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For other uses, see Paulina (disambiguation).

Paulina or Paullina was the name shared by three relatives of the Roman Emperor Hadrian: his mother, his elder sister and his niece.

Mother of Hadrian[edit]

Paulina Major from Guillaume Rouillé's Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum

Domitia Paulina or Paullina, Domitia Paulina Major or Paulina Major, (Major Latin for the elder), also known as Paulina the Elder (?-85/86). Paulina was a Spanish Roman woman who lived in the 1st century. She was a daughter of a distinguished Spanish Roman senatorial family. Paulina originally came from Gades (modern Cádiz, Spain). Gades was one of the wealthiest Roman cities. Little is known of the life of Paulina.

Paulina married Spanish Roman Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer, a praetor who was a paternal cousin of Roman Emperor Trajan. Paulina and Afer had two children, a daughter Aelia Domitia Paulina (75-130) and a son emperor Publius Aelius Hadrianus (76-138). Around 85/86 Paulina died of unknown causes, before her husband. After the death of her husband, her children were raised by Trajan and the Roman officer Publius Acilius Attianus.


Sister of Hadrian[edit]

Aelia Domitia Paulina or Paullina or Domitia Paulina Minor (Minor Latin for the younger) also known as Paulina the Younger (early 75-130). The younger Paulina was the eldest child and only daughter to Domitia Paulina and praetor Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer. She was Hadrian’s eldest sister and only sibling. She was Spanish, but was of Roman descent. She was most probably born and raised in Italica (near modern Seville, Spain). Italica was a city in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica.

When her parents died around 86, she and her brother were raised by her father’s paternal cousin, the Roman Emperor Trajan, and Roman officer Publius Acilius Attianus. Before the accession of Trajan to the throne in 98, Trajan had arranged for her to marry the Spanish Roman politician Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus. During Trajan’s reign 98-117, Paulina and Servianus had a daughter called Julia Serviana Paulina.

Before Trajan’s death in 117, Paulina and Servianus had arranged for their daughter Julia to marry the Spanish Roman Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator, who was a man of consular rank. Julia and Salinator, in 118, had a son, a younger Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator. When Paulina died, Servianus and Hadrian had a private ceremony for her. However after her death, Hadrian was ridiculed for not giving her any public honors, however it was a long time so before Hadrian did this.


Niece of Hadrian[edit]

Julia Serviana Paulina or Paullina also known as Julia Paulina was the daughter and only child to Spanish Roman Politician Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus and Aelia Domitia Paulina. Her maternal uncle was Roman Emperor Hadrian and maternal aunt-in-marriage was Roman Empress Vibia Sabina. She was born at an unknown date during the reign of her third cousin emperor Trajan, who reigned 98-117. Her birthplace is unknown. Before Trajan’s death in 117, her parents arranged for her to marry a Spanish Roman, Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator, who was of consular rank. Roman Senator Pliny the Younger, sent a letter of congratulations to her parents regarding her wedding.

Her husband was originally from Barcelona, Spain (this was the Roman Province of Hispania Tarraconensis). Salinator had the same name as his father and his father was a former consul. In 118, during Salinator’s consulship, Julia and Salinator had a son, a younger Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator. The elder Salinator and Julia seem to have died before 136.

Julia’s father had always cherished the idea that her youthful son would one day succeed Hadrian. The aging Emperor considered Julia’s son as his heir. Hadrian promoted the young Salinator, gave him special status in his court and also groomed him for his succession.

However in 136, Hadrian changed his mind and decided to adopt Lucius Aelius Caesar as his heir. Julia’s father and son were angry with Hadrian and wanted to challenge him about the adoption. To avoid any conflict, Hadrian ordered the deaths of Julia’s father and son.


Nerva–Antonine family tree[edit]

  • (1) = 1st spouse
  • (2) = 2nd spouse (not shown)
  • (3) = 3rd spouse
  • Darker purple indicates Emperor of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty; lighter purple indicates designated imperial heir of said dynasty who never reigned
  • dashed lines indicate adoption; dotted lines indicate love affairs/unmarried relationships
  • small caps = posthumously deified (Augusti, Augustae, or other)

Q. Marcius Barea Soranus
Q. Marcius Barea Sura
Antonia Furnilla
M. Cocceius Nerva
Sergia Plautilla
P. Aelius Hadrianus
(r. 79-81)
Marcia Furnilla
Trajanus Pater
(r. 96–98)
Aelius Hadrianus Marullinus
Julia Flavia
G. Salonius Matidius
(r. 98–117)
P. Acilius Attianus
P. Aelius Afer
Paulina Major
L. Julius Ursus Servianus
Lucius Mindius
Libo Rupilius Frugi
L. Vibius Sabinus
Hadrian (r. 117–138)
Matidia Minor
Annius Verus
G. Fuscus Salinator I
Julia Serviana Paulina
Rupilia Faustina
Boionia Procilla
G. Arrius Antoninus
L. Caesennius Paetus
L. Ceionius Commodus
Appia Severa
G. Fuscus Salinator II
Arria Antonia
Arria Fadilla
T. Aurelius Fulvus
L. Caesennius Antoninus
Fundania Plautia
Ignota Plautia
G. Avidius
Antoninus Pius
(r. 138–161)
M. Annius Verus
Domitia Lucilla
M. Annius Libo
Lucius Aelius
Avidia Plautia
(r. 161–180)
G. Avidius Cassius
Aurelia Fadilla
(r. 161–169)
Ceionia Fabia
Plautius Quintillus
Q. Servilius Pudens
Ceionia Plautia
Cornificia Minor
M. Petronius Sura
(r. 177–192)
M. Annius Verus Caesar
T. Claudius Pompeianus (2)
M. Plautius Quintillus
Junius Licinius Balbus
Servilia Ceionia
Petronius Antoninus
L. Aurelius Agaclytus
Aurelia Sabina
L. Antistius Burrus
Plautius Quintillus
Plautia Servilla
G. Furius Sabinus Timesitheus
Antonia Gordiana
Junius Licinius Balbus
Furia Sabina Tranquillina
(r. 238-244)