November 9, 1939 |
|Institutions||Stout State University
Wayne State University
University of Louisville
Fuller Theological Seminary
University of Nebraska
Family Research Institute
|Alma mater||Los Angeles Pacific College
California State University
University of Colorado at Boulder
Paul Drummond Cameron (born November 9, 1939) is an American psychologist and sex researcher. While employed at various institutions including the University of Nebraska he conducted research on passive smoking, but he is best known today for his claims about homosexuality. After a successful 1982 campaign against a gay rights proposal in Lincoln, Nebraska, he established the Institute for the Scientific Investigation of Sexuality (ISIS), now known as the Family Research Institute (FRI). As FRI's chairman, Cameron has written papers associating homosexuality with perpetration of child sexual abuse and reduced life expectancy.
In 1983, the American Psychological Association expelled Cameron for non-cooperation with an ethics investigation. Position statements issued by the American Sociological Association, Canadian Psychological Association and the Nebraska Psychological Association have accused Cameron of misrepresenting social science research.
Early life and career
Cameron was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S., on November 9, 1939. His family moved shortly afterwards to Florida. He received a BA from Los Angeles Pacific College in 1961, an MA from California State University in Los Angeles the following year and a PhD from the University of Colorado at Boulder in 1966. He held posts as an assistant psychology professor at University of Wisconsin–Stout (1966–67) and Wayne State University (1967–68), before becoming an associate professor at the University of Louisville (1970–73) and the Fuller Graduate School of Psychology (part of the Fuller Theological Seminary) (1976–79). In 1979, he became an associate professor of Marriage and Family at the University of Nebraska.
During this period, Cameron conducted research on a variety of topics, including the effects of passive smoking and the relation between pet ownership and happiness. In his 1978 book Sexual Gradualism, he supported a middle ground between liberal and conservative Christian attitudes to sexuality, arguing that teenagers should avoid intercourse while experimenting with lower "levels" of sexual intimacy.
In 1980, Cameron left the University of Nebraska and took up private practice as a psychologist in Lincoln, Nebraska. In 1982, when the Lincoln city council asked residents to vote on a proposal to ban discrimination based on sexual orientation, Cameron led the opposition as chairman of the Committee to Oppose Special Rights for Homosexuals. Despite his earlier moderate position on teenage relationships, Cameron had come to take a hard-line stance on the topic of homosexuality. He has stated that his approach, emphasizing the harms he believed to be caused by homosexual behavior and its acceptance, was influenced by his work on the "lethal" behavior of smokers.
During the campaign in Lincoln, Cameron delivered a speech at the University of Nebraska Lutheran chapel. This drew much attention after he stated that a four-year-old boy had suffered a brutal homosexual assault in a local mall. Police were unable to confirm the incident, and Cameron acknowledged that he had heard the story only as a rumor. On May 11, Lincoln voters rejected the proposed measure by a 4–1 margin.
Cameron claims to have been molested by a male at 4 years of age, and having a "much more positive experience" with a female a year later.
He also claims to have been starting feeling sexual attraction to men at three years of age (but that he became heterosexual at 8–9 years of age).
Family Research Institute
In 1982, Cameron co-founded the Institute for the Scientific Investigation of Sexuality in Lincoln. Believing that earlier sex surveys, including those conducted by Playboy magazine, had overestimated the prevalence of homosexuality, Cameron set out in 1983 to conduct what he described as "a fair sexuality poll, not one based on volunteers". His expectation was that the results would support his case for a ban on homosexual acts throughout the United States. Funding, according to Cameron, was provided by businessmen including several Nebraska chief executives. The 1983 ISIS Survey, an "extensive self-administered questionnaire", was offered to 9,129 adults in five U.S. cities, and 4,340 responses were received. In 1984, these were supplemented with data from 824 adults from Dallas.
ISIS was shortly afterwards renamed the Family Research Institute (FRI) and moved to Washington, D.C.. In 1995 FRI changed location again, this time to Colorado Springs, Colorado, where it remains based. In his capacity as FRI's chairman, Cameron has authored both popular pamphlets[which?] and scientific articles on the topic of homosexuality. The cover photograph for Cameron's pamphlet Child Molestation and Homosexuality depicted "a young boy being pulled into a men's bathroom", while Murder, Violence and Homosexuality showed "a little girl cowering beneath an arm wielding an ax". Many of Cameron's scientific articles have been based on the 1983–1984 ISIS survey, including a 1996 paper that concluded based on participants' answers concerning their teachers that homosexual teachers could influence their students to become homosexual.
Another of Cameron's conclusions, based partly on his studies of obituaries in gay newspapers, is that homosexuals as a group have a median age of death about 20 years lower than that of heterosexuals. After analyzing official data from Denmark, which allowed same-sex unions in 1989, and Norway, which allowed same-sex marriage in 2009, Cameron reported in 2007 that "married lesbians lived to age 56 and married gay men to age 52". Cameron states that many victims of child sexual abuse are the same sex as their abusers – one FRI study on sexual abuse by foster parents in Illinois reported that 34% of perpetrators were guilty of same-sex abuse – and concludes that "there is a strong, disproportionate association between child molestation and homosexuality".
Cameron was quoted in Rolling Stone as saying that homosexual sex was more pleasurable than most heterosexual sex, and as a result, if homosexuality were tolerated then it would become predominant within a few generations.
Cameron's publications have been cited as support by some groups who oppose same-sex marriage and allowing homosexuals to become foster or adoptive parents, including the Traditional Values Coalition. Cameron testified in the case Baker v. Wade (1985). In 1992, Gale Norton, then the Attorney General of Colorado, employed Cameron as a consultant when defending a law preventing the extension of civil rights legislation to homosexuals. Cameron's testimony went unused, and the law was struck down by the Supreme Court. Cameron campaigned against a gay-rights initiative in Maine in 2000, testified in favor of the failed Virginia Anti-Gay Adoption Bill in 2005, and opposed a 2007 Colorado bill intended to allow cohabiting couples to adopt. He was tricked into appearing in Sacha Baron Cohen's 2009 mockumentary film Brüno. Southern Poverty Law Center has classed the Family Research Institute as a hate group.
For the most part, official scientific organisations have paid very little attention to Cameron's studies, and thus extensive scientific analysis of his claims have not been widely available. However Cameron's research, public statements and legal testimony have received criticism from researchers and organizations over methodologies they view as academically dishonest and misleading.
From professional organizations
The American Psychological Association (APA) launched an investigation into Cameron after receiving complaints about his work from members. The APA President Max Seigel sent Cameron a letter on December 2, 1983 stating that the Board of Directors had decided to drop him from membership for failure to cooperate with their investigation. FRI has contended that Cameron had already resigned from the organization in November 1982, citing correspondence from before his formal expulsion. In a letter published in the March 1983 edition of the APA Monitor, Cameron stated that his reasons for leaving included his opinion that the organization was becoming more of a "liberal PAC" than a professional society. The APA, however, does not allow the resignation of a member who is the subject of an ethics investigation. An APA spokesperson told The Boston Globe in 2005, "We are concerned about Dr. Cameron because we do believe that his methodology is weak."
In 1984 the Nebraska Psychological Association issued a statement disassociating itself "from the representations and interpretations of scientific literature offered by Dr. Paul Cameron". In 1986 the American Sociological Association passed a resolution stating, “The American Sociological Association officially and publicly states that Paul Cameron is not a sociologist, and condemns his consistent misrepresentation of sociological research.” This was based on a report from the ASA's Committee on the Status of Homosexuals in Sociology, which summarised Cameron's inflammatory statements and commented, "It does not take great analytical abilities to suspect from even a cursory review of Cameron's writings that his claims have almost nothing to do with social science and that social science is used only to cover over another agenda. Very little of his work could find support from even a bad misreading of genuine social science investigation on the subject and some sociologists, such as Alan Bell, have been 'appalled' at the abuse of their work." In 1996, the Board of Directors of the Canadian Psychological Association approved a position statement disassociating the organisation from Cameron's work on sexuality, stating that he had "consistently misinterpreted and misrepresented research on sexuality, homosexuality, and lesbianism".
After Cameron submitted affidavits to the U. S. District Court of Dallas in Baker v. Wade (1985), Judge Buchmeyer wrote in his opinion that Cameron had engaged in "fraud" and "misrepresentations to this Court" noting that, "His sworn statement that 'homosexuals are approximately 43 times more apt to commit crimes than is the general population' is a total distortion of the Kinsey data upon which he relies – which, as is obvious to anyone who reads the report, concerns data from a non-representative sample of delinquent homosexuals (and Dr. Cameron compares this group to college and non-college heterosexuals)." Buchmeyer's decision was reversed by the Fifth Circuit on other grounds, without mentioning Buchmeyer's finding that Cameron had made misrepresentations. FRI has disputed Judge Buchmeyer's assessment of Cameron's affidavits.
Epidemiologists Morten Frisch and Henrik Brønnum-Hansen argue that Cameron was wrong to infer reduced life expectancy from the fact that deaths among homosexually married partners in Denmark and Norway occurred at a lower median age than those among heterosexually married partners: "Because the age distribution among persons in same-sex marriages was considerably younger than that of people who had ever been heterosexually married, the average age at death among those who actually died during the observation period was, not surprisingly, considerably younger in the population of same-sex married persons." Their own analysis found that excess mortality in Danish same-sex marriages since 1995 was "restricted to the first few years after a marriage, presumably reflecting preexisting illness at the time of marriage". Similarly, critics have argued that obituaries in gay-themed newspapers, which Cameron used to estimate homosexual mortality, do not provide a representative sample of deaths and ignore surviving members of the same generation.
Cameron has also been criticized for placing responsibility for same-sex child sexual abuse on "homosexuals"; opponents state that someone who carries out such abuse need not have a homosexual orientation with respect to other adults. Gregory M. Herek, a psychologist specialising in prejudice against sexual minorities, charges that Cameron misrepresented the literature he had reviewed and cited to support his claims, such as a Groth and Birnbaum (1978) study in which none of the participating child molestors actually identified as homosexuals, and none of those who were bisexual claimed to prefer men over women. Furthermore, while Cameron assumed all the same-sex molestations were perpetrated by homosexuals, he did not assume all the opposite-sex molestations were perpetrated by heterosexuals; he included a "bisexual correction" only for opposite-sex molestations that effectively increased the number of perpetrators described as "homosexual" without changing the number described as "heterosexual".
Herek noted that most of the Cameron group's academic publications in the past 15 years have been based on a survey study conducted in 1983 and 1984. The main survey was completed in seven U.S. cities and towns in 1983. Data were later added from a 1984 Dallas (TX) sample. Most of the Cameron group's papers have reported data from the combined samples. According to Herek, a critical review of the Cameron group's sampling techniques, survey methodology, and interpretation of results reveals at least six serious errors in their study. Herek concludes, "an empirical study manifesting even one of these six weaknesses would be considered seriously flawed. In combination, the multiple methodological problems evident in the Cameron group's surveys mean that their results cannot even be considered a valid description of the specific group of individuals who returned the survey questionnaire. Because the data are essentially meaningless, it is not surprising that they have been virtually ignored by the scientific community." "The Cameron group has published its empirical research in academic journals with low prestige and, at least in the case of Psychological Reports, with a low rejection rate and a publication fee required from authors. Given the serious methodological flaws in their survey studies and obituary study, it is reasonable to conclude that the Cameron group's papers would have been rejected by more prestigious scientific journals. Other than the Cameron group itself, researchers have not cited their empirical studies as a source of ideas for new research on sexual orientation. Nor have scientists cited the group's papers to support assertions about the dangers to society posed by homosexuals."
In a widely publicized interview with Midweek Politics with David Pakman, Cameron compared homosexuality to drug use, a comparison that drew criticism from a number of gay rights blogs, websites, and the Huffington Post.
- Paul Cameron (1977). The Life Cycle: Perspectives and Commentary. Oceanside, NY: Dabor Science Publications. ISBN 0-89561-057-4.
- Paul Cameron (1978). Sexual Gradualism: A Solution to the Sexual Dilemma of Teen-agers and Young Adults. Sun Valley, CA: HumLife Publications. OCLC 5028575.
- Paul Cameron (1988). Exposing the AIDS Scandal. Lafayette, LA: Huntington House. ISBN 0-910311-52-8.
- Paul Cameron (1993). The Gay 90s: What the Empirical Evidence Reveals about Homosexuality. Franklin, Tenn.: Adroit Press. ISBN 1-884067-01-8.
Notes and references
- UC Davis. "Paul Cameron Bio and Fact Sheet". Retrieved 2013-05-13.
- Marquis Who's Who LLC. (2007-02-02). "Cameron, Paul Drummond". The Complete Marquis Who's Who Biographies (LexisNexis ed.).
- Ward Harkavy (October 3, 1996). "Slay It With a Smile: Paul Cameron's mission to stop homosexuality is hard to swallow". Westword. Retrieved 2006-02-20.
- Michael Kranish (July 31, 2005). "Beliefs drive research agenda of new think tanks". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2006-08-31.
- Associated Press (1982-05-12). "Lincoln Rejects Gay Rights Measure" (LexisNexis reprint ).
-  interview on David Pacman of Cameron including the claimed abuse of him and his sexual attraction (11:30 in interview)
- James Allen Flanery (May 23, 1983). "Lincoln Man: Poll Will Help Oppose Gays" (GIF reprint). Omaha World-Herald. Retrieved 2007-04-12.
- Paul Cameron; Kirk Cameron (November 1996). "Do Homosexual Teachers Pose a Risk to Pupils?". Journal of Psychology 130 (6): 603–613. doi:10.1080/00223980.1996.9915034.
- Cameron, P., Playfair, W. L., & Wellum, S. (1994). The longevity of homosexuals: Before and after the AIDS epidemic. Omega, 29, 249-272.
- "New Study Shows that Homosexuals Live 20 Fewer Years" (Press release). Family Research Institute. June 7, 2005. Retrieved 2007-02-20.
- "Norwegian law on marriage as of 2009.1.1".
- Linda Zhang (March 29, 2007). "New Study Finds Early Death in Gay 'Marriages'". The Christian Post. Retrieved 2009-01-31.
- Family Research Institute. "Homosexual Child Molestations By Foster Parents: Illinois, 1997-2002". Archived from the original on February 18, 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-25.
- Paul Cameron (1993). Child Molestation and Homosexuality. FRI educational pamphlets. Colorado Springs: Family Research Institute. Retrieved 2007-02-25.
- Robert Dreyfuss (March 18, 1999). "The Holy war On Gays". Rolling Stone.
- Baker v. Wade, 106 F.R.D. 526 (1985-07-01). . Retrieved on 2007-02-20.
- "Antigay adoption bill rejected in Virginia". Advocate.com. February 18, 2005. Retrieved 2007-02-25.
- April M. Washington (April 3, 2007). "Amid debate on gays, Senate panel approves adoption bill". Rocky Mountain News. Archived from the original on April 20, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-15.
- Reed Tucker (July 7, 2009). "Duper freak: Bruno's victims speak out! How Sacha Baron Cohen fooled another army of suckers". New York Post. Retrieved 2009-07-09.
- Family Research Institute (2006). "FRI Scientists". Archived from the original on October 9, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-03.
- Max Seigel (1983-12-02). "Letter to Paul Cameron". Retrieved 2007-02-20.
- Family Research Institute (November–December 1994). "Revisiting New Republic's Attack on Cameron" (– Scholar search). Family Research Report. Archived from the original on February 19, 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-20. [dead link]
- Paul Cameron (March 1983). "Withdrawing". APA Monitor. Retrieved 2007-02-20.
- American Psychological Association. "APA Ethics Committee Rules". Retrieved 2013-05-13.
- American Sociological Association (February 1987). "Official Reports and Proceedings" (PDF). Footnotes 15 (2): 13–16, p. 14. Retrieved 2009-01-31.
- Committee on the Status of Homosexuals in Sociology (January 1987). "The Cameron Case" (PDF). Footnotes 15 (1): 4, 6. Retrieved 2009-01-31.
- Canadian Psychological Association. "Policy Statements". Retrieved 2007-02-20.
- Baker v. Wade, 769 F.2d 289 (5th Cir. 1985). .[need quotation to verify]
- Family Research Institute (September 2004). "Judge Buchmeyer: A Liar" (– Scholar search). Family Research Report 19 (5). Archived from the original on 2008-01-29. Retrieved 2007-02-20. [dead link]
- Morten Frisch; Henrik Brønnum-Hansen (January 2009). "Mortality Among Men and Women in Same-Sex Marriage: A National Cohort Study of 8333 Danes". American Journal of Public Health 99 (1): 133–137. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2008.133801. PMC 2636618. PMID 19008504.
- Walter Olson (December 19, 1997). "William Bennett, Gays, and the Truth: Mr. Virtue dabbles in phony statistics". Slate (MSN). Retrieved 2009-01-31.
- Gregory M. Herek (1991). "Myths About Sexual Orientation: A Lawyer's Guide to Social Science Research". Law and Sexuality 1: 133–172, pp. 153–156.
- Carl Bialik (April 28, 2005). "Debate Over Gay Foster Parents Shines Light on a Dubious Stat". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2007-02-25.
- Gregory M. Herek (1997–2007). "Facts About Homosexuality and Child Molestation". Retrieved 2007-09-06.
- Gregory M. Herek (1997–2007). "Critique of Surveys by the Paul Cameron Group". Retrieved 2007-09-06.
- Gregory M. Herek: Publication Outlets Used By The Cameron Group
- Midweek Politics with David Pakman - Interview with Anti-Gay Paul Cameron - Part 1
- McEwen, Alvin (15 Feb 2010). "Discredited Researcher: Gays in the Military Want to Rape Their Fellow Servicemen". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
- Family Research Institute website
- Mark E. Pietrzyk, "Queer Science" Independent Gay Forum
- "A Mighty Army", Southern Poverty Law Center -- profile of the Family Research Institute
- Gregory M. Herek, "Paul Cameron Bio and Fact Sheet"