||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Spanish Wikipedia. (September 2010)|
|-||Battle of Chacabuco||February 12, 1817|
|-||Bernardo O'Higgins resignation||January 28, 1823|
||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (February 2014)|
Patria Nueva (New Nation) was a period in the history of Chile that started with the victory of Ejército de los Andes and the Battle of Chacabuco on February 12, 1817, and ended with the resignation of Bernardo O'Higgins in 1823.
Government of Bernardo O'Higgins
First measures as Supreme Director
Not long after becoming the Supreme Director of Chile, O'Higgins sent the Aguila, a ship captured in the port of Valparaiso, to rescue Chilean patriots stranded on the Juan Fernández. He formed an army to face the Spanish Empire forces hidden in the port of Talcahuano and the montoneras (traitor patriots, natives and bandits) who were on the shore of the Bio-Bio river.
He created the Vindication Tribunal, a legal apparatus that granted patriots the right to reclaim goods taken by the Spanish during the Reconquest. He also ordered the exile of priests advocating for continued fealty to the Spanish throne.
The Surprise of Cancha Rayada
The independent people waited in Talca for the royalists, but they took another path. The people of San Martin and O'Higgins were caught by surprise. Winning the battle was known as a surprise because the independence troops did not react immediately.
In Santiago the fear had spread with the defeat of the Ejército de los Andes and the Chilean army. Many of them already were taking their stuff to exile again in Mendoza and there was even a rumor of the death of O'Higgins and San Martin.
In these circumstances, in the cabild of the March 23, Manuel Rodríguez yelled «Still have homeland, citizens!» and he proclaimed himself as a supreme director. Quickly, he arranged a squadron called Húsares de la Muerte. It joined up many carreristas, swearing to die before seeing the homeland in the hands of Spain again. Knowing this, O'Higgins went back to Santiago, without medical approval, with San Martin. Both were welcomed with cannon shots on the sunrise of March 24.
|History of Chile|