Pavle Jurišić Šturm

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Pavle Jurišić Šturm
KCMG
Pavle Jurisic Sturm 1848-1922.jpg
Chief of the Security and First General Adjutant
In office
1908–1913
Monarch Peter I
Preceded by Božidar Terzić
Succeeded by Petar Bojović
Personal details
Born Paulus Sturm
(1848-08-08)August 8, 1848
Görlitz, Province of Silesia, Prussia
Died January 13, 1922(1922-01-13) (aged 73)
Belgrade, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Resting place New Cemetery Belgrade
Spouse(s) Savka Jurišić (1881–1884; her death)
Jelena Jurišić (?–1922; his death)
Alma mater Land Forces Military Academy
Profession Army officer
Religion Protestant (former)
Ortodox
Awards Order of the Karađorđe's Star with Swords rib.png Order of the Star of Karageorge with Swords
SRB Orden Belog Orla BAR.svg Order of the White Eagle
Cavaliere di Gran Croce OCI Kingdom BAR.svg Order of the Crown of Italy
BEL Kroonorde Grootkruis BAR.svg Order of the Crown of Belgium
D-PRU EK 1914 2 Klasse BAR.svg Order of Iron Cross
Military service
Nickname(s) Šturm
Allegiance  Prussia
 German Empire
Serbia Principality of Serbia
 Kingdom of Serbia
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Service/branch Serbian Army
Years of service 1867 – 1875
1876 – 1900
1901 – 1921
Rank General
Commands Serbian 3rd Army
Battles/wars Franco-Prussian War
Serbo-Turkish War
Serbo-Bulgarian War
First Balkan War
Second Balkan War
World War I

Pavle Jurišić Šturm KCMG (Serbian Cyrillic: Павле Јуришић Штурм) (August 8, 1848 – January 13, 1922) was a Serbian general of Sorbian origin who commanded the Serbian 3rd Army in World War I.

Šturm was one of the most important commanders in the Serbian army in the War, especially during its first two years, the time when his 3rd army was main support either for the 2nd army during the battle of Cer, or for the 1st army during the battle of Kolubara.[1]

Early life[edit]

Paulus Sturm, an ethnic Sorb[2][3] (a Slavic people also known as "Wends"), was born and raised in Görlitz (Upper Sorbian: Zhorjelc, Lower Sorbian: Zgórjelc), in Prussian Silesia.[3] He and his brother Eugene (Evgenije) finished the royal Prussian military academy in Breslau (Wrocław), and participated in the Franco-Prussian War.[4] They later resigned their commissions and moved to the Principality of Serbia,[3] prior to the Serbian–Ottoman War (1876–78), in order to lecture at the Serbian Military Academy in Belgrade. With the outbreak of the war, the two brothers joined the Serbian Army as volunteers.

He fell in love with Serbia instantly, marrying a Serbian woman. In order to become naturalized, he changed his name into Pavle Jurišić-Šturm in 1876.[5] Pavle being a cognate of Paulus, and Jurišić being derived from a modulated translation of the word "charge" (sturm in German, juriš in Serbian), as in thunderstorm. He kept his German last name as an alias ("Šturm").

Military career[edit]

His son, whom he had with his Serbian wife, was a sergeant in the Serbian army who participated in all major battles in the Serbian theater in World War I, from Cer and Kolubara, then retreated over frozen Albania, and was treated at Vido (Corfu), then participated in the Serbian advance and breaking of the Salonika Front.

After years of peace that followed, Šturm stayed in Serbia and remained in its army with the rank of general. He died in 1922 at his home in Belgrade.

Decorations[edit]

Serbian military decorations
Order of the Karađorđe's Star with Swords, Grand Officer
Order of the Karađorđe's Star with Swords, Commander
Order of the Karađorđe's Star with Swords, Officer
Order of the Karađorđe's Star, Officer
Order of the White Eagle, Grand Officer
Order of the White Eagle, Commander
Order of the White Eagle, Officer
Order of the White Eagle, Knight
Order of Miloš the Great, Officer
Order of the Cross of Takovo, Grand Officer
Order of the Cross of Takovo, Commander
Order of the Cross of Takovo with swords, Officer
Serbian Service Medals
Medal for Bravery, Gold
Medal for Bravery, Silver
Medal military virtues
Medal for Devoted Service
Medal of Guard
Commemorative medal of the wars with Turkey 1876-1878
Commemorative medal of the war with Bulgaria 1885
Commemorative Medal of the First Balkan War
Commemorative Medal of the Second Balkan War
Commemorative Medal of the First World War
Commemorative Medal of the Albanian Campaign
International and Foreign Awards
Order of Leopold, Knight (Austria-Hungary)
Order of Franz Joseph, Knight's Cross (Austria-Hungary)
Order of the Crown, Knight Grand Cross (Belgium)
Legion of Honour, Grand Officer (France)
Order of the Redeemer, Commander (Greece)
Order of the Crown of Italy, Knight Grand Cross (Italy)
Order of the Paulownia Flowers, Grand Cordon (Japan)
Order of Osmanieh, 3rd class (Ottoman Empire)
Order of the Medjidie, 1st class (Ottoman Empire)
Order of Iron Cross, 2nd class (Prussia)
Order of Saint Stanislaus with Swords, 3rd class (Russian Empire)
Order of St. George, 4th class (Russian Empire)
Order of St. Anna, 1st class (Russian Empire)
Order of St Michael and St George, Knight Commander (United Kingdom)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Милисав Савић: „Дринска дивизија“, Лозница 2009. године, 242-251. страна; ISBN 978-86-912717-0-1 COBISS 167983628
  2. ^ NIN. nedeljne informativne novine (2048-2061). Politika. April 1990. p. 8. Pavle Jurišić - Šturm, Lužički Srbin, pruski oficir, srpski đeneral, pedeset i šest godina nosio je uniformu i ratovao protiv Francuza, Turaka, Arnauta, Bugara, Austrougara i Nemaca. Borio se u sedan ratova i u njima proveo ... 
  3. ^ a b c The South Slav Journal. 22-23. Dositey Obradovich Circle. 2001. This was true of the brothers Eugene and Pavle Jurisic, natives of Gorlitz on the Neisse in Upper Luzica (Slavic: Izgorelc, Source: Zyhorelik in pari i bus Milesko, 1131), who, resigning their commissions in Prussia's armed forces, immigrated to ... 
  4. ^ Barrie Pitt; Peter Young (1970). History of the First World War. Purnell. In the late spring of 1916 such of the Third Army as survived these ordeals was reconstituted on the outskirts of Salonika and placed under the command of General Pavle Jurisic, a septuagenarian veteran of the Franco-Prussian War of ... 
  5. ^ Hannes Grandits; Robert Pichler; Nathalie Clayer (30 March 2011). Conflicting Loyalties in the Balkans: The Great Powers, the Ottoman Empire and Nation-building. I.B.Tauris. pp. 210–. ISBN 978-0-85771-937-9. 

Sources[edit]