Pathani

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Not to be confused with Pathan or Pathania.
Pathni/Pathani
Classification aristocracy, feudatory, landlord
Religions Hinduism
Languages Gangoli variation of Kumaoni, Hindi
Populated States Uttarakhand
Subdivisions Clans based on Raaths. E.g.: Dhuri,Padhan.

Pathani (Hindi: पथनी) of the Attigoan and Kamsyar region of Gangolihat tehsil Pithoragarh district of the Kumaon Himalayas of Uttarakhand belong to the Chandravanshi clan of Kshatriyas Kumaoni Rajputs (कुमाँऊनी राजपूत).

Pathani people are members of an old Kashyap Gotra, Chandravanshi or Somvanshi Rajput clan which migrated from the Pathankot, Nurpur of India to Bhaaloaagar and then to their current location in Uttarakhand in the early 16th century AD.[1]

Atkinson described them as the groups holding small principalities in Kumaon at the end Katyuri rule and the advent of the Chand dynasty in Kumaon.

After a brief stint with the Chands they were pacified by the grant of the patti of Attigaon and Kamsyar i.e. the area from Ganaigangoli to Banspatan.

Origins[edit]

They trace their origin from two chieftains Raimal and Jaimal of the Tomar Rajputs, based in Pathankot which was also known as Paithan in the medieval age.

The brothers with their retainers migrated to Kumaon on having lost a battle against the Mughal Rulers of Delhi in which they sided with Sikandar Sur (son of Shershah Suri) and against Emperor Akbar.

The name Pathani means from Paithan in the early 16th century.

Raimal's son Dham Singh established himself in Gwari, patti Attigaon of the Gangolihat tehsil of Uttarakhand.

Dham Singh's four sons founded the four Raaths of the Pathani clan.[2]

Raaths[edit]

They are divided into four Raaths (राठ) descended from the four of Dham Singh the original founder of the clan. They are the

1.Padhaan Raath ; (पधान राठ)

2. Dhuri Raath ; (धुरि राठ)

3. Malla Raath ; (मल्ला राठ)

4. Paar Raath ; (पार राठ).

Language and culture[edit]

Language[edit]

They speak the Gangoli dialect of Kumaoni (गंगोली कुमाँऊनी) and Hindi.

Religion[edit]

Being Hindus the vast they worship Hindu pantheon they also worship local deities like Golu Devta,Kaisinn, Kalbisht, Nanda Devi like other Kumaonis.

The clan's principal deity is Sem dev (सैम देव) who is always invoked along with his brother Haru dev (हरु देव) i.e. the divine spirit of Raja Harish of the Chands. The Dhuri Pathanis one of the five raaths of the Pathani people also worship Ma Haatkalika Mata of Gangolihaat and Pardevi another local divinity as their family deities along with Haru-Sem.

Customs[edit]

Being Kumaoni Rajputs their customs and culture are same as other Kumaonis. The rich cultural heritage of Kumaon has been greatly cherished and fiercely protected by them. The tradition of Kumaoni Holi, Jhoda and Chanchari songs, and Jaagar the ballads of Gods, Sarau and Choliya the sword dances of Kumaon are a cherished part of their culture.

Priests[edit]

Their customary priests are the Upadhyay clan of Brahmins of Devrari Kuna.

Festivals[edit]

Their principal festivals are Harela - harvest festival which is celebrated all over Kumaon Bijay dashmi (बिजय दशमी) i.e. Dusshera on this day the victory of Lord Rama over Demon King Ravana is celebrated it has special significange for the Rajput community as weapons are also worshipped on this day. Raksha Bandhan or Rakhi or the Shravani Purnima here signifies the day for changing the saced thread yagnopavit. Aanthoo festival is basically a festival dedicated to Lord Shiva and his consort Mata Parvati. Nandashthami, dedicated to Ma Nanda and Ma Sunanda the patron deities of Kumaon also held in great esteem and regarded as the Rann Devi (रण देवी) or War Goddess the protector of warriors in battle, is also celebrated. They participate in the annual Baurani fair commemorating the adventures of Sem devta with his brother Haru Dev and their nephew Golu Devta all of whom are worshipped in the Kumaon region as gods.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ History of the Panjab Hill States By J. Hutchison, J.P. Vogel,Asian Educational Services,p213
  2. ^ Pande, B. D. (1993). History of Kumaun : English version of "Kumaun ka itihas". Almora, U.P., India: Shyam Prakashan : Shree Almora Book Depot.
  • The Himalayan Gazetter by E. T. Atkinson
  • Twarikh Rajgan-e-Pathania-e-Nurpur (History of the Pathania Rajas) by Mian Raghunath Singh Pathania
  • The History of Kumaun by B. D. Pandey
  • Uma Prasad Thapliyal (2005). Uttaranchal: Historical and cultural perspectives. B.R. Pub. Corp.,. ISBN 81-7646-463-5.
  • Umachand Handa (2002). History of Uttaranchal. Indus Publishing. ISBN 81-7387-134-5