Paula Abdul discography

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Paula Abdul discography
Releases
Studio albums 3
Compilation albums 5
Singles 19
B-sides 8
Video albums 8
Music videos 17
Remix albums 2
Other appearances 10
Cover versions 1

The discography of American singer and dancer Paula Abdul consists of three studio albums, two remix albums, five compilations, nineteen singles, eight B-sides, four video albums and ten other appearances.[1]

Having risen from LA Lakers cheerleader to Janet Jackson's choreographer, Abdul started recording on her own. In 1988, she released her first studio album, Forever Your Girl, for what it took 64 weeks to hit number one on the Billboard 200 chart, the longest an album has been on the market before hitting number one. Four singles off the album—"Straight Up", "Forever Your Girl", "Cold Hearted" and "Opposites Attract"—topped Billboard Hot 100. Forever Your Girl is one of the nine albums in history to yield four number-one singles. The album was certified seven-times platinum by Recording Industry Association of America.

Abdul's second album, Spellbound, was released in 1991 and debuted at number five on the Billboard 200 and reached its top soon after, becoming her second consecutive number-one album in the United States. The first single, "Rush Rush", featured a Rebel Without a Cause-inspired music video starring Keanu Reeves and topped Billboard Hot 100. The second single, "The Promise of a New Day", reached number one on Hot 100, becoming her last number-one and making her one of the few female artists to have the most number-one singles on the chart. The album also produced top-ten single "Blowing Kisses in the Wind" and moderate hits "Vibeology" and "Will You Marry Me?". It went on to sell 13 million copies worldwide.

In 1995 Abdul released her most recent album, Head over Heels, that produced only one hit single "My Love Is for Real". Otherwise, the album was unsuccessful and terminated Abdul's recording career for a few years. She co-wrote "Spinning Around" that was meant to be her comeback hit, but it was given to Kylie Minogue, while Abdul became a television personality. She released two singles in 2008 and 2009 respectively, "Dance Like There's No Tomorrow" and "I'm Just Here for the Music". To date, Paula Abdul has sold more than 53 million records worldwide.[2]

Albums[edit]

Studio albums[edit]

List of albums with selected chart positions, certifications and sales figures
Year Title Chart positions Certifications Sales figures
US World
R/B [3] 200
[4]
AU
[5]
CA
[6]
FR
[7]
DE
[8]
NL
[9]
NZ
[10]
SE
[11]
UK
[12]
1988 Forever Your Girl 10 1 1 1 12 24 19 19 6 3  • RIAA: 7×Platinum[14]
 • ARIA: 2×Platinum[15]
 • BPI: Platinum[16]
 • CRIA: 7×Platinum[17]
 • HKRIA: Gold[18]
 • US: 7,000,000[19]
 • World: 12 mil.[20]
1991 Spellbound
  • Release date: May 14
  • Label: Virgin (#91611)[21]
  • Format: LP • CD • CS
31 1 3 6 36 17 45 14 6 4  • RIAA: 3×Platinum[14]
 • BPI: Gold[16]
 • CRIA: 2×Platinum[17]
 • US: 3,000,000[19]
1995 Head over Heels
  • Release date: June 13
  • Label: Virgin (#40525)[22]
  • Format: LP • CD • CS
18 27 21 74 61  • RIAA: Gold[14]
"—" denotes a title that did not chart or was not released in that region.

Remix albums[edit]

Year Title Chart positions Certifications Sales figures
US World
R/B
[3]
200
[4]
AU
[5]
CA
[6]
FR
[7]
DE
[8]
NL
[9]
NZ
[10]
SE
[11]
UK
[12]
1990 Shut Up and Dance: Mixes
  • Release date: May 8
  • Label: Virgin (#91362)[23]
  • Format: LP • CD • CS
65 7 16 14 44 37 29 4 24 40  • RIAA: Platinum[14]
 • CRIA: Platinum[17]
 • US: 1,000,000[19]
1991 The Singles (EP)
  • Release date: January 1992
  • Label: Virgin (#VJCP 14038)[24]
  • Format: CD (Japan only)
"—" denotes a title that did not chart or was not released in that region.

Compilations[edit]

Year Title Chart positions Certifications Sales figures
US World
R/B
[3]
200
[4]
AU
[5]
CA
[6]
FR
[7]
DE
[8]
NL
[9]
NZ
[10]
SE
[11]
UK
[12]
1998 The Greatest
  • Release date: 1998
  • Label: Virgin (#VJCP 51044)[25]
  • Format: CD
2000 Greatest Hits
  • Release date: September 26
  • Label: Virgin (#48980)[26]
  • Format: CD
 • US: 138,000[27]
2007 Greatest Hits: Straight Up![A]
  • Release date: May 8
  • Label: Virgin (#90527)[28]
  • Format: CD
86
2011 10 Great Songs
  • Release date: N/A
  • Label: Virgin (#83249)[29]
  • Format: CD, download
46
2013 Icon
  • Release date: N/A
  • Label: Virgin (#B0018870-02)
  • Format: CD
"—" denotes a title that did not chart or was not released in that region.

Singles[edit]

List of singles with selected chart positions, certifications and principal albums
Year Title Chart positions Certifications Album
US World
DC
[31]
100
[32]
AU
[33]
CA
[34]
FR
[35]
DE
[8]
NL
[36]
NZ
[37]
SE
[38]
UK
[12]
1988 "Knocked Out"[B][G] 14 41 82 27 45 21 Forever Your Girl
"The Way That You Love Me"[C] 18 3 76 5 12 74
"Straight Up"[D] 3 1 27 18
[n 1]
12 3 2 6 2 3  • RIAA: Platinum[14]
 • UK: Silver[16]
 • CRIA: Gold[17]
1989 "Forever Your Girl"[E] 28 1 51 1 17 13 11 24  • RIAA: Gold[14]
"Cold Hearted" 19 1 68 2 33 38 63 25 46  • RIAA: Gold[14]
 • CRIA: Gold[17]
"Opposites Attract" with The Wild Pair[F] 24 1 1 1 23 14 4 6 11 2  • RIAA: Gold[14]
 • BPI: Silver[16]
 • CRIA: Gold[17]
1990 "1990 Medley Mix"[H] 33 Shut Up and Dance
1991 "Rush Rush"[I] 1 2 1 24 12 6 7 7 6  • RIAA: Gold[14] Spellbound
"The Promise of a New Day"[J] 1 31 2 86 39 26 37 52
"Blowing Kisses in the Wind"[K] 6 7
1992 "Vibeology"[L] 17 16 63 19 46 20 50 19
"Will You Marry Me?"[M] 19 54 6 74 73
1995 "My Love Is for Real" with Ofra Haza[N] 1 28 7 20 87 20 28 Head over Heels
"Crazy Cool"[O] 13 58 76 49 89
1996 "Ain't Never Gonna Give You Up" with Color Me Badd
2008 "Dance Like There's No Tomorrow" with Randy Jackson[P] 2 62 Music Club
2009 "I'm Just Here for the Music" 87 single only
2011 "So Free" with Shine 2009 Realism
2012 "Dream Medley" single only
"—" denotes a title that did not chart or was not released in that region.
  • B ^ "Knocked Out" charted in England on three separate occasions. Original release reached position 98 in September 1988, its re-issue in August 1989 resulted in number 45, while the remix from July 1990 scored at number 21—the highest.[12]
  • C ^ "(It's Just) The Way That You Love Me" was released twice in the US. Initially, in 1988 when the song charted at number 88, and in October 1989, peaking eventually at number 3.[32]
  • D ^ "Straight Up" also charted at number 6 on the Irish Singles Chart in March 1989[41] and at number 8 on the Austrian Singles Chart in June 1989.[42]
  • E ^ "Forever Your Girl" peaked in July 1989 at position 11 on the U.S. Adult Contemporary[43] and at number 21 in Ireland in June 1989.[41]
  • F ^ "Opposites Attract" charted in April 1990 at number 8 on the Irish Singles Chart,[41] while on the Austrian Singles Chart it reached at number 18 in April 1990.[42]
  • G ^ "Knocked Out (Remix)" peaked at number 17 in July 1990 in Ireland.[41]
  • H ^ "1990 Medley Mix" features "Straight Up", "Knocked Out", "Opposites Attract", "Forever Your Girl", "State of Attraction", "(It's Just) The Way That You Love Me" and "Cold Hearted".[44]
  • I ^ "Rush Rush" also topped the U.S. Adult Contemporary list in June 1991.[43] In Ireland the song reached at number 11 in June 1991,[41] whilie on the Austrian Singles Chart it peaked in September 1991 at number 23.[42]
  • J ^ "The Promise of a New Day" charted on the U.S. Adult Contemporary at number 26 in October 1991.[43]
  • K ^ "Blowing Kisses in the Wind" climbed to number 5 on the U.S. Adult Contemporary chart in December 1991.[43]
  • L ^ "Vibelology" peaked at number 29 in January 1990 in Ireland.[41]
  • M ^ "Will You Marry Me?" scored in May 1991 at position 17 on the U.S. Adult Contemporary.[43]
  • N ^ "My Love Is for Real" also charted at number 16 on the U.S. Pop Songs in June 1995.[45]
  • O ^ "Crazy Cool" charted at number 26 on the U.S. Pop Songs in September 1995.[45]
  • P ^ "Dance Like There's No Tomorrow" also charted at number 21 on the U.S. Digital Songs in March 2008,[46] while in April it reached position 29 on the U.S. Adult Contemporary.[43]

B-sides[edit]

Year Title Lead single
(A-side)
Abum
1988 "Next to You" "Knocked Out" (Japan)[47] Forever Your Girl
"Forever Your Girl"[48]
"The Paula Abdul Megamix"[Q] "The Way That You Love Me" (UK)[49] single only
"Opposites Attract" (1990)[50]
1989 "One or the Other" "Cold Hearted"[51] Forever Your Girl
"Opposites Attract"[52]
1991 "Spellbound" "Blowing Kisses in the Wind"[53] Spellbound
1992 "Goodnight My Love (Pleasant Dreams)" "Will You Marry Me?"[54] For Our Children[55]
1995 "Didn't I Say I Love You?" "My Love Is for Real"[56] Head over Heels
"The Choice is Yours" "Crazy Cool"[57]
"Love Don't Come Easy" "Ain't Never Gonna Give You Up"[58]
  • Q ^ "The Paula Abdul Megamix" features "Straight Up", "Cold Hearted", "(It's Just) The Way That You Love Me", "Forever Your Girl" and "Knocked Out".[50]

Other appearances[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1991 "Anytime at All" by Dweezil Zappa Guest appearance
Sweet Insanity by Brian Wilson
  • Unreleased material with Wilson.[60]
1992 "Bend Time Back Around" Lead vocalist
1993 "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah"
  • Appears on For Our Children: The Concert.[62]
"Cold Hearted (Live 1989)"
  • Appears on Rhino Pop Show Vol. 2.[63]
1995 "Crazy Love"
  • Bonus tracks on import release of Head over Heels.[64]
"Highschool Crush"
2000 "Ooh La La La" by Nobody's Angel Co-writer
"Spinning Around"
"Megamix Medley" Lead vocalist

Cover versions[edit]

Year Title Chart positions Certifications Album
US World
DC
[31]
100
[32]
AU
[33]
CA
[34]
FR
[35]
DE
[8]
NL
[36]
NZ
[37]
SE
[38]
UK
[12]
1996 "My Love Is for Real" by Strike 35 I Saw the Future
"—" denotes a title that did not chart or was not released in that region.

Videos[edit]

Video albums[edit]

Year Title Notes Certification
1989 Straight Up[R]
  • Release date: 1989
  • Record label: Virgin (#VVD 639)[67]
  • Format: VHS
  • Five track album, featuring music videos: "Knocked Out (Re-edited Version)", "The Way That You Love Me", "Straight Up", "Forever Your Girl" and "Cold Hearted".[67]
 • RIAA: 2×Platinum[14]
 • CRIA: Gold[17]
1991 Captivated: The Video Collection '92
  • Release date: June 29, 1992
  • Record label: Virgin (#VIR 769)[68]
  • Format: VHS, LD
  • Five track album, featuring music videos: "Opposites Attract", "Knocked Out (1990 Dance Remix Video)", "Rush Rush", "The Promise of a New Day" and "Blowing Kisses in the Wind".[68]
 • RIAA: Gold[14]
1996 Under My Spell: Live
  • Release date: February 27, 1996
  • Record label: Virgin (#6523)[69]
  • Format: VHS
2005 Video Hits
  • Release date: January 11, 2005
  • Record label: Virgin (#9771)[70]
  • Format: DVD
  • Six track album, featuring music videos: "Straight Up (Edited Version)", "Forever Your Girl", "Cold Hearted", "Opposites Attract", "Rush Rush" and "The Promise of a New Day".[70]
  • R ^ Not to be confused with a VHS promotional release of the same title, featuring only "Straight Up" music video issued by Siren.[71]

Other video albums[edit]

Year Title Notes Certification
1995 Get Up And Dance!
  • Release date: August 22, 1995
  • Label: Artisan (#)[72]
  • Format: VHS • DVD
1998 Cardio Dance
  • Release date: November 24
  • Label: Anchor Bay (#)[73]
  • Format: VHS • DVD
2003 Zoe's Dance Moves
2006 Cardio Cheer
  • Release date: December 26, 2006
  • Label: Trinity Home (#)[75]
  • Format: 5×DVD (box set)

Music videos[edit]

Year Title Director
1988 "Knocked Out" (2 versions) Danny Kleinman (original version)[76]
Candace Reckinger and Michael Patterson (remix)
"The Way That You Love Me" (2 versions) David Fincher[76]
1989 "Straight Up"
"Forever Your Girl"
"Cold Hearted"
1990 "Opposites Attract" Candace Reckinger and Michael Patterson
"1990 Medley Mix" N/A
1991 "Skat Strut" by MC Skat Kat N/A
"Rush Rush" Stefan Würnitzer
"The Promise of a New Day" Big TV!
"Blowing Kisses in the Wind"
1992 "Vibeology" (2 versions) N/A
"Will You Marry Me?" N/A
1995 "My Love Is for Real" Michael Haussman
"Crazy Cool" Matthew Rolston
1996 "Ain't Never Gonna Give You Up"
2008 "Dance Like There's No Tomorrow" Scott Speer and herself

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ For peak chart positions of Abdul's singles in Canada, the Library and Archives Canada archive is available. However, as for RPM Top 100 Singles, only entries from May 1, 1989 are accessible online. "Straight Up" charted at number 18 one week prior to that.[34] Although, the song was ranked as the 25th single in the year-end RPM chart,[39] respectively as the 9th dance single in 1989,[40] it did not top the singles chart according to the RPM list of number-one singles.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ For complete disccography by Paula Abdul, use either her general or external links.
  2. ^ "Paula Abdul's 'stalker' found dead". Marie Claire. IPC Media. marieclaire.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-02-06. Abdul has sold more than 53 million records. 
  3. ^ a b c "CeCe Peniston - US - R&B/Hip-Hop Albums". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media. billboard.com. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  4. ^ a b c "Paula Abdul - US - Billboard 200 Albums". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media. billboard.com. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  5. ^ a b c "Paula Abdul - Australia - Albums". ARIA Charts. Hung Medien. australian-charts.com. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  6. ^ a b c For peak positions of Abdul's albums in Canada, use a link depending on a title:
  7. ^ a b c For peak positions of Abdul's albums in France, use the link below searching her name in the field Les "Charts Runs" de chaque Album Classé:
  8. ^ a b c d e "Paula Abdul - Germany - Albums/Singles". Media Control Charts (in German). GfK Entertainment. officialcharts.de. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  9. ^ a b c "Paula Abdul - Netherlands - Albums". GfK Dutch Charts (in Dutch). Media Control GfK International. dutchcharts.nl. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  10. ^ a b c "Paula Abdul - New Zealand - Albums". Recorded Music NZ (in Dutch). ung Medien. charts.org.nz. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  11. ^ a b c "Paula Abdul - Sweden - Albums". Hung Medien. eMedia Jungen. swedishcharts.com. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f "Paula Abdul - UK - Albums/Singles". The Official Charts Company. Music Week. theofficialcharts.com. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  13. ^ Abdul, Paula (1988). Forever Your Girl (Liner Notes) (Vinyl Album). Paula Abdul. United States of America: Virgin Records. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k For sales certifications received by Abdul in the US, use the RIAA link:
  15. ^ "Album artist 501 - Paula Abdul". Tsort. Retrieved 2014. 
  16. ^ a b c d For sales certifications received by Abdul in the UK, use the BPI link:
  17. ^ a b c d e f g For sales certifications received by Abdul in Canada, use the CRIA link:
  18. ^ For sales certifications received by Abdul in the Hong Kong, use the IFPI HK link:
  19. ^ a b c "Paula Abdul Back with Her Brand of Light Pop". Herald-Journal. Halifax Media Group. 1995-06-23. news.google.com. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  20. ^ Mock, Janet; Wang, Julia. "Celebrity Central > Paula Abdul". People. Time Inc. people.com. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  21. ^ Abdul, Paula (1991). Spellbound (Liner Notes) (Vinyl Album). Paula Abdul. United States of America: Virgin Records. 
  22. ^ Abdul, Paula (1995). Head over Heels (Liner Notes) (Vinyl Album). Paula Abdul. United States of America: Virgin Records. 
  23. ^ Abdul, Paula (1990). Shut Up and Dance: Mixes (Liner Notes) (Vinyl Album). Paula Abdul. United States of America: Virgin Records. 
  24. ^ Abdul, Paula (1991). The Singles (Liner Notes) (Compact Disc). Paula Abdul. Japan: Virgin Records. 
  25. ^ Abdul, Paula (1998). The Greatest (Liner Notes) (Compact Disc). Paula Abdul. Japan: Virgin Records. 
  26. ^ a b Abdul, Paula (2000). Greatest Hits (Liner Notes) (Compact Disc). Paula Abdul. United States of America: Virgin Records. 
  27. ^ "Ask Billboard > Idol Thoughts". Billboard. Rovi Corporation. billboard.com. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  28. ^ Abdul, Paula (2007). Greatest Hits: Straight Up! (Liner Notes) (Compact Disc). Paula Abdul. United States of America: Virgin Records. 
  29. ^ Abdul, Paula (2011). 10 Great Songs (Liner Notes) (Compact Disc). Paula Abdul. United States of America: Virgin Records. 
  30. ^ For peak positions of Abdul's albums in the Mexico, use a link depending on an album release:
  31. ^ a b "Paula Abdul - US Dance Singles". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media. billboard.com. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  32. ^ a b c "Paula Abdul - US Billboard Hot 100 Singles". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media. billboard.com. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  33. ^ a b "Paula Abdul - Australia - Singles". ARIA Charts. Hung Medien. australian-charts.com. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  34. ^ a b c For peak positions of Abdul's singles in Canada, use a link depending on a title:
  35. ^ a b "Paula Abdul - France - Singles". Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique. Webedia. chartsinfrance.net. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  36. ^ a b "Paula Abdul - Netherlands - Singles". GfK Dutch Charts (in Dutch). Media Control GfK International. dutchcharts.nl. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  37. ^ a b "Paula Abdul - New Zealand - Singles". Recorded Music NZ (in Dutch). ung Medien. charts.org.nz. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  38. ^ a b "Paula Abdul - Sweden - Singles". Hung Medien. eMedia Jungen. swedishcharts.com. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  39. ^ Canada - Top 100 Singles of '89
  40. ^ Canada - Top 25 Dance Singles of '89
  41. ^ a b c d e f For peak positions of Abdul's singles in Ireland, search her name using the link below:
  42. ^ a b c "Paula Abdul - Austria - Singles". Ö3 Austria Top 40 (in German). Hung Medien. austriancharts.at. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  43. ^ a b c d e f "Paula Abdul - US Adult Contemporary". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media. billboard.com. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  44. ^ Paula Abdul - "1990 Medley Mix" - Track list
  45. ^ a b "Paula Abdul - US - Pop Songs". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media. billboard.com. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  46. ^ "Paula Abdul - US - Digital Songs". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media. billboard.com. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  47. ^ Paula Abdul - "Next to You" (on "Knocked Out")
  48. ^ Paula Abdul - "Next to You" (on "Forever Your Girl)
  49. ^ Paula Abdul - "The Paula Abdul Megamix" (on "(It's Just) The Way That You Love Me")
  50. ^ a b Paula Abdul - "The Paula Abdul Megamix" (on "Opposites Attract")
  51. ^ Paula Abdul - "One or the Other" (on "Cold Hearted")
  52. ^ Paula Abdul - "One or the Other" (on "Opposites Attract")
  53. ^ Paula Abdul - "Spellbound" (on "Blowing Kisses in the Wind")
  54. ^ Paula Abdul - "Goodnight My Love (Pleasant Dreams)" (on "Will You Marry Me?")
  55. ^ For Our Children (Liner Notes) (Compact Disc). Various artists. United States of America: Walt Disney Records. 1991. 
  56. ^ Paula Abdul - "Didn't I Say I Love You?" (on "My Love Is for Real")
  57. ^ "The Choice Is Yours" (on "Crazy Cool")
  58. ^ "Love Don't Come Easy" (on "Ain't Never Gonna Give You Up")
  59. ^ Zappa, Dweezil (1991). Confessions (Liner Notes) (Double Vinyl Album). Dweezil Zappa. United Kingdom: Barking Pumpkin Records. 
  60. ^ Wilson, Brian (1991). Sweet Insanity (Liner Notes) (Compact Disc). Brian Wilson. Australia: Ocean Records. 
  61. ^ The Beverly Hills 90210 (Liner Notes) (Compact Disc). Various artists. United States of America: Giant Records. 1992. 
  62. ^ For Our Children: The Concert (Liner Notes) (Compact Disc). Various artists. United States of America: Walt Disney Records. 1992. 
  63. ^ Rhino Pop Show Vol. 2 (Liner Notes) (Compact Disc). Various artists. Trend Records. 
  64. ^ Abdul, Paula (1995). Head over Heels - Import Release (Liner Notes) (Compact Disc). Paula Abdul. Japan: Virgin Records. 
  65. ^ Nobody's Angel (Liner Notes) (Compact Disc). Nobody's Angel. United States of America: Hollywood Records. 2000. 
  66. ^ Minogue, Kylie (2000). Light Years (Compact Disc). Kylie Minogue. United Kingdom: Parlophone Records. 
  67. ^ a b Abdul, Paula (1989). Straight Up (Liner Notes) (Video Album). Paula Abdul. United States of America: Virgin Records. 
  68. ^ a b Abdul, Paula (1991). Captivated: The Video Collection '92 (Liner Notes) (Video Album). Paula Abdul. European Union: Virgin Records. 
  69. ^ a b Abdul, Paula (1996). Under My Spell: Live (Liner Notes) (Video Album). Paula Abdul. United States of America: Virgin Records. 
  70. ^ a b Abdul, Paula (2005). Video Hits (Liner Notes) (Video Album). Paula Abdul. United States of America: Virgin Records. 
  71. ^ Paula Abdul - Straight Up (Promo, VHS)
  72. ^ Abdul, Paula (1995). Get Up And Dance! (Liner Notes) (Video Album). Paula Abdul. United States of America: Artisan Entertainment. 
  73. ^ Abdul, Paula (1998). Cardio Dance (Liner Notes) (Video Album). Paula Abdul. United States of America: Anchor Bay Entertainment. 
  74. ^ Abdul, Paula (2003). Zoe's Dance Moves (Liner Notes) (Video Album). Paula Abdul. United States of America: Trinity Home. 
  75. ^ Abdul, Paula (2006). Cardio Cheer (Liner Notes) (Video Album). Paula Abdul. United States of America: Trinity Home. 
  76. ^ a b Music videos directors,

External links[edit]