Patriotic Salvation Movement
After Idriss Déby, an army commander who participated in an unsuccessful plot against President Hissène Habré in 1989, fled to Sudan, he and his supporters, known as the April 1 Movement, operated from Sudan with Libyan backing and carried out attacks across the border into Chad. The MPS was founded in Sudan on March 10, 1990 through the merger of the April 1 Movement with other anti-Habre groups in exile. After a successful offensive in November 1990, Déby and the MPS came to power on December 2, 1990, when their forces entered N'Djamena, the Chadian capital.
Déby was the MPS candidate in the 1996 presidential election and won in a second round. He was again the MPS candidate in the presidential election of 20 May 2001, receiving 63.2% of the vote. In the parliamentary election held on 21 April 2002, the MPS won according to IPU Parline 113 out of 155 seats. In the May 2006 presidential election, Déby was re-elected with 64.7% of the vote.
- Bernard Lanne, "Chad: Regime Change, Increased Insecurity, and Blockage of Further Reforms", Political Reform in Francophone Africa (1997), ed. Clark and Gardinier, pages 274–275.
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