Paul Joseph James Martin
|The Right Honorable
Paul Joseph James Martin
PC, CC, QC
|Senator for Windsor-Walkerville, Ontario|
April 20, 1968 – October 30, 1974
|Appointed by||Pierre Trudeau|
|Member of the Canadian Parliament
for Essex East
|Preceded by||Raymond Morand|
|Succeeded by||Riding was abolished in 1966|
|Born||Joseph James Guillaume Paul Martin
June 23, 1903
|Died||September 14, 1992
|Spouse(s)||Eleanor Alice "Nelly" Adams|
|Cabinet||Secretary of State of Canada (1945–1946)
Minister of National Health and Welfare (1946–1957)
Minister of Labour (Acting) (1950)
Secretary of State for External Affairs (1963–1968)
Minister Without Portfolio (1968–1969)
|Committees||Chairman, Special Committee on Prices (1947–1948)|
|Portfolio||Parliamentary Assistant to the Minister of Labour (1943–1945)
Leader of the Government in the Senate (1969–1974)
Joseph James Guillaume Paul Martin, PC CC QC (June 23, 1903 – September 14, 1992), often referred to as Paul Martin, Sr, was a noted Canadian politician. He was the father of Paul Martin (Jr.), who served as Prime Minister of Canada from 2003–2006.
Martin was born in Ottawa, Ontario, the son of Lumina (née Chouinard) and Joseph Philippe Ernest Martin. His Irish Catholic paternal grandfather's family immigrated from County Mayo, while his mother and paternal grandmother were French Canadian.
Martin contracted polio in 1907 (his son, Paul Martin (Jr.), contracted the disease in 1946). Martin was raised in Pembroke, Ontario, in the Ottawa River Valley, although he attended high school at Collège Saint-Alexandre in Gatineau, Quebec. He completed his university education at the University of Toronto, and earned his law degree from Osgoode Hall Law School. Later, Martin studied at the Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, on a scholarship.
Martin later opened a law practice in Windsor, Ontario.
A member of the Liberal Party of Canada, he was first elected to the House of Commons in 1935 and entered the cabinet in 1945. He went on to serve as a noted member of the cabinets of four Prime Ministers: William Lyon Mackenzie King, Louis St. Laurent, Lester B. Pearson and Pierre Trudeau.
Martin was viewed as one of the most left-wing members of the Liberal cabinet, and as Minister of National Health and Welfare from 1946 to 1957 he played an important role in the fight against polio and overseeing the creation of hospital insurance in Canada, and is sometimes recognized as a father of medicare. Martin served as Secretary of State for External Affairs in the Pearson government, and was instrumental in the acquisition of U.S. nuclear weapons for Canadian Forces.
Liberal leadership bids
He ran for the Liberal leadership three times, in 1948, in 1958 and 1968, but was defeated at all three Liberal leadership conventions, first by Louis St. Laurent, then by Lester B. Pearson, then by Pierre Trudeau.
Senator and beyond
Trudeau appointed him to the Senate in 1968. He served as Leader of the Government in the Senate until 1974 when he was appointed High Commissioner to the United Kingdom. He also served as Chancellor of Wilfrid Laurier University from 1972–1977, as a result of which the university named the Paul Martin Centre in his honour. Until his death Paul Martin was an Adjunct Professor of Political Science at the University of Windsor.
In 1976 he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada. In recognition of his accomplishments, Martin was granted the right to use the honorific Right Honourable in 1992, a rare honour for one who has never been Prime Minister, Governor-General or Chief Justice of Canada.
The University of Windsor has a Paul Martin Chair in law and political science, recently held by former Manitoba Premier Howard Pawley (until his retirement from the University of Windsor), and the Paul Martin Law Library. The City of Windsor had also renamed their "Post Office Building" the Paul Martin Sr. Building in his honour on November 18, 1994.
- Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia (LL.D) in 1950
- University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia (LL.D) on June 2, 1966
- Essex East
|Canadian federal election, 1935|
|Conservative||MORAND, Hon. Raymond D.||6,493||33.71||-22.73|
|Co-operative Commonwealth||LEVERT, Joseph Ben||4,106||21.32|
|Reconstruction||MCPHARLIN, J. Gabriel||1,102||5.72|
|Total valid votes||19,263||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1940|
|National Government||MORAND, Hon. Raymond D.||8,060||38.11||+4.40|
|Co-operative Commonwealth||LEVERT, Joseph Ben||2,879||13.62||-7.70|
|Canadian Labour||HICKS, Roy Robert||398||1.88|
|Total valid votes||21,148||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1945|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||16,165||56.21||+9.82|
|Progressive Conservative||BYRNE, James E.||8,244||28.67||-9.44|
|Co-operative Commonwealth||MACDONALD, William C.||4,349||15.12||+1.50|
|Total valid votes||28,758||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1949|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||16,709||52.89||-3.32|
|Progressive Conservative||TURNBULL, James Russell||8,204||25.97||-2.70|
|Co-operative Commonwealth||RIGGS, William Charles||5,213||16.50||+1.38|
|Total valid votes||31,590||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1953|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||19,946||67.16||+14.27|
|Progressive Conservative||KENNEDY, Aloysius||5,530||18.62||-7.35|
|Co-operative Commonwealth||OWEN, Kenneth Edwin||3,013||10.14||-6.36|
|Labor–Progressive||KENNEDY, Michael J.||1,212||4.08||-0.56|
|Total valid votes||29,701||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1957|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||22,023||57.15||-10.01|
|Progressive Conservative||HICKS, Roy R.||10,593||27.49||+8.87|
|Co-operative Commonwealth||METEER, Jack||5,917||15.36||+5.22|
|Total valid votes||38,533||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1958|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||18,074||41.98||-15.17|
|Progressive Conservative||HICKS, Roy R.||16,451||38.21||+10.72|
|Co-operative Commonwealth||BURR, Fred A.||8,530||19.81||+4.45|
|Total valid votes||43,055||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1962|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||24,969||58.69||+16.71|
|New Democratic||DRURY, George||8,888||20.89||+1.08|
|Progressive Conservative||DEMERS, Roland Lionel||8,210||19.30||-18.91|
|Social Credit||CORY, T.R.||476||1.12|
|Total valid votes||42,543||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1963|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||25,727||59.82||+1.13|
|Progressive Conservative||GOURLIE, David||8,894||20.68||+1.38|
|New Democratic||MCCONVILLE, Hugh||7,648||17.78||-3.11|
|Social Credit||GIGNAC, Frank||740||1.72||+0.60|
|Total valid votes||43,009||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1965|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||26,094||63.78||+3.96|
|Progressive Conservative||GOURLIE, David||8,142||19.90||-0.78|
|New Democratic||MCCONVILLE, Hugh||6,133||14.99||-2.79|
|Communist||MAGNUSON, Bruce A.H.||543||1.33|
|Total valid votes||40,912||100.00|
- Martin, Paul (1983). A Very Public Life: Far from home. Deneau. p. 2. ISBN 0-88879-092-9.
- Disabled World
- Clearwater, J. "Canadian Nuclear Weapons.", Chapter 1. Dundurn Press, 1998.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paul Joseph James Martin.|
- Paul Joseph James Martin – Parliament of Canada biography
- Order of Canada citation
- A retiring Paul Martin gives a CBC Interview