Anticlockwise from top: Gandhi Maidan Marg, Buddha Smriti Park, Skyline near Biscomaun Bhawan, Patna Museum, Gandhi's statue, Mithapur Over Bridge and river Ganga
|• Body||Patna Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Afzal Imam (JDU)|
|Area(2001) [A 1]|
|• Urban||135.79 km2 (52.43 sq mi)|
|• Metro||234.7 km2 (90.62 sq mi)|
|• City||99.45 km2 (38.40 sq mi)|
|Elevation||53 m (174 ft)|
|• Density||16,925/km2 (4,670/sq mi)|
|• Urban||2,046,652 (IN: 18th)|
|• Metro||2,231,554 [A 1]|
|• City||1,683,200 (IN: 19th)|
|• Spoken||Hindi, English, Magadhi|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-BR-PA|
|Vehicle registration||BR 01|
|Sex ratio||1.13  ♂/♀|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Patna Sahib and Pataliputra|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Digha (181), Bankipur (182), Kumhrar (183), Patna Sahib (184), Fatuha (185), Danapur (186), Maner (187), Phulwari-SC (188)|
|Planning agency||Patna Regional Development Authority|
|Distance from Delhi||1,015 kilometres (631 mi) NE (land)|
|Distance from Kolkata||556 kilometres (345 mi) NW (land)|
|Distance from Mumbai||1,802 kilometres (1,120 mi) NE (land)|
|Precipitation||1,100 millimetres (43 in)|
|Avg. annual temperature||26 °C (79 °F)|
|Avg. summer temperature||30 °C (86 °F)|
|Avg. winter temperature||17 °C (63 °F)|
Patna // ( Hindi pronunciation (help·info)) is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India. Patna also serves as seat of Patna High Court. The second largest city in eastern India, had an estimated population of 1,683,200 in 2011, making it the 19th largest city in India. It's Urban-agglomeration is 18th largest in India with over 2 million people.
One of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world. Patna was founded in 490 BCE by the king of Magadha. Ancient Patna, known as Pataliputra, was the capital of the Magadha Empire under the Haryanka, Nanda, Mauryan, Sunga, Gupta and Pala. Pataliputra was a seat of learning and fine arts. Its population during the Maurya period (around 300 BCE) was about 400,000.
The modern city of Patna is situated on the southern bank of the Ganges. The city also straddles the rivers Sone, Gandak and Punpun. The city is approximately 35 km long and 16 km to 18 km wide. In June 2009, the World Bank ranked Patna second in India (after Delhi) for ease of starting a business. As of 2010-2011, Patna had the highest per capita gross district domestic product in Bihar, at 57,843. Using figures for assumed average annual growth, Patna is the 21st fastest growing city in the world and 5th fastest growing city in India by the City Mayors' Foundation. Patna registered an average annual growth of 3.72% during 2006-2010.
The Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain pilgrim centres of Vaishali, Rajgir, Nalanda, Bodh Gaya, and Pawapuri are nearby and Patna City is also a sacred city for Sikhs as the last Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, was born here.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Economy
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government and public services
- 6 Transportation and connectivity
- 7 Tourism
- 8 Education
- 9 Sports
- 10 Media and utility services
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Origin of name
The name of this city has changed with time. It is one of the oldest cities of India. There are several theories regarding the source of the modern name Patna (Devanagari:पटना) :
- It is etymologically derived from Patan (Devanagari: पIतन), the name of the Hindu goddess, Patan Devi.
- Patan Devi Mandir is still situated in old Patna near Gai Ghat (Mahatma Gandhi Setu Over Bridge)
- The place appears in Chinese traveller Fa Hien's records as Pa-lin-fou.
- The city has been known by various names during its more than 2,000 years of existence – Patligram, Patliputra, Kusumpur, Pushpapura and the present-day Patna.
Legend describes the origin of Patna to a mythological King Putraka who created Patna by magic for his queen Patali, literally "trumpet flower", which gives it its ancient name Pataligrama. It is said that in honour of the queen's first-born, the city was named Pataliputra. Gram is Sanskrit for village and Putra means son. Legend also says that the Emerald Buddha was created in Patna (then Pataliputra) by Nagasena in 43 BCE.
Patna became significant around the year 490 BCE when Ajatashatru, the king of Magadha, wanted to shift his capital from the hilly Rajagrha to a more strategically located place to combat the Licchavis of Vaishali. He chose the site on the bank of the Ganges and fortified the area. Gautama Buddha passed through this place in the last year of his life. He prophesied a great future for this place, but at the same time, he predicted its ruin from flood, fire and feud.
Megasthenes, the Indo-Greek historian and ambassador to the court of Chandragupta Maurya, gave one of the earliest account of the city. He wrote that the city was situated on the confluence of the rivers Ganga and Arennovoas (Sonabhadra — Hiranyawah) and was 9 miles (14 km) long and 1.75 miles (2.82 km) wide. Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador to India, described the city as the greatest city on earth during its heyday. The Sungas ultimately retained control of Pataliputra and ruled for almost 100 years. The Sungas were then followed by the Kanvas and eventually the Guptas.
A number of Chinese travellers came to India in pursuit of knowledge and recorded their observations about Pataliputra in their travelogues, including those of a Chinese Buddhist Fa Hien, who visited India between 399 and 414 CE, and stayed here for many months translating Buddhist texts.
Pataliputra as a capital of the Magadha Empire.
Gupta and Mughal empires
In the years that followed, many dynasties ruled the Indian subcontinent from the city, including those of the Gupta empire and the Pala kings. With the disintegration of the Gupta empire, Patna passed through uncertain times. Bakhtiar Khilji captured Bihar in the 12th century and destroyed many ancient seats of learning, and Patna lost its prestige as the political and cultural center of India.
Guru Gobind Singh (22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708), the tenth Guru of the Sikhs, was born as Gobind Rai in Patna to Teg Bahadur, the ninth Guru of the Sikhs, and his wife Gujri. His birthplace, Patna Sahib, is one of the most sacred pilgrimages for Sikhs.
The Mughal period was a period of unremarkable provincial administration from Delhi. The most remarkable period during these times was under the Pashtun emperor Sher Shah Suri, who revived Patna in the middle of the 16th century. He built a fort and founded a town on the banks of the Ganges. Sher Shah's fort in Patna does not survive, although the Sher Shah Suri Masjid mosque, built in Afghan architectural style, does. Mughal emperor Akbar came to Patna in 1574 to crush the Afgha Chief Daud Khan. Akbar's navratna and state's official historian and author of "Ain-i-Akbari" Abul Fazl refers to Patna as a flourishing centre for paper, stone and glass industries. He also refers to the high quality of numerous strains of rice grown in Patna, famous as Patna rice in Europe.
By 1620, the city of Patna was being described as the "chefest mart towne of all Bengala (i.e. largest town in Bengal) in northern India, "the largest town in Bengal and the most famous for trade". This was before the founding of the city of Calcutta. Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb acceded to the request of his favourite grandson, Prince Muhammad Azim, to rename Patna as Azimabad, in 1704 while Azim was in Patna as the subedar. However, very little changed during this period other than the name. With the decline of the Mughal empire, Patna moved into the hands of the Nawabs of Bengal, who levied a heavy tax on the populace but allowed it to flourish as a commercial centre. The mansions of the Maharaja of Tekari Raj dominated the Patna river front in 1811-12.
During the 17th century, Patna became a centre of international trade. In 1620, the English East India Company established a factory in Patna for trading in calico and silk. Soon this became a trading centre for saltpetre. Francois Bernier, in Travels in the Mogul Empire (1656–1668), says "...a prodigious quantity of saltpetre was imported from Patna. It was carried down the Ganges with great facility, and the Dutch and English send large cargoes to many parts of the Indies, and to Europe". This trade encouraged other Europeans, principally the French, Danes, Dutch and Portuguese, to compete in the lucrative business. Peter Mundy, writing in 1632, described Patna as "the greatest mart of the eastern region". After the decisive Battle of Buxar of 1764, Patna fell into the hands of the East India Company, which installed a government. It was ruled during the years of British India by a series of governors, including Rahul Gunderjaharagand.
In 1912, when the Bengal Presidency was partitioned, Patna became the capital of the British province of Bihar and Orissa, although in 1935 Orissa became a separate entity with its own capital.
Indian independence movement
People from Patna were involved in the Indian independence movement. Most notable were the Champaran movement against the Indigo plantation and the 1942 Quit India Movement. National leaders who have come from the city include Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, the first President of the Constituent Assembly of India; Dr. Sachidanand Sinha; Dr. Rajendra Prasad; Bihar Vibhuti (Anugrah Narayan Sinha); Basawon Singh (Sinha); Loknayak (Jayaprakash Narayan); Sri Krishna Sinha; Sheel Bhadra Yajee and Sarangdhar Sinha (Singh)
Patna is located on the south bank of the Ganges River. A characteristic of the geography of Patna is its confluence of rivers. The Ganges River is the largest.A narrow strip of somewhat high land about 8 kilometers in width along the southern bank of the Ganges having very fertile soil. Alluvial fertile plains in the remaining portions. After creation of the new district of Patna does not contain any hilly region. It has an entirely alluvial and flat region. The land in the district is too fertile to be left for wild growth. The district is devoid of any forest wealth of consequences. The alluvial text of land yields rice, sugarcane and other foodgrains. The area under cultivation is studded with mango orchads and bamboo clumps. In the fields adjoining the Ganges weeds such as ammannia, citriculari, hygrophile and sesbania grow. But palmyra and date palm and mango orchards are found near habitations. Dry shrub jungles are sometimes seen in the villages away from the rivers. Trees commonly met with are bel, siris, jack fruits and the red cotton tree It is joined by four other rivers: Ghaghara, Gandak, Punpun and Sone. Patna is unique in having four large rivers in its vicinity. It is the largest riverine city in the world. The bridge over the river Ganges named Mahatma Gandhi Setu is 5575m long and is the longest river bridge in the India.
Patna has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cwa) with extremely hot summers from late March to early June, the monsoon season from late June to late September and chilly winter nights and foggy or sunny days from November to February  Highest temperature ever recorded was 46.6 °C (115.9 °F), in the year 1966, lowest ever was 1.1 °C (34 °F), on January 9, 2013, and highest rainfall was 204.5 mm (8.05 in), in the year 1997. The table below details historical monthly averages for climate variables.
|Climate data for Kurkuri,Patna,801505|
|Average high °C (°F)||23
|Average low °C (°F)||9.3
|Precipitation mm (inches)||15.2
Patna has long been a major agricultural center of trade, its most active exports being grain, sugarcane, sesame, and medium-grained Patna rice. There are multiple sugar mills still in existence in and around Patna. It is an important business and luxury brand center of eastern India.
As of 2011, the economy of Patna has seen sustained economic growth. In particular, the economy has been spurred by growth in the Fast Moving Consumer Goods industry, the service sector, along with Green revolution businesses. In 2009, the World Bank stated Patna as the second best city in India to start up a business. As of 2010, the per capita income of Patna was 37737.
Patna is the 21st fastest growing city in the world, and the fifth fastest growing city in India, and is expected to grow at an average annual rate of 3.72%.
|Note: Huge population decline after 1814 due to the decrease
in the river borne trade, persistent unhealthiness and repeated
epidemics of plaque.
A resident of Patna is referred to via the demonym Patnaite According to 2011 provisional census data, Patna city had a population of 1,683,200 (before expansion of the city limits) within the corporation limits, with 894,158 men and 789,042 women. 11.32 per cent of the population was under six years of age, with 102,208 boys while 88,288 are girls. The sex ratio of 882 females per 1,000 males was lower than the national average of 944. The urban agglomeration had a population of 2,046,652 of which 1,087,864 are males and 958,788 are females. Patna metropolitan region constitutes the second largest metropolitan region in Eastern India. The religion data in 2001 indicated a majority of Hindus. The city has large communities of Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Jains and Buddhism in the city. The overall literacy rate is 84.71%, with the male literacy rate being 87.71% and the female literacy rate being 81.33%.
Hindi is the official language of the state of Bihar but many other languages are spoken. The native dialect is Magadhi or Magahi, named after Magadha, the ancient name of Bihar. English is widely spoken by Patnaites, and other widely spoken dialects and languages include Bhojpuri, Maithili, Bengali, Urdu and Oriya. People of Patna has open flair for other languages as well.
Government and public services
- Patna Municipal Corporation
Patna Municipal Corporation or Patna Nagar Nigam, abbreviated PMC, is the chief nodal agency for the administration of Patna. The whole area is divided into 72 wards, which accommodates a population of 1.3 million as per 2011 Census. The municipal corporation consists of democratically elected members, is headed by a mayor and administers the city's infrastructure and public services. Municipal Commissioner is the executive head of the Corporation, who is assisted by a large number of officers, belonging to different departments in the Corporation. As of 2014, the Janata Dal controls the PMC; the mayor is Afzal Imam, while the deputy mayor is Rupnarayan Mehta. The current commissioner is Kuldip Narayan.
- Patna Regional Development Authority
Patna Regional Development Authority or PRDA, is a body of the Government of Bihar that is responsible for the infrastructure development of the city Patna. It undertakes developmental activities in various sectors such as architecture, town planning, and engineering.
- Patna Police
Patna Police is the police service responsible for law enforcement within Patna. Patna Police is commanded by Senior Superintendent of Police. Patna Police runs 75 police stations, including two all-women police stations.
Ground water fulfills the basic need of the people, administered by Patna Jal Parishad under Patna Municipal Corporation. The public water supply system comprises 98 tube wells that pump water directly to the distribution mains. Around 23 overhead reservoirs of which only the one’s at Agam Kuan, Gulzarbagh Press, Guru Gobind Singh Hospital and High Court serves the city. The sewerage system in Patna was set up in 1936. At present there are four sewage treatment plants located at Saidpur, Beur, Pahari and Karmali Chak.
Electricity supply to the city is regulated and distributed by the Bihar State Power Holding Company Limited. The city forms the Patna Electricity Supply Unit (PESU) Circle, which is further divided into two wings namely Patna East (consists Kankarbagh, Patna City, Gulzarbagh, Bankipore, Rajendra Nagar Divisions) and Patna West (Consists Danapur, New Capital, Patliputra, Gardanibagh, Dak Bunglow divisions).
Direct–to–home (DTH) is available via DD Free Dish, Airtel digital TV, Dish TV, Tata Sky, Videocon d2h, Sun Direct and Reliance Digital TV. Cable companies include Darsh Digital Network Pvt. Ltd., SITI Maurya Cablenet Pvt. Ltd etc. The Conditional Access System for cable television was implemented in March 2013.
Patna comes under the Patna Telecom District of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider. Both Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile services are available. Apart from telecom, BSNL also provides broadband internet service. Among private enterprises, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Aircel, Tata DoCoMo, Tata Teleservices, Virgin Mobile, MTS India, Uninor, S Tel and Vodafone are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city.
Patna was the second Indian city, after Bangalore, which offered free WiFi connectivity to its citizens in February this year. By surpassing the previous record-holder, Beijing in China, Patna's WiFi zone is the world's longest free WiFi zone, which covers a 20-km stretch from NIT Patna on Ashok Rajpath to Danapur.
Transportation and connectivity
Patna is located about 100 km from the national East – West Expressway. The NH 30, NH 31 and NH 2 passes through the town. The Ashok Rajpath, Patna-Danapur Road, Bailey Road, Harding Road and Kankarbagh old bypass Road are the major corridors. The National Waterway-1 stretches 1620 km in the River Ganga from Allahabad to Haldia passes through Patna.
Patna was one of the first places in India to use horse-drawn trams for public transport. Public transportation today is provided for by buses, auto rickshaws and local trains. Auto rickshaws are said to be the lifeline of the city. BSRTC has started City bus service on all major routes of Patna. Radio cab facility is also available. Prepaid auto services operated by an all-women crew was started in 2013 in Patna, which is the first of its kind in India.
The Patna Junction railway station is connected to most of the major cities in India by the railway network. Patna lies in between New Delhi and Kolkata which is one of the busiest rail route in India.The city is a major railway hub and has six major stations: Patna Junction, Rajendranagar Terminal, Gulzarbagh Station, Danapur Station, Patliputra Junction and Patna Sahib Station. Patna is well connected with Gaya, Jehanabad, Biharsharif, Rajgir, Islampur through daily passenger and express train services. Currently, the Indian Railways has floated tenders to construct 5 new "deluxe" toilets in each of Patna's railway station. The plan also includes the modernisation of Patna Junction. In 2009, the construction of India's longest road-cum-rail bridge, Ganga Rail-Road Bridge was underway on the banks on the Ganges nearby and will connect Digha, Patna to Pahleja Ghat. The bridge is expected to be completed in 2017. Sources say that when completed it will be 4.55 kilometres (2.83 mi) long and therefore the longest road cum rail bridge in India and one of the longest in the world.
The Planning Commission of India has given nod to Patna Metro recently which will run on two routes- Dak bunglow Square to Saguna Morh and Danapur to Patna City. The metro will be implemented on a Public Private Partnership. Furthermore, RITES has started ground survey and soil testing for the Patna Monorail to conduct techno-economic feasibility studies.
There is an airport, Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport, which is classified as a restricted international airport. The arrival of several low-cost carriers and a number of new destinations have caused a growth in air traffic in recent years, as has an improvement in the situation with regard to law and order. For the period April to December 2009 the airport ranked first in a survey of 46 airports in the country in terms of percentage growth of domestic passengers as well as domestic aircraft movement. New airport is expected to be built at Bihta. Flights are unable to land at the Patna airport during a foggy weather.
The city is served by several major road highways and state highways, including National Highways 19, 30, 31, and 83. It is 1,015 kilometres (631 mi) East from Delhi, 1,802 kilometres (1,120 mi) North East from Mumbai and 556 kilometres (345 mi) North West from Kolkata. Luxury bus service between Patna and several neighboring cities is provided by the Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation and the Bihar State Road Transport Corporation. Radio Taxi services are also available within city limit as well as outskirts.
Patna is home to many tourist attractions and it saw about 2.4 million tourists (including day visitors) in 2005. Tourists visiting the city accounted for 41% of the total for Bihar province, although Bodh Gaya was the most popular destination for foreign visitors.
The cultural heritage of Bihar is reflected in its many ancient monuments. Kumhrar and Agam Kuan are the sites of the ruins of the Ashokan Pataliputra. Didarganj Yakshi remains as an example of Mauryan art.
Takht Sri Patna Sahib is one of the Five Takhts of Sikhism and consecrates the birthplace of the tenth Guru of the Sikhs, Gobind Singh. There are five other Gurdwaras in Patna which are related to different Sikh Gurus; these are Gurdwara Pahila Bara, Gurdwara Gobind Ghat, Gurdwara Guru ka Bagh, Gurdwara Bal Leela and Gurdwara Handi Sahib.
Recently, the Bihar government announced plans to build a state of the art landmark museum in Patna at a cost of approximately 530 crores on a site of 13.9 acres at Bailey Road. 5 firms have been shortlisted for the architectural design.
Patna has important government educational institutions like Patna University, Chanakya National Law University, Aryabhatta Knowledge University, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, National Institute of Technology, Patna, Patna Medical College, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Patna, National Institute of Fashion Technology, Patna, Chandragupt Institute of Management etc. A large number of students across India come to Patna to get the admissions in these institutions.
Patna University was established in 1917 and is the seventh oldest modern university in the Indian Sub-continent. Patna also has a variety of other universities, as well as many primary and secondary schools.
Patna's schools are run by the state government or private organizations, many of which are religious. Hindi and English are the primary languages of instruction. A 2012 survey found 1,574 schools: of these, 78% were private unaided schools (most of them at affordable cost), 21% government schools and 1% private aided.
There are several cricket grounds located across the city, including the Moin-ul-Haq Stadium. The stadium features a swimming pool and a cricket academy. This stadium has served as venue for two one-day international cricket matches and several national sport events.
Patna hosted the first ever woman's Kabaddi world cup. It was held at the Patliputra Sports Complex, Kankarbagh from 1 March to 4 March 2012. Hosts India won the World Cup defeating Iran in the finals.
Patna hosted the new Pro Kabaddi league with its home team as Patna Pirates in Patliputra sports complex.
Media and utility services
The beginning of the 20th century was marked by a number of notable new publications. A monthly magazine named Bharat Ratna was started from Patna in 1901. It was followed by Ksahtriya Hitaishi, Aryavarta from Dinapure, Patna, Udyoga and Chaitanya Chandrika. Udyog was edited by Vijyaanand Tripathy, a famous poet of the time and Chaitanya Chandrika by Krishna Chaitanya Goswami, a literary figures of that time. The literary activity was not confined to Patna alone but to many districts of Bihar.
Many national media agencies, including the Press Trust of India and Doordarshan's regional offices are based in the city. The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Economic Times and The Telegraph are the four principal English language daily newspapers which have Patna editions. The Hindu, The Pioneer and The Indian Express, though not printed in the city, are other English language daily newspaper available in the city. The city's Hindi newspapers include Hindustan Dainik, Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar, Prabhat Khabar, Aaj and Rashtriya Sahara – all these newspapers have editions from Patna. There are also daily Urdu newspapers like Qomi Tanzim and Farooqi Tanzeem published in Patna. There is also the Hindi and English mixed Newspaper Tabloid Inext.
Patna is also served by several AM and FM radio stations. The city hosts several radio stations, including the state-owned All India Radio and private channels like Radio Mirchi, FM 105 etc. The All India Radio, Patna (officially Akashvani Patna Kendra) was established in the year 1948.
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