitis and chancroid in humans and many others are important veterinary pathogens.

Pasteurellaceae are typically rod-shaped, and are a notable group of facultative anaerobes. They can be distinguished from the related Enterobacteriaceae by the presence of oxidase, and from most other similar bacteria by the absence of flagella.

Bacteria in the family Pasteurellaceae have been classified into a number of genera based on metabolic properties, but these classifications are not generally accurate reflections of the evolutionary relationships between different species. H. influenzae was the first organism to have its genome sequenced and has been studied intensively by genetic and molecular methodologies.

Molecular signatures[edit]

Comparative analyses of Pasteurellaceae genomes have identified large numbers (>20) of conserved signature indels (CSIs) in different important proteins that are uniquely shared by all sequenced Pasteurellaceae species/strains, but are not found in any other bacteria. Based upon many other CSIs that are specific for subgroups of Pasteurellaceae species, it has been proposed to divide the family into at least two clades .[1] One proposed clade includes Aggregatibacter, Pasteurella, Actinobacillus succinogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus somnus, and Mannheimia succiniciproducens, while the other includes Actinobacillus minor, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus ducryi, Haemophilus parasuis, and Mannheimia haemolytica.

DNA sequence[edit]

DNA sequence data are available for these Pasteurellaceae: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans strain HK1651, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains L20 and sv1 4074, Haemophilus ducreyi strain 35000HP, Haemophilus influenzae strains 86-028NP, R2846, R2866, and Rd, Histophilus somni strains 129Pt and 2336, Mannheimia haemolytica A1 strain ATCC BAA-410, Mannheimia succiniciproducens strain MBEL55E, and Pasteurella multocida strain Pm70.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Naushad HS, Gupta RS (2011) Molecular signatures (conserved indels) in protein sequences that are specific for the order Pasteurellales and distinguish two of its main clades. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek,2012 Jan;101(1):105-24. Epub 2011 Aug 10 PMID 21830122
  2. ^ Challacombe JF; Inzana TJ (2008). "Comparative Genomics of Pasteurellaceae". Pasteurellaceae: Biology, Genomics and Molecular Aspects. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-34-9.