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Pavlov's House (Russian: дом Павлова dom Pavlova) was a fortified apartment building which held for 60 days against a heavy Wehrmacht offensive during the Battle of Stalingrad. The siege lasted from 27 September to 25 November 1942 and eventually the Soviet forces managed to relieve it from the siege. It gained its popular name from Sergeant Yakov Pavlov, who commanded the platoon that seized the building and defended it during the long battle. By comparison, the Battle of France lasted 45 days and the Battle of the Netherlands lasted 7 days during the German offensive in 1940.
The house was a four-story building in the center of Stalingrad, built perpendicular to the embankment of the river Volga and overseeing the "9th January Square", a large square named for Bloody Sunday. In September 1942, the house was attacked by German soldiers, and a platoon of the Soviet 13th Guards Rifle Division was ordered to defend it. The platoon was led by Junior Sgt. Yakov Pavlov, a non-commissioned officer serving as acting platoon commander since the unit's lieutenant and senior sergeants had all been wounded or killed.
The strategic benefit of the house was that it defended a key section of the Volga bank. The tactical benefit of the house was its position on a cross-street, giving the defenders a 1 km line of sight to the north, south and west. After several days, reinforcements and resupply arrived for Pavlov's men, bringing the unit up to a 25-man understrength platoon and equipping the defenders with machine guns, anti-tank rifles, and mortars. In keeping with Stalin's Order No. 227—"not one step back", Sgt. Pavlov was ordered to fortify the building and defend it to the last bullet and the last man. Taking this advice to heart, Pavlov ordered the building to be surrounded with four layers of barbed wire and minefields, and set up machine-gun posts in every available window facing the square. In the early stages of the defense, Pavlov discovered that a PTRS-41 anti-tank rifle he had mounted on the roof was particularly effective when used to ambush unsuspecting German tanks; once the tanks had approached to within range of the building, their thin turret-roof armor became exposed to AT rifle fire from above, and were unable to elevate their weapons enough to retaliate.
For better internal communication, Pavlov's soldiers breached the walls in the basement and upper floors, and dug a communications trench to Soviet positions outside. Supplies were brought in via the trench or by boats crossing the river, defying German air raids and shelling. Nevertheless, food and especially water was in short supply. Lacking beds, the soldiers tried to sleep on insulation wool torn off pipes but were subjected to harassing fire every night in order to try to break their resistance.
The Germans attacked the building several times a day. Each time German infantry or tanks tried to cross the square and to close in on the house, Pavlov's men laid down a withering barrage of machine gun and AT rifle fire from the basement, the windows and from the roof top.
Eventually the defenders, as well as the Soviet civilians who kept living in the basement all that time, held out during intensive fighting from 27 September to 25 November 1942, when they were relieved by the counter-attacking Soviet forces.
Pavlov's House became a symbol of the incredibly stubborn and dogged resistance of the Russian forces during the Battle of Stalingrad, which eventually ended in a decisive victory for the Soviet forces after months of massive casualties on both sides. The inability of the German blitzkrieg to make headway against such grinding and self-sacrificial attrition warfare made the failure to capture Pavlov's House (despite numerous attempts) stand out as a symbol of resistance against a vastly superior force.
Pavlov's "House" was rebuilt after the battle and is still used as an apartment building today. There is an attached memorial constructed from bricks picked up after the battle on the East side facing the Volga.
A Russian TV documentary in 2009, "Legendary Redoubt," (Легендарный редут) on Russian Channel One reported on Pavlov's House. According to the documentary, the house's defense was in fact led by Lieutenant Ivan F. Afanasiev (Иван Ф. Афанасьев). This report does not discount Pavlov's efforts, which led to his earning the Hero of the Soviet Union and those soldiers who took part in the defense, earning numerous decorations of their own. The last member of Pavlov's group, K. Turgunov from Turakurgan District, Namangan Province, Uzbekistan died on 16 March 2015, aged 93.
- In the video game Call of Duty there is a level in which the player, as a conscripted Russian peasant, must participate in capturing and defending this structure from multiple waves of German soldiers and armor until Soviet reinforcements arrive. The squad leader in this mission is named Sgt. Pavlov, based on the real-life Yakov Pavlov.
- In early versions of the Red Orchestra modification for the game Unreal Tournament 2004 there was a level that recreated the fighting between the Soviet and German forces for the control of the building. The 2011 release Red Orchestra 2: Heroes of Stalingrad also includes Pavlov's house as a combat scenario.
- "Pavlov's House" is a structure in the first mission of Close Combat III: The Russian Front, with it starting in German control. However, this is in a battle that takes place in Ukraine during Operation Barbarossa, and does not represent the actual Pavlov's House (the game also has other structures and scenery played for laughs, like crop circles on a field).
- Forgotten Hope, a modification for the computer game Battlefield 1942, has Pavlov's house as a map in multiplayer. The map has the house in the center with the Germans surrounding it from 3 sides. The Soviets are on the 4th side. The map makes heavy use of the PPSh-41 Sub-machine-gun. It is a popular map for multiplayer.
- It is the setting for the main scenes of Bondarchuk's Stalingrad.
- The house is a distinct landmark on the map "Stalingrad" in the online game World of Tanks.
- http://www.volfoto.ru/volgograd/ploschad_lenina/dom_pavlova/ Pavlov House in Russian
- Chuikov, Vasily. Сражение века (in Russian). Retrieved 2013-05-30.
Эта небольшая группа, обороняя один дом, уничтожила вражеских солдат больше, чем гитлеровцы потеряли при взятии Парижа.
- World History. Т. Х. М., 1965, page. 43
- «European Cultural Benefits» in Russian
- «Yakov Pavlov 10.17.1917 - 29.09.1981 Hero of the Soviet Union» in Russian
- http://www.msk.kp.ru/daily/26351/3236827/ Ушел из жизни последний защитник дома Павлова в Сталинграде Камолжон Тургунов
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pavlov's House.|
- Pavlov's House - Stalingrad, September-November 1942 (Poem)
- Map of Pavlov's House and the defenders of the house