|Province of the Sassanian Empire|
|-||Rise of the Dabuyid dynasty||642|
|Today part of|| Iran
Padishkhwārgar or Patishkhwāgar (Persian: پديشخوارگر) which later orthographically morphed into Farshwārdgar (Persian: فرشواردگر) is the Middle Persian name of a vassal kingdom and later satrapy (province) of the Sassanid Empire.
Islamic geographers locate this province to the north of the Sasanian lands and assign the Caspian provinces (modern Mazandaran and Gilan) to this region. Mar'ashi, in his History of Tabaristan o Ruyan o Mazandaran, says that Tabaristan, Dailam, Gilan, and Adhurbaijan are the regions of Padishkhwargar. This would mean that the modern Iranian provinces of Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan, Zanjan, Qazvin, Ardabil, and Eastern Azerbaijan will be included in this territorial designation.
The region is commonly associates with mythical stories of the Sasanian times and even after Islam, it continues to be considered mysterious by the Islamic historians and geographers. This is probably because the Islamic armies either never got to fully conquer this region or only penetrated some of its regions (Tabaristan).
- The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 3(2): The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian Periods, ed. Ehsan Yarshater (NY: Cambridge UP, 1983), 765.
- The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 3(2): The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian Periods, ed. Ehsan Yarshater (NY: Cambridge UP, 1983), 765-766.