Paulins Kill

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Coordinates: 40°55′10″N 75°05′16″W / 40.91944°N 75.08778°W / 40.91944; -75.08778
Paulins Kill
Meadows Road Bridge Over Paulins Kill (Lafayette, NJ).jpg
Meadows Road Bridge over Paulins Kill in Lafayette Township
Country United States
State New Jersey
Counties Sussex, Warren
Source
 - location Fredon Township, Sussex County
 - elevation 750 ft (229 m)
 - coordinates 41°04′01″N 74°46′23″W / 41.06694°N 74.77306°W / 41.06694; -74.77306 [1]
Mouth Delaware River
 - location Knowlton Township, Warren County
 - elevation 262 ft (80 m) [1]
 - coordinates 40°55′10″N 75°05′16″W / 40.91944°N 75.08778°W / 40.91944; -75.08778 [1]
Length 41.6 mi (66.9 km) [2]
Basin 177 sq mi (458 km2) [3]
Discharge for Blairstown, New Jersey
 - average 76 cu ft/s (2.15 m3/s) [4]
The Paulins Kill drains an area of 177 square miles (460 km2) in northwestern New Jersey and is part of the Delaware River watershed.

The Paulins Kill (also known as Paulinskill or Paulinskill River) is a 41.6-mile (66.9 km)[2] tributary of the Delaware River in northwestern New Jersey in the United States. With a long-term median flow rate of 76 cubic feet of water per second (2.15 m³/s), it is New Jersey's third-largest contributor to the Delaware River, behind the Musconetcong River and Maurice River.[5] The Paulins Kill drains an area of 176.85 square miles (458.0 km2) across portions of Sussex and Warren counties and 11 municipalities. The Paulins Kill flows north from its source near Newton, and then turns southwest. The river sits in the Ridge and Valley geophysical province.

The Paulins Kill was a conduit for the emigration of Palatine Germans who settled in northwestern New Jersey and northeastern Pennsylvania during the colonial period and the American Revolution. Remnants of their chiefly agricultural settlement are still found in local architecture, cemeteries, farms and mills, and the area remains largely rural to this day.

Flowing through rural sections of Sussex and Warren counties, the Paulins Kill is regarded as an excellent venue for fly fishing. The surrounding area has hiking, other forms of recreation such as observation of a multitude of species of birds and other wildlife.

Geography and geology[edit]

Course[edit]

The Paulins Kill, is a tributary of the Delaware River, is fed by several mountain streams, many of which are unnamed, and several larger named streams.

The river was formed after the Wisconsin Glacier melted 13,000 years ago. As the glacier melted due to climate change, a lake formed just north of Newton. The hills in Newton prevented the lake from draining south, so the lake drained north. This new stream, the Paulins Kill, followed the slope of the Martinsburg Shale, and was fed by meltwater flowing from the glacier into other streams.

The main branch of the Paulins Kill begins to form immediately north of Newton, in the marshes that straddle the town. The headwaters start near Route 622 in Fredon Township.[6] The headwaters are two very small brooks, west of Newton in Fredon Township. Moore's Brook is one of several small mountain streams, some beginning at small ponds, that enter the Paulins Kill near its source. The east branch of the Paulins Kill originates in Lafayette Township and flow northwest to meet the Paulins Kill river in Lafayette Township. The river flows northward into Lafayette Township before curving west where it meets the combined waters of the Culver Brook and Dry Brook south of Branchville. Culver Brook is fed by Culver's Lake, Lake Owassa, and Bear Swamp, all in the western portion of Frankford Township. The Culver Brook flows east through Branchville before the creek merges with the Paulins Kill just southwest of the Augusta Hill Road bridge.

After the town of Lafayette, the Paulins Killturns west around moraines left by the Wisconsin Glacier just south of Augusta.

The Paulins Kill flows southwest for the rest of its journey, through Hampton and Stillwater townships in Sussex County. Trout Brook, which rises on Kittatinny Mountain, flows into the Paulins Kill near Middleville in Stillwater Township. Swartswood Lake feeds Trout Brook through Keen's Mill Brook. The Paulins Kill continues its course southwest, entering Warren County, where it initially forms the border between Frelinghuysen and Hardwick townships. It enters Blairstown immediately after, where it is joined by Blair Creek, named (as is the town) for John Insley Blair (1802–1899), as well as Jacksonburg Creek, Susquehanna Creek, Dilts Creek and Walnut Creek. Yards Creek, which rises at the Yards Creek reservoir in Blairstown, enters the Paulins Kill near the hamlet of Hainesburg in Knowlton Township. Finally, in Warren County its waters enter the Delaware River just south of the Delaware Water Gap at the hamlet of Columbia in Knowlton Township.[7]

A dam was built in the 1920s across the Paulins Kill in Stillwater Township, to create Paulinskill Lake, a narrow, 3-mile-long (4.8 km) body of water that stretches back into Hampton Township to the north. It was constructed in response to the 1914 establishment of Swartswood State Park, to provide seasonal (summer) housing and recreation for vacationers from the New York metropolitan area. At present, it is a year-round residential community managed by a homeowners association.[8]

Today, several dams and mill races remain from the grist, saw, oil and fulling mills built along the river's banks during the 18th and 19th century, and continue to alter the course and flow of the river.

Kittatinny Valley and Watershed[edit]

The Kittatinny Valley is drained by the Paulins Kill and other rivers such as the Wallkill River, and the Pequest River. To the west of this valley is the Kittatinny Ridge of the Appalachians.[9] Kittatinny Mountain, which is a segment of the northeast extension of the Appalachians. Kittatinny Mountain was once known, historically as "Schawangunk Mountain" (as it is known north of the New York-New Jersey border), or "Pahaqualong Mountain". This ridge was largely formed by folding and faulting due to a continental strike of a long and thin continent that struck proto North America. 450 million years ago. To the east of Kittatinny Valley is the New York – New Jersey Highlands region, a geological formation composed primarily of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rock—within New Jersey.[10] Elevations within the Highlands region separate the Paulins Kill watershed from the watersheds of the Pequest River and Musconetcong River located a few miles to the east.[11]

The Paulins Kill and its watershed share the Kittatinny Valley, once known as the Mamakating valley with Papakating Creek, which flows northward to the Wallkill River and is a part of the Hudson River watershed. At their closest, the Papakating Creek and Paulins Kill flow within 1 mile (1.6 km) of each other, in Frankford Township in Sussex County.[12] This is due to end moraines from the Wisconsin Glacier, which is a set of hills which prevent Papakating Creek from flowing into the Paulins Kill River.

History[edit]

Origins of the name[edit]

A vintage postcard view of the Paulins Kill at Baleville, in Hampton Township, New Jersey, circa 1905. The Paulins Kill is a calm, slow-flowing river, without significant disturbance or rapids, and looks much like this view for all of its length.

The U.S. Geological Survey Board of Geographic Names decided that the official spelling of the name would be Paulins Kill in 1898.[13] Other spellings (Pawlins Kill or Paulinskill) have remained in common use. The use of Paulinskill River, however—while often used—is redundant as Kill is a geographic designation for a small stream or creek, derived from Dutch.

Local tradition says that the Paulins Kill was named for a girl named Pauline, the daughter of a Hessian soldier. During the American Revolution, Hessian soldiers captured at the Battle of Trenton and other skirmishes within New Jersey were held as prisoners of war in the Stillwater area. Several of these Hessians are alleged to have deserted the British and taken up residence in Stillwater because of the village's predominantly German emigrant population. The assumption is that the name Paulins Kill was derived from "Pauline's Kill".[14] However, the fact that the name Paulins Kill is present on maps and surveys dating from the 1740s and 1750s—two and three decades before the Revolution—negates the veracity of this tradition.[15] Some local traditions state that the girl's name was Pauline Snover. However, extant genealogical records do not indicate that any person existed by that name at that time.

Two other possibilities for the naming of the Paulins Kill are more likely. First, that the wife of one of the area's first settlers, Johan Peter Bernhardt (died 1748), was named Maria Paulina and that she had died prior to the first settlement at Stillwater in 1742. However, very few records are extant detailing Bernhardt's family. The second and most likely etymological origin is that the Native American name given to the mountain on the valley's western flank, Pahaqualong (also spelled Pahaqualin, Pohoqualin and Pahaquarra) may have been corrupted and anglicized to a spelling such as "Paulins" by early white settlers or surveyors. Pahaqualong is roughly translated as "end of two mountains with stream between", from a combination of the words pe’uck meaning "water hole," qua meaning "boundary," and the suffix -onk meaning "place."[16] This translation is thought to refer either to the valley of the Paulins Kill itself, or to the Delaware Water Gap. Local tradition does place an Indian village named Pahaquarra near the mouth of the Paulinskill which is immediately south of the Delaware Water Gap. Likewise, the former Pahaquarry Township in Warren County derived its name from this origin.[17]

A village named Paulina located a short distance east of Blairstown on Route 94, is said to have been named "from the stream upon which it is located." William Armstrong, a local settler, built the first grist mill there along the river in 1768, and the village took root.[18]

The Paulins Kill was originally known as the Tockhockonetcong by the local Native Americans, who were likely Munsee, a tribe or phratry of the Lenni Lenape. The name Tockhockonetcong (or Tockhockonetcunk) roughly translates to "stream that comes from Tok-Hok-Nok"—Tok-hok-nok being an Indian village believed to been within the boundaries of present-day Newton, New Jersey,[19] near which the eastern (main) branch of the Paulins Kill begins, and the Lenape roots hannek meaning "stream" and the suffix -ong denoting "place".[20]

Early settlement[edit]

Home built by Casper Shafer in Stillwater, New Jersey. The architecture is typical of colonial-era and early America houses built by the German emigrants who settled in the Paulins Kill valley. The log cabin portion of the structure (left) dates from circa 1742, and the stone portion (right) from circa 1750.

The first human settlement along the Paulins Kill was by early Native Americans circa 8,000–10,000 BC at the close of the last ice age (known as the Wisconsin glaciation). At the time of the first settlement by emigrating Europeans in this region, it was populated by the Munsee tribe of the Lenni Lenape (or Delaware) Indians. Artifacts (often of stone, clay or bone) of the Native American culture are often found in nearby farm fields and at the site of their ancient villages.[21]

Typically, early European settlement along the Paulins Kill was by Palatine Germans who had emigrated to the New World via the port of Philadelphia from 1720 to 1800. Many had trekked north through the valley of the Delaware and settled along the Musconetcong, Pequest and Paulins Kill valleys in New Jersey and along the Lehigh River valley in Pennsylvania. Areas along the Paulins Kill generally were not settled until the 1740s and 1750s.[22] Often villages established and settled by German emigrants remained culturally German well into the Nineteenth Century, with German Lutheran and Reformed churches (often as "Union" churches) established shortly after the first settlements (as was the case in Knowlton and in Stillwater). However, by the early Nineteenth Century, many descendants of these German settlers removed to newly opened lands in the West (i.e. Ohio, the Northwest Territory, the Southern Tier of New York) and those that remained had assimilated into English-speaking culture, and the German Reformed or Lutheran Churches often became Presbyterian.[23] The German cultural impact of this community can still be seen in local architecture—most notably in barns and in stone houses—and in cemeteries containing intricately carved gravestones often bearing archaic German text and funerary symbols.[24] English, Scottish, Welsh settlers located in the Paulins Kill valley throughout the latter half of the eighteenth century, often traveling north from Philadelphia, or west from Long Island, Newark, and Elizabethtown (now Elizabeth).[25]

The area around present-day Stillwater was first settled by the family of Casper Shafer (1712–1784), a Palatine German who had emigrated to Philadelphia a few years earlier. Shafer, with his father-in-law, Johan Peter Bernhardt (?–1748), and his brother-in-law Johann Georg Windemuth (or John George Wintermute) (1711–1782), settled at Stillwater in 1742. Both Shafer and Windemuth were married to Bernhardt's daughters.[26] Shafer, who operated a grist mill at Stillwater starting in 1746, transported flour, fruit, and other products by flatboat down the Paulins Kill and the Delaware River to the market in Philadelphia. Most of the New Jersey shoreline and cities such as Elizabethtown and Newark were practically unknown to the German settlers along the Paulins Kill who learned of the existence of these cities only through trade with the local Lenni Lenape.[27] Part of this was because of the incredible hardship of an overland journey east to these cities resulting from a lack of roads.

The first road connecting Elizabethtown, and Morristown with settlements along the Delaware River, was the Military Road built by Jonathan Hampton (1711–1777) in 1755–1756.[28] This road, which crosses the Paulins Kill at present-day Baleville, in Hampton Township, was built to supply fortifications built in the Delaware valley at this time to protect New Jersey during the French and Indian War. Very few passable, large roads were built in this section of New Jersey, then largely a sparsely populated wilderness, before the creation of turnpike companies in the early decades of the Nineteenth Century. During much of the mid-eighteenth century, trade in the northwestern reaches of New Jersey was conducted through Philadelphia by way of the Delaware River.[29]

About the year 1760, Mark Thomson (1739–1803) settled in Hardwick Township (now Frelinghuysen Township) and erected a gristmill and sawmill on the Paulins Kill. The settlement that arose was later named Marksboro in his honour. Thomson, who removed to Changewater in Hunterdon County, became an officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution, and served two terms in the House of Representatives.[30]

Commercial and industrial impact[edit]

The Paulinskill or Hainesburg Viaduct, built 1908 to 1911, carried the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad across the Paulins Kill Valley on the Lackawanna Cut-Off.

Chiefly a pastoral river in a largely undeveloped area of New Jersey, the Paulins Kill has remained generally unaffected by industrial pollution. Dams were erected to power various small-town gristmills, sawmills, oil expellers, and fulling mills,[31] and the electrical power plant at Branchville established in 1903. Columbia, a hamlet near the mouth of the Paulins Kill in Knowlton Township, was known for a large glass manufacturing factory. But in recent decades, the dams have been breached or or no longer impede the flow of the river.[32]

Still, pollution reaches the Paulins Kill from nearby residential developments and farm run-off containing agricultural pesticides and fertilizers. Several farms along the banks of the Paulins Kill produce alfalfa, wheat, corn, hay (and historically, barley, buckwheat and rye). Fruit trees in orchards produce cherries, apples, plums, peaches and pears, while native wild grape vines, and blackberry bushes are also found in the valley.[29] And New Jersey's Department of Environmental Protection brings occasional civil actions against local firms that pollute in the Paulins Kill watershed, such as a $121,500 fine for a Sussex County shopping mall owner who discharged pollutants from a sewage treatment facility into the main branch near Newton, New Jersey, between 1996 and 1998.[33]

The New Jersey Public Interest Research Group (NJPIRG) has ranked the Paulins Kill as the seventh in a collection of rivers and creeks in a Top 30 listing of New Jersey waterways to Save[34] The Paulins Kill is home to a wide variety of amphibians, including the spotted salamander, red-spotted newt, American toad, Fowler's toad, American bullfrog and others.[35] In 2000, a public sewer and water project in Branchville, New Jersey, was suspended out of concern for dwarf wedgemussels (Alasmidonta heterodon), an endangered species, and restarted in 2002.[36]

Near Columbia, the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad built the Paulinskill Viaduct (known also as the Hainesburg Viaduct), a bridge crossing the Paulins Kill, for the Lackawanna Cut-Off rail corridor. Begun in 1908, this bridge was deemed an engineering marvel for its use of reinforced concrete. Spanning 1,100 feet (335 m) across the Paulins Kill Valley, the Viaduct rises 115 feet (35 m) above the valley floor, and opened for rail traffic in 1911.[37][38][39] It was the largest such viaduct in the world until 1915, when the Lackawanna Railroad opened the Tunkhannock Viaduct in Nicholson, Pennsylvania spanning over twice the Paulinskill Viaduct's length.[40] Currently abandoned, several plans are underway by New Jersey Transit to open the route as a passenger line to Scranton, Pennsylvania.[41] This site is commonly visited by adventure-seeking individuals.[42] Today Interstate 80 crosses the Paulins Kill near Columbia.

Today[edit]

The Paulins Kill is a popular destination for anglers in search of several species of trout.

The Paulins Kill continues to maintain its rural character through both local concern and government policy. It is an excellent area for birdwatching, canoeing, hiking, hunting and fishing, and is considered to be one of the best trout streams in New Jersey.[43] As in the past, the Paulins Kill Valley remains rural, and the landscape is dotted with many horse and dairy farms along its entire length.

Fishing[edit]

The Paulins Kill is a popular fishing destination for various species of trout, such as rainbow trout, brown trout and brook trout. Trout are stocked each year during the spring fishing season by New Jersey's Division of Fish & Wildlife. Hardly any wild trout are found. This is due to the river getting shallow in summer and warm. The river owes its fly fishing reputation largely to the prolific populations of various species of the mayfly and caddisfly.[44] Historically, the Paulins Kill was known to be populated with American shad, but with the construction of mill dams across the river in the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the shad were unable to spawn in the river.[45] Shad can still be found in the Delaware River.[46] Other fish in the river are suckers and blue gills.

Protected areas[edit]

The Paulins Kill valley contains many protected areas. Swartswood State Park, established in 1914 as the first and oldest state park in New Jersey, is on 2,272 acres (919 ha) just north of Paulins Kill Lake in Sussex County.[47] Along Kittatinny Ridge in the northern part of the watershed are parts of Worthington State Forest (west), Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (central), and Stokes State Forests (east).[48][49][50] In addition to these state forests, the Paulins Kill valley is host to a variety of common coniferous and deciduous trees, which have been harvested for lumber in the past, including: white oak and black oak, buttonwood, eastern red cedar, eastern hemlock, American chestnut, black walnut, tamarack larch, spruce, and pine. Trees that add to the beauty of the fall foliage include maple, birch, hickory, elm, and crab apple.[51]

New Jersey's Green Acres program has targeted the Paulins Kill and its surrounding valley as an excellent natural resources for open space and farmland preservation and recreational opportunities. The state, working together with agricultural development boards in Sussex and Warren Counties, and with the Ridge and Valley Conservancy, a local nonprofit land trust, share land acquisition costs to enter tracts of real estate into the program.[52] Since 1983, several farms across New Jersey have sold development rights to the county programs. Sussex County has permanently preserved 12,242 acres (4,954 ha) of woodland and farmland.[53] Likewise, Warren County has preserved 100 farm properties, comprising over 12,200 acres (4,900 ha).[54]

In addition, four Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) are in the Paulins Kill valley area: Bear Swamp WMA, Trout Brook WMA, White Lake WMA, and Columbia Lake WMA. Together they comprise 6,564 acres (2656 ha) of protected lands, mostly acquired through "Green Acres" funds.[55] Hunting and trapping are permitted in season in many of these protected areas. Common game animals include white-tailed deer, eastern coyote, red fox, gray fox, opossum, eastern cottontail rabbit, raccoon, gray and red squirrel, beaver, muskrat, and woodchuck or groundhog. Common game birds include ring-necked pheasant, eastern wild turkey, American crow, and Canada goose.[56]

The Paulins Kill watershed is home to a variety of other animals. Other mammals include eastern chipmunk, porcupine, black bear, striped skunk, river otter, and bobcat.[57] Common northeastern American reptiles found there include snakes such as the American copperhead, eastern diamondback rattlesnake, northern water snake, common garter snake and milk snake, and turtles, including the eastern box turtle, and common snapping turtle.[58]

New Jersey's state bird, the American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) is commonly sighted in the valley of the Paulins Kill.

Hiking[edit]

The Paulinskill Valley Trail—a network of trails along abandoned railroad beds of the New York, Susquehanna and Western Railroad—have been transformed and maintained for hiking, horseback riding, and other recreational uses, stretches for 27 miles (43 km) from Sparta Junction in Sussex County to Columbia in Warren County, roughly following the entire length of the river. After the New York, Susquehanna and Western decommissioned the route in 1962, the right-of-way along this corridor was purchased by the City of Newark the following year. Newark hoped to use the bed for a water pipeline connecting to the proposed dam and reservoir project on the Delaware River. However, this project—controversial from the start because of environmental concerns and the federal government's abuse of eminent domain—was canceled during the 1970s. Newark sold their claim to the corridor in 1992 to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection for $600,000, and the Paulinskill Valley Trail was created.[59] The Appalachian Trail follows the top of Kittatinny Ridge at the northern edge of the valley.[48]

Birdwatching[edit]

Birdwatchers have sighted a variety of common and endangered species of birds that inhabit the Paulins Kill valley. More common species include: American robin, barn swallow, field sparrow, blue jay, black-capped chickadee, northern cardinal, red-winged blackbird and the American goldfinch. Also sighted are several species of woodpecker, including red-headed, red-bellied, and downy, and the endangered pileated woodpecker, as well as the yellow-bellied sapsucker. Often sighted are water fowl such as the mute swan, the wood duck, and the mallard, wading birds such as the killdeer, and predators such as the red-tailed hawk. More rare birds sighted in the Paulins Kill valley include: purple martin, scarlet tanager, indigo bunting, Baltimore oriole, purple finch, and a variety of owls, notably the barn, eastern screech, great horned, snowy, barred, and northern saw-whet owl.[60]

In art, literature and popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

Resources[edit]

Notes and citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Geographic Names Information System, United States Geological Survey (August 2, 1979). "Geographic Names Information System Feature Detail Report: Paulins Kill". Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  2. ^ a b U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data. The National Map, accessed April 1, 2011
  3. ^ Watershed Reference Map from Flood Insurance Claims in the Delaware River Basin: Comparative Analysis of Flood Insurance Claims in the Delaware River Basin, September 2004 and April 2005 Floods, no further authorship information given, accessed August 24, 2006.
  4. ^ USGS National Water Information System: Web Interface - Real-Time Data for New Jersey: Streamflow no further authorship information given, accessed August 24, 2006.
  5. ^ USGS National Water Information System: Web Interface - Real-Time Data for New Jersey: Streamflow no further authorship information given, accessed October 30, 2006.
  6. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Paulins Kill, no further authorship information given, accessed December 16, 2006.
  7. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: USGS Geographic Names Information System Feature Detail Report, no further authorship information given, accessed December 16, 2006.
  8. ^ "Stillwater" by Jane Dobosh at Skylands Magazine website, accessed October 29, 2006.
  9. ^ United States Geological Survey topographical map, "Newton East" and "Newton West"
  10. ^ Significant Habitats and Habitat Complexes of the New York Bight Watershed: New York-New Jersey Highlands, Complex #25 from U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, no further authorship information given, accessed December 16, 2006.
  11. ^ Hagstrom Morris/Sussex/Warren counties atlas (Maspeth, New York: Hagstrom Map Company, Inc. 2004); United States Geological Survey topographical map, "Newton East" and "Newton West"
  12. ^ Hagstrom Morris/Sussex/Warren counties atlas (Maspeth, New York: Hagstrom Map Company, Inc. 2004).
  13. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: USGS Geographic Names Information System Feature Detail Report, no further authorship information given, accessed August 24, 2006.
  14. ^ Northwestern New Jersey—A History of Somerset, Morris, Hunterdon, Warren, and Sussex Counties, Vol. 1. (A. Van Doren Honeyman, ed. in chief, Lewis Historical Publishing Co., New York, 1927), 499; Snell, James P. (1881) History of Sussex and Warren Counties, New Jersey, With Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Its Prominent Men and Pioneers. (Philadelphia: Everts & Peck, 1881), 379.
  15. ^ Labelled "Tockhockonetkunk or Pawlings Kill" on an untitled map of Jonathan Hampton (1758) in the collection of the New Jersey Historical Society, Newark, New Jersey; also Documents Relating to the Colonial, Revolutionary and Post-Revolutionary History of the State of New Jersey. [Title Varies]. Archives of the State of New Jersey, 1st–2nd series. 47 volumes. Newark, New Jersey, 1880–1949, passim.
  16. ^ Decker, Amelia Stickney, That Ancient Trail (Trenton, New Jersey: Privately printed, 1942), 151; Anthony and Brinton, op. cit.
  17. ^ Snell, op cit., 23
  18. ^ Snell, op. cit., 688.
  19. ^ Snell, op. cit., 23.
  20. ^ Anthony, A. S., Rev. and Brinton, Daniel G. Lenape-English Dictionary. (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1883).
  21. ^ Schrabisch, Max. Indian habitations in Sussex County, New Jersey Geological Survey of New Jersey, Bulletin No. 13. (Union Hill, New Jersey: Dispatch Printing Company, 1915); and Archaeology of Warren and Hunterdon counties Geological Survey of New Jersey, Bulletin No. 18. (Trenton, N.J., MacCrellish and Quigley co., state printers, 1917).
  22. ^ Chambers, Theodore Frelinghuysen. The early Germans of New Jersey: Their History, Churches, and Genealogies. (Dover, New Jersey, Dover Printing Company, 1895), passim.
  23. ^ Schaeffer, Casper, M.D. and Johnson, William M. Memoirs and Reminiscences: Together with Sketches of the Early History of Sussex County, New Jersey. (Hackensack, New Jersey: Privately Printed, 1907). 42–43, 46–47; Chambers, op. cit., passim.
  24. ^ Viet, Richard F. "John Solomon Teetzel and the Anglo-German Gravestone Carving Tradition of 18th century Northwestern New Jersey" in Markers XVII (Richard E. Meyer, ed.), Journal of the Association for Gravestone Studies, XVII: 124–161 (2000).
  25. ^ Schaeffer, Casper, M.D. and Johnson, William M. Memoirs and Reminiscences: Together with Sketches of the Early History of Sussex County, New Jersey. (Hackensack, New Jersey: Privately Printed, 1907). passim.; Snell, op. cit., passim.; Armstrong, William C. Pioneer Families of Northwestern New Jersey (Lambertville, New Jersey: Hunterdon House, 1979), passim; Stickney, Charles E. Old Sussex County families of the Minisink Region from articles in the Wantage Recorder (compiled by Virginia Alleman Brown) (Washington, N.J. : Genealogical Researchers, 1988), passim.
  26. ^ Wintermute, Jacob Perry. Wintermute Family History. (Columbus, Ohio: Champlin Press, 1900); Wintermute, Leonard. Windemuth Family Heritage. (Baltimore, Maryland: Gateway Press, 1996).
  27. ^ Schaeffer and Johnson. op. cit., 33.; Snell, op. cit., passim.
  28. ^ Military Trail at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area website, no further authorship information given, accessed October 29, 2006.
  29. ^ a b Schaeffer and Johnson, loc. cit.
  30. ^ Snell, op. cit., passim.
  31. ^ Snell, op. cit., passim.
  32. ^ Branchville, New Jersey - History, no further authorship information given, accessed October 29, 2006.
  33. ^ NJ DEP Attains Settlement Over Water Pollution Violations affecting Paulinskill River (Press Release) at NJDEP website, no further authorship information given, accessed October 29, 2006.
  34. ^ Defend New Jersey Waters Releases List Of Top 30 Waterways To Save (Press Release), November 21, 2001 at the NJPIRG website, no further authorship information given, accessed October 29, 2006.
  35. ^ New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection: Division of Fish and Wildlife: Amphibians of New Jersey, no further authorship information given, accessed December 20, 2006.
  36. ^ "Branchville Sewer Plant May Still Be Built" by Jamie Goldenbaum in New Jersey Herald (April 16, 2002), transcribed at http://www.srk.hk/i/news/activist/part1/branchville-sewer-plant-may-built.asp?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=4620, accessed October 29, 2006.
  37. ^ Cunningham, John T. Railroad Wonder: The Lackawanna Cut-Off (Newark, New Jersey: Newark Sunday News, 1961). NO ISBN
  38. ^ Richman, Steven M. The Bridges Of New Jersey: Portraits Of Garden State Crossings (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2005). ISBN 0-8135-3510-7
  39. ^ "Touring the Lackawanna Cut-Off" by Don Barnicle and Paula Williams in Skylands Magazine, accessed October 29, 2006.
  40. ^ History and Heritage of Civil Engineering: "Tunkhannock Viaduct" at the American Society of Civil Engineers website (ASCE.org), accessed October 29, 2006.
  41. ^ Lackawanna Cutoff Project, New Jersey Transit, (www.NJTransit.com), no further authorship information given, (April 2005), accessed October 29, 2006. Archived November 13, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ Weird New Jersey Magazine, 2001 Weekly Story Archives, by "Myke L.", no further authorship information given, accessed October 29, 2006.
  43. ^ "Trout Fishing in New Jersey - The Good 'Ole Days are Now!" by Jim Sciascia at New Jersey Division of Fish & Wildlife website, accessed October 29, 2006.
  44. ^ Music to a Hare's Ears by Henry Bell in Skylands Magazine, accessed October 29, 2006.
  45. ^ Cummings, Warren D. Sussex County: A History (Newton, New Jersey: Newton Rotary Club, 1964). transcribed http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/NJSUSSEX/2002-09/1032918263, accessed October 26, 2006.
  46. ^ Fishing for Shad on the Delaware at Delaware River Recreation, no further authorship information given, accessed October 29, 2006.
  47. ^ Swartswood State Park, official website, no further authorship information given, accessed December 20, 2006
  48. ^ a b Worthington State Forest, official website, no further authorship information given, accessed December 20, 2006
  49. ^ National Park Service: Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, official website, no further authorship information given, accessed December 20, 2006
  50. ^ Stokes State Forest, official website, no further authorship information given, accessed December 20, 2006
  51. ^ Schaeffer and Johnson, op. cit., 45 ff.
  52. ^ State Acquisitions Current Projects, Green Acres Program, NJ Department of Environmental Protection no further authorship information given, accessed August 24, 2006. Archived August 27, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  53. ^ Preserved Farmland in Sussex County (NJ), spreadsheet from the County of Sussex (New Jersey) no further authorship information given, accessed October 30, 2006.
  54. ^ Preserved Farms in Warren County Hit 100 (2004 Press Release) Warren County (NJ), no further authorship information given, accessed October 30, 2006.
  55. ^ New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection: Wildlife Management Areas, no further authorship information given, accessed December 20, 2006.
  56. ^ New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection: Division of Fish and Wildlife: Small Game Hunting in New Jersey, no further authorship information given, accessed December 20, 2006.
  57. ^ New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection: Division of Fish and Wildlife: Mammals of New Jersey, no further authorship information given, accessed December 20, 2006.
  58. ^ New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection: Division of Fish and Wildlife: Reptiles of New Jersey, no further authorship information given, accessed December 20, 2006.
  59. ^ Paulinskill Valley Trail at Rails-to-Trail Conservancy, no further authorship information given, accessed August 24, 2006. Archived September 9, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  60. ^ New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection: Division of Fish and Wildlife: Birds of New Jersey, no further authorship information given, accessed December 20, 2006.
  61. ^ Letter from Kenton Kilmer to Aline Kilmer (addressed to c/o Bob Holliday), November 18, 1929. quoted in Hillis, John. Joyce Kilmer: A Bio-Bibliography. Master of Science (Library Science) Thesis. Catholic University of America. (Washington, DC: 1962). NO ISBN.
  62. ^ Friday the 13th Filming Locations, no further authorship information given, accessed December 16, 2006.
  63. ^ Gael Mooney on Finkelstein, accessed December 21, 2006.
  64. ^ "Louis Finkelstein: The Late Pastels in the Context of His Artistic Thinking" at Lori Bookstein Fine Art, accessed December 21, 2006.

Books and printed materials[edit]

  • Armstrong, William C. Pioneer Families of Northwestern New Jersey (Lambertville, New Jersey: Hunterdon House, 1979). NO ISBN (Privately printed).
  • Cawley, James S. and Cawley, Margaret. Exploring the Little Rivers of New Jersey (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1942, 1961, 1971, 1993). ISBN 0-8135-0684-0
  • Chambers, Theodore Frelinghuysen. The early Germans of New Jersey: Their History, Churches, and Genealogies (Dover, New Jersey, Dover Printing Company, 1895). NO ISBN (Pre-1964)
  • Cummings, Warren D. Sussex County: A History (Newton, New Jersey: Newton Rotary Club, 1964). NO ISBN (Privately printed).
  • Cunningham, John T. Railroad Wonder: The Lackawanna Cut-Off (Newark, New Jersey: Newark Sunday News, 1961). NO ISBN (Pre-1964).
  • Documents Relating to the Colonial, Revolutionary and Post-Revolutionary History of the State of New Jersey [Title Varies]. Archives of the State of New Jersey, 1st-2nd series. 47 volumes. (Newark, New Jersey: 1880–1949). NO ISBN (pre-1964)
  • Gleason, June Benore. Historical Paulinskill Valley, New Jersey: Blairstown's neighbors. (Blairstown, New Jersey: Blairstown Press, 1949). NO ISBN (Pre0-1964)
  • Honeyman, A. Van Doren (ed.). Northwestern New Jersey—A History of Somerset, Morris, Hunterdon, Warren, and Sussex Counties Volume 1. (Lewis Historical Publishing Co., New York, 1927). NO ISBN (pre-1964)
  • Richman, Steven M. The Bridges Of New Jersey: Portraits Of Garden State Crossings. (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2005). ISBN 0-8135-3510-7
  • Schaeffer, Casper M.D. (and Johnson, William M.). Memoirs and Reminiscences: Together with Sketches of the Early History of Sussex County, New Jersey. (Hackensack, New Jersey: Privately Printed, 1907). NO ISBN (Pre-1964)
  • Schrabisch, Max. Indian habitations in Sussex County, New Jersey Geological Survey of New Jersey, Bulletin No. 13. (Union Hill, New Jersey: Dispatch Printing Company, 1915). NO ISBN (Pre-1964)
  • Schrabisch, Max. Archaeology of Warren and Hunterdon counties Geological Survey of New Jersey, Bulletin No. 18. (Trenton, N.J., MacCrellish and Quigley co., state printers, 1917). NO ISBN (Pre-1964)
  • Snell, James P. History of Sussex and Warren Counties, New Jersey, With Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Its Prominent Men and Pioneers. (Philadelphia: Everts & Peck, 1881). NO ISBN (Pre-1964)
  • Stickney, Charles E. Old Sussex County families of the Minisink Region from articles in the Wantage Recorder (compiled by Virginia Alleman Brown) (Washington, N.J. : Genealogical Researchers, 1988). NO ISBN (Privately printed).
  • Viet, Richard F. "John Solomon Teetzel and the Anglo-German Gravestone Carving Tradition of 18th century Northwestern New Jersey" in Markers XVII (Richard E. Meyer, ed.), Journal of the Association for Gravestone Studies, XVII: 124–161 (2000).
  • Wintermute, Jacob Perry. Wintermute Family History. (Columbus, Ohio: Champlin Press, 1900). NO ISBN. [Reprinted: Salem, Massachusetts: Higginson Book Company, NO ISBN] (Pre-1964)
  • Wintermute, Leonard. Windemuth Family Heritage. (Baltimore, Maryland: Gateway Press, 1996). NO ISBN (Privately printed).

Maps and atlases[edit]

  • Map of Jonathan Hampton (1758) in the collection of the New Jersey Historical Society, Newark, New Jersey.
  • Hopkins, Griffith Morgan. Map of Sussex County, New Jersey. (1860) [Reprinted by the Sussex County Historical Society: Netcong, New Jersey: Esposito (Jostens), 2004.]
  • Beers, Frederick W. County Atlas of Warren, New Jersey: From actual surveys by and under the direction of F. W. Beers (New York: F.W. Beers & Co. 1874). [Reprinted by Warren County Historical Society: Harmony, New Jersey: Harmony Press, 1994].
  • Hagstrom Morris/Sussex/Warren counties atlas (Maspeth, New York: Hagstrom Map Company, Inc. 2004).
  • United States Geological Survey topographical map "Newton East" and "Newton West" (New Jersey).

External links[edit]