Watson, with the MY Steve Irwin docked in Hobart, in 2009
December 2, 1950 |
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
|Occupation||Activist, television personality|
|Spouse(s)||Starlet Melody Lum
Lisa Ann DiStefano
The Toronto native joined a Sierra Club protest against nuclear testing in 1969. He was an early and influential member of Greenpeace, crewed and skippered for it, and later was a board member. He has been credited by The New York Times, The New Yorker and other publications with being a founder of Greenpeace, but Greenpeace denies the claim. Watson argued for a strategy of direct action that conflicted with the Greenpeace interpretation of nonviolence, was ousted from the board in 1977, and subsequently left the organization. That same year, he formed Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. The group is the subject of a reality show, Whale Wars.
Watson's activities have led to legal action from authorities in countries including the United States, Canada, Norway, Costa Rica, and Japan. After skipping bail following an arrest in Germany, on August 9, 2012 Interpol issued a red notice requesting his arrest. A second red notice was issued on September 14, 2012, this time at request from Japan.
After hiding at sea for 15 months he returned to Los Angeles late October 2013. He appeared before a U.S. appeals court on November 6, 2013 stating that neither he nor Sea Shepherd violated a 2012 order requiring them to leave whaling vessels alone. Since he has not been charged with a crime in the United States he remains free until the court rules on his 21 pending contempt charges. He is barred from any Sea Shepherd activity and it would be unwise for him to travel to any country which honors the Interpol notice against him for his extradition to Japan. He currently lives in Vermont, writing books.
- 1 Early and personal life
- 2 Activism
- 3 Controversy
- 3.1 Separation from Greenpeace
- 3.2 Charges and prosecutions
- 3.3 Sierra Club immigration stance
- 3.4 Anti-sealing activities
- 3.5 Australian visa issues
- 3.6 Anti-whaling activities and alleged shooting
- 3.7 Accusations of terrorism
- 3.8 Comments following 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami
- 3.9 Criticism of New Zealand over whaling
- 4 Reactions to activism and leadership
- 5 List of works
- 6 See also
- 7 Further reading
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Early and personal life
According to the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, Paul Watson was born in Toronto to Anthony Joseph Watson and Annamarie Larsen, and grew up in St. Andrews, New Brunswick. After working as a tour guide at Expo 67, the World's Fair that took place in Montreal in 1967, Watson went to Vancouver.
According to the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, in 1968 and the early 1970s, he joined the Canadian Coast Guard, where he served aboard weatherships, search and rescue hovercraft, and buoy tenders. He signed up as a merchant seaman in 1969 with the Norwegian Consulate in Vancouver and shipped out on the 35,000 ton bulk carrier Bris as a deck hand. The Bris was registered in Oslo, Norway and manifested for the Indian Ocean and Pacific trade.
Watson has one daughter Lilliolani (born 1980) with his first wife, Starlet Lum, who was a founding director of Greenpeace Quebec, Earthforce!, Project Wolf, and Sea Shepherd. His second wife, Lisa Distefano, a former Playboy model, was Sea Shepherd's Director of Operations during the Makah anti-whaling campaigns in Friday Harbor. His third wife, Allison Lance, is an animal rights activist and a volunteer crew member of Sea Shepherd. Watson has one grandchild.
In October 1969, Watson joined a Sierra Club protest against nuclear testing at Amchitka Island. The group which formed as a result of that protest was the Don't Make a Wave Committee, which evolved into the group known today as Greenpeace. Watson sailed as a crewmember aboard the Greenpeace Too! ship in 1971 and skippered the Greenpeace boat Astral in 1972. Paul Watson continued as a crew member, skipper, and officer aboard several Greenpeace voyages throughout the mid-1970s.
According to The New Yorker, The New York Times and other sources, Watson was a founding member of Greenpeace, but the organization denies this stating he "was an influential early member but not, as he sometimes claims, a founder." Greenpeace claims that Watson joined Greenpeace on its Amchitka expedition, which they claim to be their second expedition, but Paul Watson claims that this was Greenpeace's first meeting.
Sea Shepherd Conservation Society
The first Sea Shepherd vessel, the Sea Shepherd, was purchased in December 1978 with assistance from Fund for Animals. Sea Shepherd soon established itself as one of the more controversial environmental groups, known for provocative direct action tactics. These tactics have included throwing objects onto the decks of whaling ships, the use of "prop foulers" in an attempt to sabotage the ships, boarding whaling vessels, and the scuttling of two ships in an Icelandic harbor. Watson uses the title "captain" although, as of November 2007, he had never been licensed as a ship's captain. In January 2012, Watson relinquished captaincy of the Steve Irwin. The organization and its activities to halt whaling are the focus of a reality TV series, Whale Wars, airing on Animal Planet.
In 2010, Watson personally received more than $120,000 from Sea Shepherd.
Because of mounting legal complications, Watson has stepped down as head of the Sea Shepherds in 2013, to abide by an injunction barring him from proximity with Japanese whaling ships.
Other environmental activities
Watson was a field correspondent for Defenders of Wildlife from 1976 to 1980 and a field representative for the Fund for Animals from 1978 to 1981. Watson also was a co-founder of Friends of the Wolf and Earthforce Environmental Society.
During the 1980s, Watson declared his support for Earth First! and cultivated friendships with David Foreman and Edward Abbey. He proclaimed Sea Shepherd to be the "navy" of Earth First! According to the New Yorker, Watson revived the 19th century practice of tree spiking. Watson ran as an independent candidate in the 1980 Canadian Federal election in Vancouver centre, proclaiming he wasn't a politician but an environmentalist. He received less than 100 votes. Watson did work with the Green Party of British Columbia in Vancouver in the 1980s and 90s. He ran for mayor in 1996, placing fourth.
In April 2003, Watson was elected to the board of directors of the Sierra Club for a three-year term. In 2006, he did not seek re-election. He resigned from the board a month before his term ended, in protest against the organization's sponsorship of a "Why I Hunt" essay contest.
Watson feels that "no human community should be larger than 20,000 people," human populations need to be reduced radically to "fewer than one billion," and only those who are "completely dedicated to the responsibility" of caring for the biosphere should have children, which is a "very small percentage of humans." He likens humankind to a virus, the biosphere needs to get cured from with a "radical and invasive approach," as from cancer.
Writings on activism
Watson published Earthforce!, a guide to strategy for environmental activists in 1993. In it, he specifically endorsed the tactics of "monkeywrenching" previously described by Dave Foreman and Edward Abbey. According to Foreman in Eco-Defense—The Field Guide to Monkey-Wrenching, these are tactics of sabotage, covert activity, and direct action. Watson says he incorporated his own personal experience in writing the book.
In Earthforce! An Earth Warrior’s Guide to Strategy, Watson expressed disdain for the truthfulness of mainstream media:
The nature of the mass media today is such that the truth is irrelevant. What is true and what is right to the general public is what is defined as true and right by the mass media. Ronald Reagan understood that the facts are not relevant. The media reported what he said as fact. Follow-up investigation was "old news." A headline comment on Monday’s newspaper far outweighs the revelation of inaccuracy revealed in a small box inside the paper on Tuesday or Wednesday.
Watson was explicit about what he perceived to be the lack of truthfulness in mass media: "If you do not know an answer, a fact, or a statistic, then simply follow the example of an American President and do as Ronald Reagan did—make it up on the spot and deliver the information confidently and without hesitation." In a subsequent book, Ocean Warrior, Watson expanded on this view, saying: "Survival in a media culture meant developing the skills to understand and manipulate media to achieve strategic objectives."
Separation from Greenpeace
Paul Watson continued as a crewmember, officer, and skipper (in 1972) aboard several Greenpeace voyages throughout the mid-1970s. He considers himself a founding member of Greenpeace and Greenpeace International, a claim Greenpeace disputes. According to an influential member, "No one doubted [Watson's] courage for a moment. He was a great warrior-brother. Yet in terms of the Greenpeace gestalt, he seemed possessed by too powerful a drive, too unrelenting a desire to push himself front and center, shouldering everyone else aside."
In 1977, Watson was expelled from the Greenpeace's board of directors by a vote of 11 to 1 (Watson himself cast the single vote against it). The group felt his strong, "front and center" personality and frequently voiced opposition to Greenpeace's interpretation of "nonviolence" were too divisive. Watson subsequently left the group. The group has since labeled his actions at the time as those of a "mutineer" within their ranks. That same year, he founded his own group, the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society.
During an interview in 1978 with CBC Radio, Watson spoke out against Greenpeace (as well as other organizations) and their role and motives for the anti-sealing campaigns. Watson accused these organizations of campaigning against the Canadian seal hunt because it is an easy way to raise money and it is a profit maker for the organizations.
Greenpeace has called Watson a violent extremist and will no longer comment on his activities.
Charges and prosecutions
Watson was sentenced to 10 days in prison and fined $8,000 for his actions during a Canadian seal hunt protest in 1980. He was convicted of assaulting a peace officer. He was also found guilty under the Seal Protection Act for painting harp seal pups with red dye to devalue their pelts. Watson was arrested in 1993 in Canada on charges stemming from actions against Cuban and Spanish fishing boats off the coast of Newfoundland. In 1997, Watson was convicted in absentia and sentenced to serve 120 days in jail by a court in Lofoten, Norway on charges of attempting to sink the small scale Norwegian fishing and whaling vessel Nybrænna on December 26, 1992. Dutch authorities refused to hand him over to Norwegian authorities although he did spend 80 days in detention in the Netherlands pending a ruling on extradition before being released.
There have not been any successful attempts at prosecuting Watson for his activities with Sea Shepherd since the trial in Newfoundland. Watson defends his actions as falling within international law, in particular Sea Shepherd's right to enforce maritime regulations against illegal whalers and sealers.
Watson was also told to leave Iceland after disabling two ships in harbor and turning himself in to the Icelandic police. Kristjan Loftsson of Iceland's largest whaling company told The New Yorker that Watson is persona non grata in that country.
In April 2010 the Japanese Coast Guard obtained an arrest warrant for Watson "...on suspicion of ordering sabotage activities against Japan's whaling fleet", and Interpol has listed him as wanted at the request of Japan. The blue notice asks national police forces to provide information on Watson's whereabouts and activities, but does not seek an arrest. The blue notice has been replaced by a red notice. Categories of offense are described as "Life and health, Hooliganism/vandalism/damage".
In May 2012 Watson was detained by German authorities at the Frankfurt Airport because of a request from the government of Costa Rica. The charge stemmed from an altercation in 2002 in which Sea Shepherd contends that the other vessel was shark finning in Guatemalan waters. Members of the other involved ship said that Sea Shepherd was trying to kill them. Watson was charged with violating navigational regulations. The conflict took place during filming for the documentary Sharkwater. On May 21, Watson was released on bail of €250,000 but required to report to police in Frankfurt on a daily basis. In June, Costa Rica formally requested Watson's extradition from Germany. In July 2012 Paul Watson broke the conditions of bail and fled Germany, resulting in a German court ordering his immediate re-arrest. It is understood the statute of limitations on his Costa Rican charges was set to expire in June 2013.
Watson went into hiding and on August 7, 2012 Interpol issued a Red Notice for Watson under the categories life and health and fugitives in relation to his flight from German authorities and the charges in Costa Rica. It has been reported that Watson will come out of hiding to join Sea Shepherd in the 2012–13 campaign against Japanese whaling. Watson rejoined the crew of the Steve Irwin in the South Pacific in late November 2012.
Sierra Club immigration stance
After his election to the national Sierra Club Board of Directors in 2003, Watson supported an unsuccessful slate of candidates supporting strict immigration controls as an element of a population stabilization policy. This effort was denounced by another candidate in the election, Morris Dees of the Southern Poverty Law Center, as a "hostile takeover" attempt by "radical anti-immigrant activists." Watson responded by saying that the only change he was seeking in the organization's immigration stance was to restore the position it had held before its 1996 "neutrality policy." Watson left the Sierra Club board in 2006.
In April 2008, Watson stated that, while the deaths of three Canadian seal hunters (a fourth one is still missing) in a marine accident involving a Canadian Coast Guard vessel and a fishing boat during the 2008 Canadian Commercial Seal Hunt were a tragedy, he felt that the slaughter of hundreds of thousands of seals is an even greater tragedy. Canadian Federal Fisheries Minister Loyola Hearn accused Watson of trivializing the memory of the lost sealers. Watson replied that Mr. Hearn was trying to distract attention from his government's incompetence as the boat the men were on capsized while under tow by a Canadian Coast Guard vessel, while his political ambitions continued to support and subsidize an industry that had no place in the 21st century. In 1978, Watson expressed opposition to seal hunt protest organization, suggesting in an interview with CBC's Barbara Frum that saving seals is a cheap and easy fundraiser and that seals do not deserve special status over other species. Newfoundland and Labrador Premier Danny Williams was quoted as saying, "I think what a lot of people don't realize is that this man is a terrorist." Because of the operations against Canadian seal hunters, Danny Williams called Watson a terrorist and said that the Sea Shepherds were not welcome in the province.
Australian visa issues
In October 2009, Watson, who carries a US passport, complained to media outlets about having his request for an Australian visa denied. He states that the Australian government was attempting to sabotage the upcoming 2010 Sea Shepherd campaign by denying him entry into the country. Watson and several other shipmates were also unable to join the Steve Irwin on its promotional tour of Australia until they were able to provide documentation from the governments of the United States, Canada and Norway, exonerating them from previously claimed acts of violence, specifically claims by Sea Shepherd of intentionally sinking a ship in Norway. In January 2013, Paul Watson was presented with an Aboriginal passport by the Krautungalung people of the Gunnai Nation.
Anti-whaling activities and alleged shooting
On March 17, 2008, Paul Watson said that he was shot by the Japanese crew or coast guard personnel during the Operation Migaloo anti-whaling campaign in the Southern Ocean. The incident is documented during the season finale of season 1 of the Whale Wars TV reality show, and the first six episodes are covered as a buildup to what is portrayed as the major incident during the campaign. The footage in Whale Wars shows Watson standing on the deck of the Steve Irwin while Sea Shepherd crew throws glass bottles filled with butyric acid at the Nisshin Maru whaling vessel. Butyric acid was used for its foul odor and sticky properties. The Japanese respond by throwing flashbang devices. Watson is then shown reaching inside his jacket and body armour and remarking "I've been hit." Back inside the bridge of the Steve Irwin, a metal fragment is found inside the vest.
The Japanese Institute of Cetacean Research disputes Sea Shepherd's statements. The Institute and Coast Guard said that they used seven flashbang devices designed to flash and make noise in the air without causing harm. Neither of the two conflicting accounts have been independently verified. The Australian Foreign Affairs Department had condemned "actions by crew members of any vessel that cause injury". Two media releases were made on the same day from the office. One said that the Australian Embassy in Tokyo had been informed by the Japanese that the whalers had "fired warning shots" while the updated version used the phrase "'warning balls' – also known as 'flashbangs' – had been fired".
Accusations of terrorism
Watson has been called an eco terrorist by the Japanese government for his direct action tactics against whalers, and have repeated their position after conflicts during the 2009–10 whaling season.
At an animal rights convention in 2002, Paul Watson was also quoted as saying, "There's nothing wrong with being a terrorist, as long as you win. Then you write the history." In 2010, Fox News commentator Glenn Beck also discussed the comment, criticizing Watson's views. Watson responded to Beck's comments on the official Sea Shepherd website by stating that he had said that but that it was taken out of context, quoting Gerald Seymour's "One man’s terrorist is another’s freedom fighter."
Comments following 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami
Watson was criticized for his comments immediately following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami in which he suggested that the disaster was divine punishment. He responded to critics with a commentary on the Sea Shepherd website expressing "deepest concern and sympathy for the people of Japan who are suffering through one of the worst natural disasters in the history of civilization".
Criticism of New Zealand over whaling
In 2013, three Sea Shepherd Conservation Society ships docked in New Zealand, and were searched by New Zealand authorities to see if Watson was aboard. He wasn't, having transferred to another ship in international waters, aware New Zealand was required to notify Interpol if he entered the country. Watson criticised the search, accusing New Zealand of siding with Japan on the issue of whaling in the Southern Ocean.
Reactions to activism and leadership
Watson has stated that he does not consider himself a 'protester', but an 'interventionist', as he considers protesting as too submissive. He often takes the attitude that he represents (or stands in for) law enforcement which is either unwilling or unable to enforce existing laws.
His leadership style has variously been called arrogant, as well as pushing himself too much "front and center", which was cited as one of the reasons for expulsion from Greenpeace. The atmosphere aboard his vessels has been compared to an "anarchy run by God".
The former member of Sea Shepherd and captain of the MY Ady Gil Pete Bethune described Watson as "morally bankrupt" who would order the intentional sinking of his own ships like the Ady Gil as a means to "garner sympathy with the public and to create better TV". Watson denied this, saying "No one ordered him to scuttle it. Pete Bethune was captain of the Ady Gil, all decisions on the Ady Gil were his."
Paul Watson received the Jules Verne Award on October 10, 2012. He was the second person after Captain Jacques Cousteau to be honored with a Jules Verne Award dedicated to environmentalists and adventurers. On June 28, 2010 Paul received the Asociación de Amigos del Museo de Anclas Philippe Cousteau: Defense of Marine Life Award, in recognition of his merits achieved by the work done in defense of marine life. In 2002, Paul was inducted into the U.S. Animal Rights Hall of Fame for his outstanding contributions to animal liberation. Paul received the George H Bush Daily Points of Light Award in 1999.
A biographical documentary on Paul Watson's early life and background entitled Pirate for the Sea was produced by Ron Colby in 2008. The 2009 documentary At the Edge of the World chronicled the efforts of Watson and 45 volunteers to hinder the Japanese whaling fleet in the waters around Antarctica. In 2010, long time friend and filmmaker Peter Brown published the documentary Confessions of an Eco-Terrorist, a satirical look back at the last 30 years of actions. The documentary Eco-Pirate: The Story of Paul Watson from 2011 features interviews and footage with early Greenpeace members Rex Weyler and Patrick Moore.
Watson, Whale Wars, and the Japanese whaling industry were satirized in the South Park episode "Whale Whores". Watson himself was called "An unorganized incompetent media whore who thought lying to everyone was OK as long as it served his cause" and "A smug, narcoleptic liar with no credibility". Watson responded to the South Park episode by stating; "My understanding is that the Japanese Prime Minister was not amused and the whalers and dolphin killers are enraged at the way they were portrayed," Watson said. "That’s music to my ears. If the humorless whale killers and the bank rollers of the dolphin killers did not like the show, then that’s all I need to applaud it."
List of works
- Sea Shepherd: My Fight for Whales and Seals (1981) (ISBN 0-393-01499-1)
- Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy (1993) (ISBN 0-9616019-5-7)
- Ocean Warrior: My Battle to End the Illegal Slaughter on the High Seas (1994) (ISBN 1-55013-599-6)
- Seal Wars: Twenty-Five Years on the Front Lines With the Harp Seals (2002) (ISBN 1-55297-751-X)
- Contributor to Terrorists or Freedom Fighters?: Reflections on the Liberations of Animals (2004) (ISBN 1-59056-054-X)
- Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy 2nd Edition (2012) (ISBN 978-1-61419-016-5)
- Earth Warrior: Overboard With Paul Watson and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, by David B. Morris (1995) (ISBN 1-55591-203-6)
- Eco-Warriors, by Rik Scarce (2006) (ISBN 1-59874-028-8)
- The "Good" Pirate – The Bite Back Interview with Paul Watson – Satya Magazine, 2004
- Dwyer, Molly (December 17, 2012). "Appeal from the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington Richard A. Jones, District Judge, Presiding". United States Court of Appeals. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- "N20120914 / 2012 / News & media releases / News and media / Internet / Home – INTERPOL". Interpol.int. September 14, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- "Paul Watson, Sea Shepherd Conservation Society Founder, Testifies in U.S. Court". Huffington Post. November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
- "'Whale Wars' returns without captain Paul Watson". USA Today. December 13, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
- "Paul Watson Biography". Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. Retrieved July 27, 2008.
- "Captain Watson's Biography". Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
- Broder, John (December 6, 2011). "Greenpeace leader visits boardroom, without forsaking social activism". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2013. "'It's all about extreme political correctness,' said Paul Watson, a founding director of Greenpeace who is now the head of Sea Shepherd"
- "Prosecutor Agrees to Release Allison and Alex jailed 22 days...but Fines Sea Shepherd 800,000 Yen ($8,000 US) for freeing dolphins!" December 3, 2003. . Retrieved February 23, 2009.
- "Animal rights activist arrested in Seattle grand jury probe." Komo Staff and News Services, KomoNews.com, January 15, 2004. . Retrieved February 23, 2009.
- Shukovsky, Paul. "No perjury charges vs. animal activist." Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 9, 2004.
- Weyler, Rex. "Waves of Compassion". Utne Reader. Ogden Publications. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
- "Paul Watson bio". Tribute.ca. Tribute Entertainment Media Group. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
- "Greenpeace Attempts to Make Captain Paul Watson "Disappear"". seashepherd.org. Retrieved June 23, 2010.
- "On the Frontlines: With Captain Paul Watson and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society", (Fall 2009), Resistance: Journal of the Earth Liberation Movement
- Battle Against Whaling, Groups Split on Strategy The New York Times " The shift infuriates Paul Watson, the Sea Shepherd founder and the captain of the Steve Irwin. One of the original founders of Greenpeace in the early 1970s, he parted ways with the group in 1978 because he wanted it to be more aggressive." November 23, 2008
- "Paul Watson, Sea Shepherd and Greenpeace: some facts". Greenpeace.org. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "Sea Shepherd International: Paul Watson and Greenpeace". Sea Shepherd Conservational Society. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
- "A Reporter at Large – Neptune’s Navy". The New Yorker. November 5, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
- "Govt to keep up pressure on whalers". Yahoo!7. Yahoo!7 Pty Limited. January 22, 2009. Retrieved February 11, 2009.
- "Whaling Ships Refloated in Iceland". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). November 20, 1986. Retrieved February 11, 2009.
- Andrew Darby (January 8, 2013). "Sea Shepherd founder steps down". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- Proussalidis, Daniel (August 3, 2012). "Germans search for Watson". Tillsonburg News. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- CBC News (January 8, 2013). "Paul Watson quits Sea Shepherd over U.S. court order – World – CBC News". Cbc.ca. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- "33rd Parliament Election Results". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved February 13, 2009.
- "1996 Local General Election Results- Mayor". City of Vancouver. 1996. Retrieved February 13, 2009.
- "Paul Watson is elected to the Sierra Club Board of Directors in April, 2003". SUPS.org. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- "Sierra Club Director Paul Watson Resigns to Protest Hunting Prize". Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. April 17, 2006. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- The Beginning of the End for Life as We Know it on Planet Earth? – There is a Biocentric Solution, Paul Watson, seashepherd.org, 05/04/2007
- Vidal, John; Adam, David; Watts, Jonathan; Hickman, Leo; Sample, Ian (January 4, 2008). "50 people who could save the planet.". The Guardian (London). Retrieved January 13, 2008.
- Paul Watson. 1993. Earthforce! An Earth Warrior’s Guide to Strategy. La Caňada, CA: Chaco Press.
- Foreman, Dave, and Bill Haywood, eds. Ecodefense: A field guide to monkeywrenching. Tucson, AZ: Ned Ludd Book, 1987.
- Abbey, Ed. The monkeywrench gang. Salt Lake City: Dream Garden Press, 1985.
- Paul Watson. 1993. Earthforce! An Earth Warrior’s Guide to Strategy. La Caňada, CA: Chaco Press, p. 61.
- Paul Watson. 1993. Earthforce! An Earth Warrior’s Guide to Strategy. La Caňada, CA: Chaco Press, p. 10.
- Paul Watson. 1993. Earthforce! An Earth Warrior’s Guide to Strategy. La Caňada, CA: Chaco Press, p. 42.
- Paul Watson. 1993. Earthforce! An Earth Warrior’s Guide to Strategy. La Caňada, CA: Chaco Press, p. 43.
- Militants sink two of Iceland's Whaling Vessels. New York Times, November 10, 1986.
- Watson, Paul. Ocean Warrior. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1994, pp. 23–24.
- "Interview with Paul Watson. ''Village Voice ''". Thepeoplesvoice.org. December 25, 2008. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "History of Paul Watson". Greenpeace. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- Large, Joey (January 29, 2009). "SBIFF '09: Saving the Seas Documentary Follows Paul Watson on Marine Crusades". The Santa Barbara Independent. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- "Paul Watson, Sea Shepherd and Greenpeace: some facts". Greenpeace. Retrieved February 22, 2010.
- Hunter, Robert (1979). Warriors of the Rainbow: A Chronicle of the Greenpeace Movement. Henry Holt & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-03-043741-0.
- "Watson to whalers: We will never surrender". The Japan Times. February 9, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2010.
- Frum, Barbara (1978). "CBC interview of Paul Watson". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
- "Paul Watson: Sea Shepherd eco-warrior fighting to stop whaling and seal hunts". The Daily Telegraph (London). April 17, 2009. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
- "Hunt disrupter gets 10 days in Quebec jail". The Montreal Gazette. March 11, 1980. p. 14. Retrieved September 17, 2010.
- Campbell, Duncan (June 3, 2002). "Champion of seas faces attempted murder case". London: Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- Mcguirc, Rod (March 4, 2007). "He's too radical for Greenpeace". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. p. A-5. Retrieved September 17, 2010.
- "Hvalsabotør går fri". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). December 14, 1997.
- "Reine – a Norwegian Fishing and Whaling Community". Highnorth.no. May 14, 1993. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- Taylor, Jerome (November 20, 2007). "The saviours of the whale". The Independent (London). Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- McCurry, Justin (April 30, 2010). "Japan obtains arrest warrant for anti-whaling group leader". The Guardian (London). Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- "Anti-whaling head on Interpol". Straits Times. Singapore. June 25, 2010. Retrieved June 25, 2010.
- "Interpol red notice Japan". Retrieved September 20, 2012.
- "Paul Watson Arrested: Sea Shepherd Says Founder Arrested In Germany". The Huffington Post. Associated Press. May 14, 2012. Retrieved May 29, 2012.
- Guy, Adams (May 15, 2012). "Anti-whaling activist Paul Watson arrested for ramming boat 10 years ago". The Independent. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- Slivka, Kelly (May 16, 2012). "Germany Detains Activist ‘Whale Wars’ Captain". The New York Times. Retrieved May 29, 2012.
- "Sea Shepherd appeals to German gov't over arrest". Charlotte Observer. Associated Press. May 15, 2012. Retrieved May 15, 2012.
- "Sea Shepherd founder Paul Watson released on bail after arrest in Germany". National Post. The Canadian Press. May 21, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- "Paul Watson Urges Costa Rica to Drop Charges". June 29, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- "Foreign Ministry to send Paul Watson extradition request to German authorities Tuesday". Tico times. June 11, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- "Sea Shepherd founder Paul Watson 'flees Germany'". BBC News. July 26, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- "Sea Shepherd founder skips bail | World". BigPond News. July 26, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- "Interpol alert says Paul Watson has escaped from Germany / News Briefs / Current Edition / Costa Rica Newspaper, The Tico Times". Ticotimes.net. July 23, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- Paola Loriggio (August 8, 2012). "Interpol issues international arrest notice for Sea Shepherd founder Paul Watson". The National Post.
- "INTERPOL statement in relation to Red Notice issued for Paul Watson of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society". August 7, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
- "Interpol Wanted Persons". August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
- Godoy, Jody (November 23, 2012). "Sea Shepherd seeks to intercept whalers closer to Japan". The Japan Times. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- "Sea Shepherd Australia :: Statement from Captain Paul Watson". Seashepherd.org.au. January 7, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- Davila, Florangela, – Immigration dispute spawns factions, anger in Sierra Club, Seattle Times, February 18, 2004.
- Pedro Monteiro. Questions and Answers About the Sierra Club Elections: An Interview with Sierra Club Director Paul Watson. April 6, 2004. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- "Roster of Sierra Club Directors" (PDF). Sierra Club. Retrieved October 23, 2009.
- CBC News at Six, CBHT-TV, Nova Scotia, April 2, 2008.
- "Sea Shepherd – I'm Not Ready To Make Nice". Sea Shepherd Society website. Retrieved July 27, 2008.
- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H_gTBDFTXE0, http://www.cbc.ca/thecurrent/2008/04/april-15-2008.html
- "Williams assails anti-sealing activist Watson as 'terrorist'". Canada: CBC. April 14, 2008. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "Sealing activists bailed out with bag of toonies". CTV.ca. April 14, 2008. Retrieved September 7, 2009.
- "Whale wars saga begins with Sea Shepherd's Paul Watson under investigation | Outposts | Los Angeles Times". Latimesblogs.latimes.com. October 5, 2009. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "Sea Shepherd's frustrated Capt. Paul Watson lashes out at Australia | Outposts | Los Angeles Times". Latimesblogs.latimes.com. October 8, 2009. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "Rudd 'betrayed Aussies on whaling' | The Australian". Theaustralian.news.com.au. October 9, 2009. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- Darby, Andrew (October 5, 2009). "Whale activist hits visa hurdle". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "Captain Paul Watson Granted Original Nation Passport (Sea Shepherd Conservation Society) - Worldnews.com". Article.wn.com. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- Shears, Richard (March 3, 2008). "Antarctic whale war continues as protesters bombard harpoon ship with ‘stink bombs’". Daily Mail.
- "Protester says whalers shot him". BBC News. March 7, 2008. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
- "Japan denies Sea Shepherd claims". The Sydney Morning Herald. March 7, 2008. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- "Incident in the Southern Ocean – The Hon Stephen Smith MP, Minister for Foreign Affairs". Foreignminister.gov.au. March 7, 2008. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "Incident in the Southern Ocean – Update – The Hon Stephen Smith MP, Minister for Foreign Affairs". Foreignminister.gov.au. March 7, 2008. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "Hardline warrior in war to save the whale". The New Zealand Herald. The Observer. January 11, 2010. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
- Douglass F. Rohrman (2004). "Environmental Terrorism". Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2 (6): 332. doi:10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002[0332:ET]2.0.CO;2.
- Glenn Beck (January 18, 2010). "Surprised Massachusetts Race Is Close?". Fox News. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- Paul Watson (January 21, 2010). "Sea Shepherd Conservation Society". "Glenn Beck – The Father of Freaky Fox Facts, Fables, Farces and Fantasies". Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- "Tsunami". Facebook. March 12, 2011. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- "Paul Watson: Tsunami That Killed Hundreds of Japanese Was Divine Punishment". Japan Probe. March 13, 2011. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- "Tears for the Land of the Rising Sun". Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. March 14, 2011. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- "NZ siding with Japan – anti-whaling activist". 3 News NZ. January 7, 2013.
- Millar, Peter (January 10, 2010). "Ady Gil downed by Japanese whalers". The Sunday Times (London). Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- "Activist says Sea Shepherd sank its own ship". 9News. October 7, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "Sea Shepherd Conservation Society :: Captain Paul Watson Receives Jules Verne Award". Seashepherd.org. October 16, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- La Nueva España (May 17, 2012). ""Amigos del Museo de Anclas" pide la liberación de uno de sus premiados – La Nueva España – Diario Independiente de Asturias". Lne.es. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- U.S. Animal Rights Hall of Fame.
- "Paul Watson". Points of Light. June 22, 1999. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- Pirate for the Sea at the Internet Movie Database
- Pirate for the Sea
- Seattle International Film Festival listing
- Confessions of an Eco-Terrorist at the Internet Movie Database
- Eco-Pirate: The Story of Paul Watson at the Internet Movie Database
- Murphy, Dan (October 29, 2009). "South Park puts spotlight on Paul Watson and his "Whale Wars"". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved November 3, 2009. "On Wednesday night, the satirists from the cartoon show South Park took aim at the group (and Japanese whalers and, typically, everyone else) in an episode that they named, in their inevitably "classy" fashion, "Whale Whores.""
- Tucker, Ken (October 29, 2009). "'South Park' and 'Whale Whores': Lady Gaga and Entertainment Weekly harpooned, er, lampooned". EW.com. Retrieved November 3, 2009. "South Park had its usual tartly sarcastic way (by which I mean "delightfully savage ridicule") with save-the-whales conservationists, cable-TV nature shows, Lady Gaga, and, yes, Entertainment Weekly in the episode titled "Whale Whores.""
- Trey Parker (October 28, 2009). "Whale Whores". South Park. Season 13. Episode 11. Comedy Central.
- Watson, Paul (November 3, 2009). "Fears, jeers, cheers and loathing for Sea Shepherd in South Park. An editorial by Captain Paul Watson". Sea Shepherd Conservation Society website. Washington. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
|Find more about Paul Watson at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|