He continued his success the following year in the California League, where he was selected as an all-star as well as the league's Most Valuable Player. He was also named the Arizona Diamondbacks Minor League Player of the Year. In 2011, he was again named the Diamondbacks' player of the year, a Baseball America first-team Minor League All-Star, Double-A all-star first baseman, Southern League all-star first baseman, and Southern League Most Valuable Player.
Overall, Goldschmidt hit .317 with a .407 on-base percentage and 83 home runs in two and a half minor league seasons.
Goldschmidt was called up to the majors on August 1, 2011, becoming the first Texas State position player to play in the major leagues. At the time of his call-up, he was leading the minors with 30 home runs. Goldschmidt tallied a base hit hit in his first at-bat on August 1, and hit his first home run the next day off of San Francisco Giants pitcher Tim Lincecum. In his rookie season, Goldschmidt batted .250 with 8 home runs and 26 RBI in 48 games.
In Game 3 of the NLDS playoffs against the Brewers, Goldschmidt hit a grand slam home run to extend the team's lead in its first victory of the series. His homer was the third grand slam by a rookie in MLB postseason history. The Diamondbacks lost the series in five games, and Goldschmidt batted .438 with 6 RBI and an OBP of .526.
During the 2013 MLB season, Goldschmidt was selected to the National League all-star team. Goldschmidt collected one of only three hits for the National League team, and the only extra-base hit, when he doubled with two outs in the ninth inning. On August 13, he hit a game-tying home run against the Baltimore Orioles in the bottom of the ninth inning to send the game into extra innings. Goldschmidt then hit a walk-off home run in the bottom of the eleventh, becoming the first Diamondbacks player to record game-tying and walk-off home runs in the same game.