(pink, northwest) Saisiyat, Pazeh proper, and Kulun
Pazeh (also spelled Pazih) is the language of the Pazeh, a Taiwanese aboriginal people. It is a Formosan language of the Austronesian languages language family. Kulun was a dialect. There was only one remaining native speaker of Pazeh proper, 96-year-old Pan Jin-yu. Since her death, however, the language is extinct. Pan Jin-yu offered Pazeh classes to about 200 regular students in Puli and there were also a small number of students in Miaoli and Taichung.
|Stop||p b||t d||k ɡ3||(ʔ)2|
- /t/ and /d/ do not actually share the same place of articulation; /d/ is alveolar or prealveolar and /t/ (as well as /n/) is interdental. Other coronal consonants tend to be prealveolar or post-dental.
- The distribution for the glottal stop is allophonic, appearing only between like vowels, before initial vowels, and after final vowels. It is also largely absent in normal speech
- /ɡ/ is spirantized intervocalically
- /z/ is actually an alveolar/prealveolar affricate [dz] and only occurs as a syllable onset.
- /h/ varies between glottal and pharyngeal realizations ([ħ]) and is sometimes difficult to distinguish from /x/
Although Pazeh contrasts voiced and voiceless obstruents, this contrast is neutralized in final position for labial and velar stops, where only /p/ and /k/ occur respectively (/d/ is also devoiced but a contrast is maintained). /l/ and /n/ are also neutralized to the latter. Voiceless stops are unreleased in final position.
Mid vowels ([ɛ] and [o]) are allophones of close vowels (/i/ and /u/ respectively).
- Both lower when adjacent to /h/.
- /u/ lowers before /ŋ/. [u] and [o] are in free variation before /ɾ/
- Reduplicated morphemes carry the phonetic vowel even when the reduplicated vowel is not in the phonological context for lowering.
- /mutapitapih/ → [mu.ta.pɛ.taˈpɛh] ('keep clapping').
/a/ is somewhat advanced and raised when adjacent to /i/. Prevocally, high vowels are semivocalized. Most coronal consonants block this, although it still occurs after /s/. Semivowels also appear post-vocally.
The most common morpheme structure is CVCVC where C is any consonant and V is any vowel. Consonant clusters are rare and consist only of a nasal plus a homorganic obstruent or the glide element of a diphthong.
The Pazih language merged the following Proto-Austronesian phonemes (Li 2001:7).
- *C, *S > s
- *D, *Z > d
- *k, *g > k
- *j, *s > z
- *S2, *H > h
- *N, *ñ > l
- *r, *R > x
Pazih also split some Proto-Austronesian phonemes:
- *S > s (merged with *C); *S2, *H > h
- *w > ø, w
- *e > e, u
Like Bunun, Seediq, Squliq Atayal, Mantauran Rukai, and the Tsouic languages, Pazeh does not distinguish between common nouns and personal names, whereas Saisiyat does (Li 2000). Although closely related to Saisiyat, the Pazeh language does not have the infix -um- that is present in Saisiyat.
Pazeh makes ready use of affixes, infixes, suffixes, and circumfixes, as well as reduplication. Pazeh also has "focus-marking" in its verbal morphology. In addition, verbs can be either stative or dynamic.
There are four types of focus in Pazeh (Li 2000).
- Agent-focus (AF): mu-, me-, mi-, m-, ma-, ∅-
- Patient-focus (PF) -en, -un
- Locative-focus (LF): -an
- Referential-focus (RF): sa-, saa-, si-
The following affixes are used in Pazeh verbs (Li 2000).
- -in- 'perfective'
- -a- 'progressive'
- -ay 'actor focus, irrealis', -aw 'patient focus, irrealis'
- -i 'non-agent-focused imperative'
The following are also used to mark aspect (Li 2000).
- Reduplication of the verb stem's first syllable – 'progressive'
- lia – "already"
The Pazih affixes below are from Li (2001:10–19).
- ha-: stative
- ka-: inchoative
- kaa-: nominal
- kai-: to stay at a certain location
- kali- -an: susceptible to, involuntarily
- m-: agent focus
- ma- (ka-): stative
- ma- (pa-): to have (noun); agent-focus
- maa[ka]- (paa[ka]-): – mutually, reciprocal
- maka- (paka-): to bear, bring forth
- mana- (pana-): to wash (body parts)
- mari- (pari-): to bear, to give birth (of animal)
- maru- (paru-): to lay eggs or give birth
- masa-: verbal prefix
- masi- (pasi-): to move, to wear
- mata-: (number of) times
- mati- (pati-): to carry, to wear, to catch
- matu- (patu-): to build, erect, set up
- maxa- (paxa-): to produce, to bring forth; to become
- maxi- (paxi-): to have, to bring forth; to look carefully
- me-, mi- (pi-), mi- (i-): agent-focus
- mia- (pia-): towards, to go
- mia- which one; ordinal (number)
- mu- (pu-): agent-focus (-um- in many other Formosan languages); to release
- pa-: verbalizer; causative, active verb
- paka-: causative, stative verb
- papa-: to ride
- pu-: to pave
- pu- -an: locative-focus, location
- sa- ~saa-, si-: instrumental-focus, something used to ..., tools
- si-: to have, to produce; to go (to a location)
- si- -an: to bring forth, to have a growth on one's body
- ta-: agentive, one specialized in ...; nominal prefix; verbal prefix
- tau-: agentive
- tau- -an: a gathering place
- taxa-: to feel like doing; to take a special posture
- taxi-: to lower one's body
- taxu-: to move around
- ti-: to get something undesirable or uncomfortable
- tu-: stative
- xi-: to turn over, to revert
- -a-: progressive, durative
- -in-: perfective
- -an: locative-focus, location
- -an ~ -nan: locative pronoun or personal name
- -aw: patient-focus, future
- -ay: locative-focus, irrealis
- -en ~ -un: patient-focus
- -i: patient-focus, imperative; vocative, address for an elder kinship
- CV- -an: location
Although originally a verb-initial language, Pazeh often uses SVO (verb-medial) sentence constructions due to influence from Chinese.
There are four case markers in Pazeh (Li 2000).
- ki Nominative
- ni Genitive
- di Locative
- u Oblique
Pazeh has the following negators (Li 2001:46).
- ini – no, not
- uzay – not
- kuang ~ kuah – not exist
- mayaw – not yet
- nah – not want
- ana – don't
The Pazeh personal pronouns below are from Li (2000). (Note: vis. = visible, prox. = proximal)
|3s. (not vis.)||isia||sia||nisia||isiaan|
|1p. (incl.)||ita||ta||nita (ta-)||itaan|
|1p. (excl.)||yami||ami||nyam(i)||yamian, yaminan|
|3p. (not vis.)||yasia||asia||naasia||yasiaan|
Pazeh and Saisiyat are the only Formosan languages that do not have a bipartite numerical system consisting of both human and non-human numerals (Li 2006). Pazeh is also the only language that forms the numerals 6 to 9 by addition (However, Saisiyat, which is closely related to Pazeh, expresses the number 6 as 5 + 1, and 9 as 10 − 1.)
- 1 = ida adang
- 2 = dusa
- 3 = turu
- 4 = supat
- 5 = xasep
- 6 = 5 + 1 = xaseb-uza
- 7 = 5 + 2 = xaseb-i-dusa
- 8 = 5 + 3 = xaseb-i-turu
- 9 = 5 + 4 = xaseb-i-supat
The number "five" in Pazeh, xasep, is similar to Saisiyat Laseb, Taokas hasap, Babuza nahup, and Hoanya hasip (Li 2006). Li (2006) believes that the similarity is more likely because of borrowing rather than common origin. Laurent Sagart considers these numerals to be ancient retentions from Proto-Austronesian, but Paul Jen-kuei Li considers them to be local innovations. Unlike Pazeh, these plains aboriginal languages, as well as the Atayalic languages, use 2 × 4 to express the number 8. (The Atayalic languages, as well as Thao, also use 2 × 3 to express the number 6.) Saisiyat, Thao, Taokas, Babuza use 10 − 1 to express 9, whereas Saisiyat uses 5 + 1 to express 6 as Pazeh does. The Ilongot language of the Philippines also derives numerals in the same manner as Pazeh does (Blust 2009:273).
Furthermore, numerals can function as both nouns and verbs in all Formosan languages, including Pazeh.
- The last speaker, Pan Jin-yu, died 2010 October 24.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Kulon-Pazeh". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Blust (1999:322)
- Blust, Robert (1999). "Notes on Pazeh Phonology and Morphology". Oceanic Linguistics 38 (2): 321–365. doi:10.1353/ol.1999.0002.
- Blust (1999:325–329)
- Blust (1999:328)
- Blust (1999:324)
- Blust (1999:329–332)
- Blust (1999:330)
- Blust (1999:329)
- Blust (1999:326)
- Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 1997. "A Syntactic Typology of Formosan Languages – Case Markers on Nouns and Pronouns." In Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 2004. Selected Papers on Formosan Languages. Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
- Blust (1999:340)
- Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 2006. Numerals in Formosan Languages. Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 45, No. 1 (Jun., 2006), pp. 133–152.
- Blust, Robert. 2009. The Austronesian Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 0-85883-602-5, ISBN 978-0-85883-602-0.
- Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 2000. Some Aspects of Pazeh Syntax. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications, No. 29, Grammatical Analysis: Morphology, Syntax, and Semantics (2000).
- Li, Paul Jen-kuei and Tsuchida, Shigeru. 2001. Pazih Dictionary (巴宰語詞典). Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
- Blust, Robert (1999). "Notes on Pazeh Phonology and Morphology". Oceanic Linguistics 38 (2): 321–365. doi:10.1353/ol.1999.0002
- Li, R., & Tsuchida, S. (2002). Pazih Texts and Songs. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics (Preparatory Office), Academia Sinica. ISBN 957-671-888-0
|Pazeh language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
- The secret of Formosan languages (Interview clip including exclusive interviews with Pan Jin-yu) (Chinese)