|Licensing of patents|
|Clauses in patent licenses|
Some of these owners try to make money from patents on inventions they develop, manufacture or market. Others attempt to generate revenue by buying and enforcing patents against one or more alleged infringers in a manner considered by the target or observers as unduly aggressive or opportunistic, often with no intention to further develop, manufacture or market the patented invention. The latter group is pejoratively called patent trolls by their critics.
Eastman Kodak is an example of a struggling company which use its patents portfolio to make additional revenue. For example, it is said that Kodaks' licensing programs have generated more than $3 billion in revenue since 2004.
- Background, foreground, sideground and postground intellectual property
- Patent holding company
- Patent privateer
- Patent troll
- Patent valuation
- "Kodak in Crisis Mines Patents for Cash Copying Texas Instruments". Texas Instruments. 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-15. "Texas Instruments, the second-largest U.S. chipmaker, wrote the template decades ago on techniques to exploit patent holdings when a company is struggling, said Joseph Siino, who runs patent-consulting firm Ovidian Group. Losing market share to competitors, Texas Instruments used an aggressive litigation strategy that extracted royalties from those using the Dallas- based company’s technology without permission, he said."
- "TI Fact Sheet". Texas Instruments. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
- "How Texas Instruments Transformed the Eastern District of Texas". www.law.com. 2011-10-26. Retrieved 2012-01-15. "For the answer, rewind to the early 1990s. That's when Texas Instruments devised a money-making litigation strategy intended to ensure customers renewed their licensing agreements with the Dallas-based tech company or face a patent infringement suit(...). "Truthfully, TI is the one that really discovered the Eastern District and took advantage of it," says Carl Roth, who was a patent lawyer for TI during the 1990s. "TI, which was very aggressive in those days at enforcing their patent portfolio, ended up loving the Eastern District and filed 25 or 30 suits during the 1990s in the Eastern District""
- "Microsoft, LG Strike Android Patent Deal". InformationWeek. 2012-01-12. Retrieved 2012-01-15. "Microsoft said the deal with LG means that 70% of Android-based smartphones sold in the U.S. are now covered by its licensing program"
- "Nokia Unlocks Significant Value With Microsoft Deal". Forbes. 9/05/2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. "patent business.. is healthy and has been consistently generating cash flows of around Euro 500 million annually"
- "Nokia Earnings: NSN And Patents Drive Value". NASDAQ. October 28, 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. "At the current run rate, Nokia's IP licensing arm generates about 500 million Euros in steady royalty income every year."