Patriot Parliament

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The Patriot Parliament is the name given to the session of the Irish Parliament called by King James II of Ireland during the War of the Two Kings in 1689. The parliament met in one session, from 7 May 1689 to 20 July 1689, and was the only session of the Irish Parliament under King James II.

The Irish House of Lords had Lord Fitton as Lord Chancellor of Ireland on the woolsack. The Irish House of Commons elected Sir Richard Nagle as its Speaker.

The previous session of the Irish parliament had been in 1666.

Name[edit]

The name "Patriot Parliament" was first used in 1893 by Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, an Irish nationalist historian, in his edition of essays by his old friend Thomas Davis.[1][2] In 1843 Davis himself had described the parliament as a "patriot Senate" in his essay "The Irish Parliament of James II".[3]

Legislation[edit]

The Act of Recognition was the first act of Parliament. It recognised James's right to the Imperial Crown of Ireland. It compared the usurpation by the Prince of Orange to the murder of James' father King Charles I, emphasized indefeasible hereditary rights, and asserted that the monarchy was founded on the Divine right of kings, not the result of any supposed contract between a king and his subjects.[4]

The Declaratory Act affirmed that the Kingdom of Ireland had always been "distinct" from that of England, and that no Act of the English Parliament was binding on Ireland unless ratified by the Irish Parliament.[5][6] However, Poynings' Law remained as statute law.[7]

Parliament also passed legislation or resolutions for additional purposes:

  • Liberty of Conscience. Parliament granted full freedom of worship and civic and political equality for Roman Catholics and Protestant Dissenters, and repealed the requirement of the Oath of Supremacy, but retained the Act of Uniformity. James sought the abolition of penalties against liberty of conscience but did not seek to remove himself as head of the Church of Ireland.[8]
  • Repeal of the 1652 Cromwellian land settlement, and the Act of Settlement 1662. This returned all lands forfeited in 1652 to the descendants of the former owners at the time of the Irish Rebellion of 1641.
  • A Bill of attainder. "An Act for the Attainder of Divers Rebels, and for the Preserving the Interest of Loyal Subjects" named 2,000 Williamites as traitors, being opponents of James II, who were to lose their property and their lives.[9][10]

Firth wrote that King James was opposed to the last two measures, but was "overborne by Tyrconnell and the Irish nationalists".

Repeals[edit]

All legislation by the Patriot Parliament was declared void by the Parliament of England in the "Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689".[11] This act was also passed by the next Irish Parliament in 1692.[12]

Composition[edit]

The Parliament was overwhelmingly Old English and Roman Catholic,[13] however, Church of Ireland Bishops retained their place as the Lords Spiritual in the House of Lords.

Lords[edit]

The members of the House of Lords were:[14]

Name Title
Boyle, MichaelMichael Boyle Armagh, Archbishop ofArchbishop of Armagh
MacDonnell, AlexanderAlexander MacDonnell Antrim, Earl ofEarl of Antrim
Nugent, RichardRichard Nugent Westmeath, Earl ofEarl of Westmeath
Barry, RichardRichard Barry Barrymore, Earl ofEarl of Barrymore
Richard or Charles Lambart[15] Cavan, Earl ofEarl of Cavan
MacCarty, DonoughDonough MacCarty Clancarty, Earl ofEarl of Clancarty
Power, RichardRichard Power Tyrone, Earl ofEarl of Tyrone
Aungier, FrancisFrancis Aungier Longford, Earl ofEarl of Longford
Forbes, ArthurArthur Forbes Granard, Earl ofEarl of Granard
Dongan, WilliamWilliam Dongan Limerick, Earl ofEarl of Limerick
Preston, JenicoJenico Preston Gormanston, ViscountViscount Gormanston
Butler, RichardRichard Butler Mountgarret, ViscountViscount Mountgarret
Dillon, TheobaldTheobald Dillon Dillon of Costello-Gallen, ViscountViscount Dillon of Costello-Gallen
Netterville, NicholasNicholas Netterville Netterville of Dowth, ViscountViscount Netterville of Dowth
Magennis, BryanBryan Magennis Magennis of Iveagh, ViscountViscount Magennis of Iveagh
Sarsfield, DominickDominick Sarsfield Sarsfield of Killmallock, ViscountViscount Sarsfield of Killmallock
Bourke, TheobaldTheobald Bourke Mayo, ViscountViscount Mayo
Butler, PiercePierce Butler Ikerrin, ViscountViscount Ikerrin
O'Dempsey, MaximilianMaximilian O'Dempsey Clanmalier, ViscountViscount Clanmalier
Barnewall, NicholasNicholas Barnewall Barnewall of Kingsland, ViscountViscount Barnewall of Kingsland
Butler, PiercePierce Butler Galmoye, ViscountViscount Galmoye
O'Brien, DanielDaniel O'Brien Clare, ViscountViscount Clare
Parsons, RichardRichard Parsons Rosse, ViscountViscount Rosse
Bourke, UlickUlick Bourke Galway, ViscountViscount Galway
Browne, ValentineValentine Browne Kenmare, ViscountViscount Kenmare
MacCarty, JustinJustin MacCarty Mountcashell, ViscountViscount Mountcashell
Dopping, AnthonyAnthony Dopping Meath, Bishop ofBishop of Meath
Hopkins, EzekielEzekiel Hopkins Derry, Bishop ofBishop of Derry
Otway, ThomasThomas Otway Ossory, Bishop ofBishop of Ossory
Digby, SimonSimon Digby Limerick, Bishop ofBishop of Limerick
Wetenhall, EdwardEdward Wetenhall Cork, Bishop ofBishop of Cork
Smyth, WilliamWilliam Smyth Raphoe, Bishop ofBishop of Raphoe
Tennison, RichardRichard Tennison Killala, Bishop ofBishop of Killala
Bermingham, EdwardEdward Bermingham Athenry, BaronBaron Athenry
de Courcy, AlmericAlmeric de Courcy Kingsale, BaronBaron Kingsale
Fitzmaurice, WilliamWilliam Fitzmaurice Kerry, BaronBaron Kerry
Fleming, ChristopherChristopher Fleming Slane, BaronBaron Slane
Saint Lawrence, ThomasThomas St Lawrence Howth, BaronBaron Howth
Barnewall, MatthiasMatthias Barnewall Trimlestown, BaronBaron Trimlestown
Plunkett, ChristopherChristopher Plunkett Dunsany, BaronBaron Dunsany
Butler, PiercePierce Butler Dunboyne, BaronBaron Dunboyne
Fitzpatrick, BarnabyBarnaby Fitzpatrick Upper Ossory, BaronBaron Upper Ossory
Plunkett, MatthewMatthew Plunkett Louth, BaronBaron Louth
Bourke, WilliamWilliam Bourke Bourke of Castleconnell, BaronBaron Bourke of Castleconnell
Butler, TheobaldTheobald Butler Cahir, BaronBaron Cahir
Bourke, TheobaldTheobald Bourke Bourke of Brittas, BaronBaron Bourke of Brittas
Blayney, Henry VincentHenry Vincent Blayney Blayney of Monaghan, BaronBaron Blayney of Monaghan
Malone, DermotDermot Malone[16] Glean-O'Mallun and Courchy, BaronBaron Glean-O'Mallun and Courchy
(This title had probably been extinct since about 1641.)
Maguire, RogerRoger Maguire[17] Maguire of Enniskillen, BaronBaron Maguire of Enniskillen
(This title had been forfeit since 1645.)
Hamilton, ClaudClaud Hamilton
Earl of Abercorn in the peerage of Scotland
Hamilton of Strabane, BaronBaron Hamilton of Strabane
King, RobertRobert King Kingston, BaronBaron Kingston
Bellew, JohnJohn Bellew Bellew of Duleek, BaronBaron Bellew of Duleek
Fitton, AlexanderAlexander Fitton
Lord Chancellor
Fitton of Gawsworth, BaronBaron Fitton of Gawsworth
Bourke, JohnJohn Bourke Bourke of Bophin, BaronBaron Bourke of Bophin
Nugent, ThomasThomas Nugent
Lord Chief Justice
Nugent of Riverston, BaronBaron Nugent of Riverston

Commons[edit]

The MPs in the House of Commons were:

County Antrim
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Antrim County Cormuck O'Neale Randal Mac Donnell
Belfast Marcus Talbot Daniel O'Neale
County Armagh
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Armagh County Francis Stafford[link currently leads to a wrong person] Constantine O'Neale
County Carlow
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Carlow Borough Marcus Baggot John Warren
Carlow County Dudley Bagenal (1638–1712) Henry Luttrell (Colonel) (d. 1717)
Old Leighlin Darby Long Daniel Doran[link currently leads to a wrong person]
County Cavan
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Belturbet Sir Edward Tyrrel Bt. Philip Tuite Newcastle, County Cavan
Cavan Borough Philip Oge O'Reyly Hugh Reyley Lara[disambiguation needed]
Cavan County Philip Reyley Aghnecrevy John Reyly (Patriot Parliament)|John Reyly Garirobuck
County Clare
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Clare County Daniel O'Brien John MacNamara Crattlagh
Ennis Florence MacNamara Dromod Theobald Butler[disambiguation needed] Shrangaloon
County Cork
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Cork City Sir James Fitz Edmond Cotter knight John Galloway[link currently leads to a wrong person]
Cork County Justin Mac Carthy Sir Richard Nagle Clogher, knight
Kinsale Andrew Murrogh Miles de Coursey
Baltimore Daniel O'Donovan (MP Baltimore) Jeremiah O'Donovan
Bandonbridge Charles Mac Carthy Ballea Daniel Mac Carthy MacCarthy Reagh
Charleville John Baggot, Sr. Baggotstown John Power Killballane
Clonakilty (also Cloghnakilty) Lt.-Col. Owen McCarthy Daniel Fionn McCarthy
Doneraile Daniel O'Donovan, Esq. (MP Doneraile) John Baggot, Jr. Baggotstown
Midleton Dermod Long John Long
Mallow (also Moyallow) John Barret Castlemore David Nagle Carragowne
Rathcormack James Barry Edward Powel
Youghal Thomas Uniack alderman Edward Gough alderman
County Dublin
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Dublin City Sir Michael Creagh Lord Mayor of Dublin, knight Terence Dermot, Sr. alderman
Dublin County Simon Luttrell Luttrellstowne Patrick Sarsfield Lucan
Newcastle Thomas Arthur Colganstown John Talbot Belgard
Swords Francis Barnwall Woodparke, Co. Meath Robert Russell Drynham
Dublin University Sir John Meade knight Joseph Coghlan
County Down
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Down County Murtogh Mac Gennis Green-Castle Ever Mac Gennis Castlewellan
Killyleagh (also Killileagh) Bernard Mac Gennis Ballygorianbeg Torl O'Neile Drummekelly
Newry Rowland White Rowland Savage
County Galway
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Athenry James Talbot Mount Talbot Charles Daly Dunsandle
Galway Borough Oliver Martin John Kirwan
Galway County Sir Ulick Burke Glinsk Sir Walter Blake
Tuam James Lally Tullindaly William Bourk Carrowfrila
County Kerry
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Ardfert Col. Roger MacElligot Cornelius Mac Gillicuddy
Dingle (also Dingle Icouch) Edward Rice FitzJames Ballinelig, County Limerick John Hussey Culmullin
Kerry County Nicholas Brown Sir Thomas Crosby knight
Tralee Maurice Hussey Kerrys James Hackett alderman
County Kildare
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Athy William FitzGerald William Archbold
Harristown James Nihell Edmond FitzGerald
Kildare Borough Francis Leigh Robert Porter
Kildare County John Wogan George Aylmer
Naas Walter Lord Dungan Charles White
County Kilkenny
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Callan Walter Butler Thady Meagher
Gowran Colonel Robert Fielding womaniser Walter Kelly doctor of physick
Inistioge Edward FitzGerald James FitzGerald
Kilkenny City John Rooth Mayor James Bryan alderman
Kilkenny County John Grace Courtstown Robert Walsh Cloneneassy
Knocktopher Harvey Morres Henry Meagh
Thomastown Robert Grace Sr. Robert Grace Jr.
King's County (Offaly)
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Banagher Terence Coghlan Esq. Terence Coghlan gent.
King's County Heward Oxburgh Owen Carrol
Philipstown John Connor Heward Oxburgh
County Leitrim
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Jamestown Alexander Mac Donnell William Shanley
Leitrim Edmond Reynolds Iriel Farrell
County Limerick
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Askeaton John Bourke Cahirmoyhill Edward Rice
Kilmallock Sir William Hurley, Bt. John Lacy
Limerick City Nicholas Arthur alderman Thomas Harrold alderman
Limerick County Sir John FitzGerald, Bt. Gerald FitzGerald Knight of Glin
County Longford
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Lanesborough Oliver FitzGerald Roger Farrell
Longford County Roger Farrell Robert Farrell
St Johnstown Sir William Ellis knight Lt.-Col. James Nugent
County Louth
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Ardee Hugh Gernon John Babe
Carlingford Christopher Peppard FitzIgnatius Bryan Dermot
Dundalk Robert Dermot John Dowdall
Drogheda Henry Dowdall recorder Christopher Peppard FitzGeorge alderman
Louth Thomas Bellew William Talbot
County Mayo
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Castlebar John Bermingham portreeve Thomas Bourke
Mayo County Gerald Moore Walter Bourke
County Meath
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Athboy John Trynder Robert Longfield
Kells Patrick Everard John Delamare
Meath County Sir William Talbot, Bt. Sir Patrick Barnwall, Bt.
Navan Christopher Cusack Corballis Christopher Cusack Rathaldran
Ratoath John Hussey James FitzGerald
Trim Capt. Nicholas Cusacke Walter Nangle
County Monaghan
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Bryan Mac Mahon Hugh Mac Mahon
Queen's County (Laois)
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Ballynakill Sir Gregory Byrne, Bt. Oliver Grace Chief Remembrancer of the Exchequer
Maryborough Pierce Bryan Thady FitzPatrick
Portarlington Sir Henry Bond, Bt. Sir Thomas Hacket knight
Queen's County Sir Patrick Trant knight Edmond Morres
County Roscommon
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Boyle Capt. John King Terence Mac Dermot alderman
Roscommon Borough John Dillon John Kelly
Roscommon County Charles Kelly John Bourke
County Sligo
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Sligo Borough Terence Mac Donogh James French
Sligo County Henry Crofton Longford House, Beltra Oliver O'Gara
County Tipperary
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Cashel Denis Kearny alderman James Hackett alderman
Clonmel Nicholas White alderman John Bray alderman
Fethard Sir John Everard, Bt. James Tobin Fethard
Tipperary Nicholas Purcell Loughmore James Butler Graingebegg
County Tyrone
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Dungannon Arthur O'Neale Peter Donnelly Dungannon
Strabane Christopher Nugent Daniel Donnelly
Tyrone Colonel Gordon O'Neale Lewis Doe Dungannon
County Waterford
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Dungarvan John Hore Martin Hore
Waterford City John Porter Nicholas FitzGerald
Waterford County John Power Matthew Hore
County Westmeath
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Athboy John Nugent Donore Christopher Nugent Dardistown
Athlone Edmond Malone Ballynahoune Edmond Malone counsellor at law
Fore (also Fowre) Patrick Everard John Delamare
Kilbeggan Bryan Geoghegan Donore Charles Geoghegan Syonane
Mullingar Gerald Dillon prime sergeant Edmond Nugent Carlanstowne
Westmeath County William Nugent Hon. Col. Henry Dillon
County Wexford
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Bannow Francis Plowden Dr. Alexius Stafford
Clonmines (also Cloghmine) Edward Sherlock Dublin City Nicholas White Rosse, merhcant
Enniscorthy James Devereux Carigmenan Arthur Waddington portreeve
Fethard Rt Hon. Col. James Porter Capt. Nicholas Stafford
Gorey (also Newburgh) Abraham Strange Toberduffe Richard Doyle Kilcorky
New Ross Luke Dormer Richard Butler
Taghmon George Hore Polehore Walter Hore Harperstown
Wexford Borough William Talbot Francis Rooth merchant
Wexford County Walter Butler Monfin Patrick Colclough Mochury
County Wicklow
Constituency First Member Notes Second Member Notes
Blessington James Eustace Maurice Eustace
Carysfort Hugh Roe Byrne Pierce Archbold (upon default of whose appearance Bartholomew Polewhele)
Wicklow Borough Francis Toole Thomas Byrne
Wicklow County Richard Butler William Talbot

Later interpretation[edit]

That the Parliament had declared Ireland's autonomy was of interest to 19th century Irish nationalists, in particular the Young Irelander Thomas Davis[18] who wrote a history of the parliament as an inspiration to his fellow countrymen.[19]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "The Nation" paper, essays in several issues, 1843 by TO Davis; reprinted in 1893 as The Patriot Parliament of 1689: With its statutes, votes and proceedings" Edited with an introduction by the Hon. Sir Charles Gavan Duffy.
  2. ^ Bartlett, Thomas Ireland: a History Cambridge University Press (2010) p135
  3. ^ The Irish Parliament of James II, Celt e-text online, p.4
  4. ^ Harris, Tim Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy 1685-1720 Allen Lane (2006) p 439
  5. ^ Harris, Tim Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy 1685-1720 Allen Lane (2006) p 444
  6. ^ Simms, J.G. Jacobite Ireland 1685-91 Routledge and Kegan Paul (1969) p 80
  7. ^ Bartlett, Thomas Ireland: A History Cambridge University Press (2010) p 135
  8. ^ Harris, Tim Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy 1685-1720 Allen Lane (2006) p 441
  9. ^ Firth, C. H. A commentary on Macaulay's History of England, republished by Routledge (London 1964), pp 211-212. Macaulay wrote there were 3,000 such attainders. History of England from the Accession of James the Second (London, 1855), pp 216-220, had said that t
  10. ^ See also Butler, W. F. T. Confiscation in Irish History Talbot Press (Dublin 1917-1918), pp.215-216. "... if we follow King as corrected by Davis, between eighteen and nineteen hundred persons were attainted; and if we follow Harris, and a pamphlet cited by Davis as 'the List' the number may possibly be two thousand two hundred."
  11. ^ Hill, Christopher. The Century of Revolution, 1603-1714 Routledge 2nd edition (2001) p256
  12. ^ Text of Crown Recognition Act (Ireland) 1692
  13. ^ Harris, Tim Revolution:The Great Crisis of the British monarchy 1685-1720 Allen Lane (2006) p437
  14. ^ G.E.C., ed. Vicary Gibbs and H. Arthur Doubleday, The Complete Peerage, vol. III (1913) Appendix D.
  15. ^ The Complete Peerage, vol. III, p. 117.
  16. ^ John D'Alton, King James's Irish Army List, vol. II (1861) p. 413.
  17. ^ King James's Irish Army List, vol. II, p. 182.
  18. ^ Moody,T. W., Martin,F. X. & Byrne, F. J. A New History of Ireland, Volume 3: Early Modern Ireland 1534-1691 Oxford University Press (2009) p491
  19. ^ Sullivan, Eileen A. Thomas Davis Bucknell University Press; New edition (1979) pp25-26 & passim

External links[edit]


Lists of MPs in the House of Commons of the Parliament of Ireland (until 1800)