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Pavel Karlovich Shternberg (Russian: Павел Карлович Штернберг; April 2, 1865 – February 1, 1920, both dates New Style) was a Russian astronomer and revolutionary, who contributed to the abolition of the government by Alexander Kerensky. He was friends with two notable figures, Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky. His significant contributions include discovery of the planetary perturbations, the measurement of the latitude of the Moscow Astronomical Observatory, and application of the photography to astronomy. The primary subject of his photography were capturing double stars.
Sternberg Astronomical Institute and the lunar crater Shternberg are named after him.