Global Peace Index

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Global Peace Index Scores, 2012. Countries appearing with a deeper shade of green are ranked as more peaceful, countries appearing more red are ranked as less peaceful.

The Global Peace Index (GPI) is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.[1] It is the product of Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and developed in consultation with an international panel of peace experts from peace institutes and think tanks with data collected and collated by the Economist Intelligence Unit. The list was launched first in May 2007, then continued yearly. It is claimed to be the first study to rank countries around the world according to their peacefulness. It ranks 162 countries (up from 121 in 2007). The study is the brainchild of Australian technology entrepreneur Steve Killelea, founder of Integrated Research and is endorsed by individuals such as Kofi Annan, the Dalai Lama, archbishop Desmond Tutu, former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari, Nobel laureate Muhammad Yunus, economist Jeffrey Sachs, former president of Ireland Mary Robinson, current Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations Jan Eliasson and former US president Jimmy Carter. Factors examined by the authors include internal factors such as levels of violence and crime within the country and factors in a country's external relations such as military expenditure and wars. The index is launched each year at events in London, Washington DC and at the United Nations Secretariat in New York.

Expert Panel[edit]

The expert panel for the 2013 GPI consisted of:[2]

Methodology[edit]

In attempting to gauge peacefulness, the GPI investigates the extent to which countries are involved in ongoing domestic and international conflicts. It also seeks to evaluate the level of harmony or discord within a nation; ten indicators broadly assess what might be described as a safety and security in society. The assertion is that low crime rates, minimal incidences of terrorist acts and violent demonstrations, harmonious relations with neighboring countries, a stable political scene and a small proportion of the population being internally displaced or refugees can be equated with peacefulness.

Countries' peacefulness is measured on a wide range of indicators, 22 in all (originally 24 indicators, but one was dropped in 2008, and another in 2013). A table of the indicators is below.[3] In the table, UCDP stands for the Uppsala Conflict Data Program maintained by the University of Uppsala in Sweden, EIU for The Economist Intelligence Unit, UNSCT for the United Nations Survey of Criminal Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems, ICPS is the International Center for Prison Studies at King's College London, IISS for the International Institute for Strategic Studies publication The Military Balance, SIPRI for the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Arms Transfers Database, and BICC for the Bonn International Center for Conversion.

#
Indicator
Source
Year(s)
Coding
1 Number of external and internal conflicts fought UCDP and EIU 2004 to 2009 Total number[4]
2 Number of deaths from organised conflict (external) UCDP 2010 Total number[4]
3 Number of deaths from organised conflict (internal) IISS 2010 Total number[4]
4 Level of organised conflict (internal) EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
5 Relations with neighbouring countries EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
6 Level of perceived criminality in society EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
7 Number of refugees and displaced persons as percentage of population UNHCR and IDMC 2009 to 2010 Refugee population by country or territory of origin, plus the number of a country's internally displaced people (IDP's)as a percentage of the country's total population
8 Political instability EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
9 Terrorist activity Global Terrorism Index and IEP 2009 Quantitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
10 Political Terror Scale Amnesty International and US State Department 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
11 Number of homicides per 100,000 people UNCTS and EIU 2005 to 2009 Intentional homicides, including infanticide and excluding minor road traffic and other petty offences
12 Level of violent crime EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
13 Likelihood of violent demonstrations EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
14 Number of jailed persons per 100,000 people ICPS 2010 Rate of incarcerated persons as compared to the total population of the country
15 Number of internal security officers and police per 100,000 people UNCTS and EIU 2008 to 2010 Civil police force distinct from national guards or local militia [5]
16 Military expenditure as a percentage of GDP The Military Balance and IISS 2009 to 2010 Cash outlays of central or federal government to meet costs of national armed forces, as a percentage of GDP[6]
17 Number of armed-services personnel The Military Balance and IISS 2010 All full-time active armed-services personnel
18 Volume of transfers of major conventional weapons as recipient (imports) per 100,000 people SIPRI 2009 to 2010 Imports of major conventional weapons per 100,000 people[7]
19 Volume of transfers of major conventional weapons as supplier (exports) per 100,000 people SIPRI 2009 to 2010 Exports of major conventional weapons per 100,000 people[7]
20 Financial contribution to UN peacekeeping missions United Nations Committee on Contributions and IEP 2007 to 2010 Total number
21 Nuclear and Heavy Weapons capability The Military Balance, IISS, SIPRI, and IEP 2009 The Military Balance, IISS; SIPRI; and IEP[8]
22 Ease of access to small arms and light weapons EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5

Indicators not already ranked on a 1 to 5 scale were converted by using the following formula: x=(x-Min(x))/(Max(x)-Min(x)) where Max(x) and Min(x) are the highest and lowest values for that indicator of the countries ranked in the index. The 0 to 1 scores that resulted were then converted to the 1 to 5 scale. Individual indicators were then weighted according to the expert panel's judgment of their importance. The scores were then tabulated into two weighted sub-indices: internal peace, weighted at 60% of a country's final score, and external peace, weighted at 40% of a country's final score.[9] ‘Negative Peace’ which is defined as the absence of violence, or fear of violence is used as the definition of peace to create the Global Peace Index.[10] An additional aim of the GPI database is to facilitate deeper study of the concept of positive peace, or those attitudes, institutions, and structures that drive peacefulness in society.[10] The GPI also examines relationships between peace and reliable international measures, including democracy and transparency, education and material well-being. As such, it seeks to understand the relative importance of a range of potential determinants, or "drivers", which may influence the nurturing of peaceful societies, both internally and externally.

The main findings of the Global Peace Index are:[11]

  • Peace is correlated to indicators such as income, schooling and the level of regional integration
  • Peaceful countries often shared high levels of transparency of government and low corruption
  • Small, stable countries which are part of regional blocks are most likely to get a higher ranking.

Statistical analysis was applied to discover more specific drivers of peace. Specifically, the research team looked for indicators that were included and excluded from the index that had high levels of correlation with the overall score and rank of countries. Among the statistically significant indicators that were not used in the analysis were the functionality of a country's government, regional integration, hostility to foreigners, importance of religion in national life, corruption, freedom of the media and GDP per capita.[12]

Notably absent from the 2007 study are Belarus, Iceland, many African nations, Mongolia, North Korea, and Afghanistan. They were not included because reliable data for the 24 indicators was not available.[13] Most of these countries are included in the 2013 Index, which now ranks 162 countries worldwide.

Criticism and response[edit]

The Economist, in publishing the index, admitted that, "the index will run into some flak." Specifically, according to The Economist, the weighting of military expenditure "may seem to give heart to freeloaders: countries that enjoy peace precisely because others (often the USA) care for their defense." The true utility of the index may lie not in its specific rankings of countries now, but in how those rankings change over time, thus tracking when and how countries become more or less peaceful.[14]

The Peace Index has been criticised for not including indicators specifically relating to violence against women and children. Riane Eisler, writing in the Christian Science Monitor, argued that, "to put it mildly, this blind spot makes the index very inaccurate."[citation needed] She mentions a number of specific cases, including Egypt, where she claims 90% of women are subject to genital mutilation and China, where, she says, "female infanticide is still a problem," according to a 2000 UNICEF study.[15]

The 'Peace Index' has widely been criticised for not reflecting the fact that the USA is the most aggressive invader on the planet, and not a 'peaceful country' at all.[citation needed] This is largely because of a misunderstanding of what the index measures, which is how physically dangerous it is to live in the country. As is noted 'According to the Global Peace Index, Iraq is the second most dangerous country in the world (after Somalia).' by this comment in the context of this article explaining why the USA is not counted as the least peaceful country. [16]

The Index has been widely recognized. Professor Jeffrey Sachs, Director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University said: "The GPI continues its pioneering work in drawing the world’s attention to the massive resources we are squandering in violence and conflict. The lives and money wasted in wars, incarcerations, weapons systems, weapons trade, and more, could be directed to ending poverty, promoting education, and protecting the environment. The GPI will not only draw attention to these crucial issues, but help us understand them and to invest productively in a more peaceful world."[17]

The Index has received endorsements as a political project from a number of major international figures, including the former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, former President of Finland and 2008 Nobel Peace Prize laureate Martti Ahtisaari, the Dalai Lama, archbishop Desmond Tutu, Muhammad Yunus, and former United States President Jimmy Carter.[18] Steve Killelea, the Australian philanthropist who conceived the idea of the Index, argues that the Index "is a wake-up call for leaders around the globe."[19]

Global Peace Index rankings[edit]

Nations considered more peaceful have lower index scores. Countries with rankings in green are in the most peaceful 20% for that year; those in red are in the bottom 20%.[20] In 2013 researchers at the Institute for Economics and Peace harmonized the Global Peace Index database to ensure that the scores were comparable over time. Several countries have been removed since 2008 due to the fact that the compilers agreed that the GPI would include nations, but not micro-states. Now, countries covered by the GPI must either have a population of more than 1 million or a land area greater than 20,000 square kilometers.[21]

Country 2014 Rank 2014 Score 2013 Rank 2013 Score 2012 Rank 2012 Score 2011 Rank 2011 Score 2010 Rank 2010 Score 2009 Rank 2009 Score 2008 Rank 2008 Score
 Iceland 1 1.189 1 1.162 1 1.165 1 1.152 1 1.190 1 1.203 1 1.107
 Denmark 2 1.193 2 1.207 2 1.207 2 1.236 6 1.290 6 1.263 5 1.238
 Austria 3 1.200 4 1.250 6 1.310 9 1.317 5 1.260 3 1.240 10 1.291
 New Zealand 4 1.236 3 1.237 3 1.235 3 1.258 2 1.200 2 1.227 2 1.190
  Switzerland 5 1.258 5 1.272 4 1.258 8 1.309 9 1.310 11 1.349 4 1.234
 Finland 6 1.297 7 1.297 5 1.298 6 1.303 7 1.300 7 1.297 7 1.273
 Canada 7 1.306 8 1.306 9 1.328 13 1.355 15 1.410 9 1.324 6 1.264
 Japan 8 1.316 6 1.293 7 1.320 5 1.298 5 1.260 4 1.243 3 1.230
 Belgium 9 1.354 10 1.339 10 1.366 14 1.380 13 1.370 13 1.365 13 1.368
 Norway 10 1.371 11 1.359 14 1.385 4 1.275 9 1.310 8 1.324 9 1.288
 Czech Republic 11 1.381 14 1.404 15 1.406 12 1.347 14 1.390 16 1.430 18 1.435
 Sweden 11 1.381 9 1.319 8 1.320 7 1.306 3 1.250 5 1.253 8 1.282
 Ireland 13 1.384 12 1.370 11 1.372 16 1.407 12 1.360 14 1.393 11 1.310
 Slovenia 14 1.398 13 1.374 13 1.374 11 1.338 11 1.330 10 1.343 13 1.370
 Australia 15 1.414 16 1.438 19 1.466 17 1.429 18 1.440 19 1.440 16 1.421
 Bhutan 16 1.422 20 1.487 20 1.515 40 1.715 44 1.750 43 1.722 19 1.440
 Germany 17 1.423 15 1.431 18 1.451 18 1.440 18 1.440 17 1.443 15 1.406
 Portugal 18 1.425 18 1.467 17 1.440 15 1.386 16 1.420 15 1.426 14 1.385
 Slovakia 19 1.467 33 1.622 28 1.583 24 1.550 23 1.510 23 1.532 25 1.533
 Netherlands 20 1.475 22 1.508 25 1.548 27 1.561 32 1.630 29 1.609 28 1.555
 Hungary 21 1.482 23 1.520 22 1.523 22 1.541 21 1.500 25 1.574 20 1.452
 Qatar 22 1.491 19 1.480 12 1.373 10 1.331 10 1.320 12 1.357 30 1.561
 Poland 23 1.532 25 1.530 23 1.530 26 1.552 30 1.610 28 1.597 33 1.610
 Mauritius 24 1.544 21 1.497 26 1.571
 Singapore 25 1.545 16 1.438 16 1.434 20 1.482 21 1.500 18 1.439 21 1.465
 Spain 26 1.548 27 1.563 21 1.522 29 1.601 33 1.640 32 1.640 27 1.550
 Croatia 26 1.548 28 1.571 33 1.614 32 1.647 36 1.660 40 1.669 52 1.760
 Taiwan 28 1.558 26 1.538 24 1.543 25 1.552 25 1.580 33 1.644 40 1.660
 Uruguay 29 1.565 24 1.528 32 1.613 19 1.480 24 1.540 24 1.573 24 1.524
 Chile 30 1.591 31 1.589 27 1.581 38 1.705 26 1.590 20 1.468 17 1.431
 Estonia 31 1.635 38 1.710 38 1.706 47 1.798 44 1.765 41 1.720 32 1.650
 Bulgaria 32 1.637 35 1.663 36 1.685 35 1.700 42 1.730 46 1.738 46 1.720
 Malaysia 33 1.659 29 1.574 30 1.590 21 1.513 23 1.510 22 1.520 23 1.517
 Italy 34 1.675 34 1.663 34 1.661 34 1.682 38 1.680 39 1.693 34 1.620
 Romania 35 1.677 30 1.584 29 1.585 30 1.637 34 1.650 26 1.580 26 1.537
 Botswana 36 1.678 32 1.598 31 1.605 33 1.662 30 1.610 31 1.634 37 1.650
 Kuwait 37 1.679 37 1.705 39 1.708 23 1.545 32 1.630 38 1.691 42 1.670
 Laos 38 1.723 39 1.724 40 1.725 37 1.702 38 1.680 49 1.767 55 1.770
 Latvia 39 1.745 41 1.772 44 1.773 46 1.776 56 1.820 50 1.774 45 1.700
 United Arab Emirates 40 1.748 36 1.679 37 1.693 28 1.562 27 1.600 30 1.619 29 1.557
 Mongolia 41 1.778 64 1.921 63 1.922 61 1.878 84 2.050 88 2.060 89 2.060
 Costa Rica 42 1.781 40 1.755 35 1.680 36 1.701 30 1.610 27 1.595 31 1.570
 Argentina 43 1.789 60 1.907 43 1.760 51 1.830 56 1.820 61 1.846 55 1.770
 Zambia 44 1.791 48 1.832 60 1.895 58 1.855 62 1.870 58 1.824 52 1.760
 Vietnam 45 1.792 41 1.772 42 1.736 43 1.741 49 1.790 48 1.764 42 1.730
 Lithuania 46 1.797 43 1.784 46 1.800 48 1.787 39 1.700 36 1.675 48 1.670
 United Kingdom 47 1.798 44 1.787 41 1.731 42 1.729 43 1.740 41 1.710 48 1.740
 France 48 1.808 53 1.863 50 1.826 55 1.840 41 1.720 52 1.779 50 1.750
 Namibia 48 1.808 46 1.807 47 1.806 54 1.839 66 1.910 59 1.837 60 1.820
 Lesotho 50 1.839 49 1.840 56 1.869
 Cyprus 51 1.844 50 1.840 49 1.825 53 1.838 60 1.850 34 1.64 37 1.650
 South Korea 52 1.849 47 1.822 51 1.838 60 1.868 45 1.760 42 1.716 40 1.660
 Serbia 52 1.849 62 1.912 61 1.905 72 1.980 76 1.990 71 1.906 80 2.020
 Indonesia 54 1.853 54 1.879 57 1.871 62 1.899 72 1.950 60 1.843 64 1.860
 Montenegro 55 1.860 73 1.976 78 2.020 93 2.124 81 2.030 80 2.005
 Jordan 56 1.861 52 1.858 54 1.859 50 1.828 62 1.870 67 1.864 61 1.830
 Panama 57 1.877 56 1.893 59 1.894 49 1.816 69 1.930 66 1.862 43 1.680
 Nicaragua 58 1.882 66 1.931 80 2.028 70 1.967 64 1.890 72 1.911 71 1.910
 Oman 59 1.889 45 1.806 48 1.811 31 1.638 19 1.460 21 1.438 22 1.467
 Tanzania 59 1.889 55 1.887 53 1.856 52 1.832 52 1.810 53 1.782 56 1.790
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 61 1.902 71 1.967 71 1.968 63 1.901 56 1.820 45 1.735 69 1.900
 Ghana 61 1.902 58 1.899 45 1.793 39 1.707 49 1.790 55 1.795 55 1.770
 Morocco 63 1.915 57 1.897 58 1.889 57 1.848 60 1.850 63 1.856 60 1.820
 Kosovo 64 1.929 72 1.969
 Albania 65 1.939 69 1.961 69 1.963 65 1.910 63 1.880 70 1.890 71 1.910
 Madagascar 66 1.942 90 2.074 99 2.154 100 2.196 78 2.000 69 1.886 35 1.630
 Sierra Leone 66 1.942 59 1.904 65 1.926 67 1.921 58 1.840
 Gabon 68 1.945 76 1.995 75 2.002 79 2.049 75 1.980 44 1.730 50 1.750
 Timor-Leste 69 1.947 51 1.854
 Bolivia 70 1.969 86 2.062 85 2.056 73 2.005 82 2.040 82 2.041 76 1.960
 Moldova 71 1.971 74 1.984 74 1.991 69 1.957 78 2.000 74 1.965 78 2.000
 Senegal 72 1.974 85 2.061 79 2.027 80 2.050 73 1.970 75 1.969 74 1.950
 Paraguay 73 1.976 84 2.060 64 1.926 64 1.907 75 1.980 73 1.950 69 1.900
 Djibouti 74 1.979 63 1.917 66 1.933
 Cuba 75 1.986 65 1.922 67 1.945 66 1.916 69 1.930 64 1.858 64 1.860
   Nepal 76 1.989 82 2.058 76 2.006 104 2.209 93 2.120 76 1.967
 Malawi 77 1.995 74 1.984 70 1.967 45 1.773 65 1.900 51 1.776 62 1.840
 Burkina Faso 78 1.998 87 2.064 55 1.864 47 1.784 56 1.820 65 1.860 72 1.930
 Tunisia 79 2.001 77 2.005 73 1.978 41 1.725 36 1.660 37 1.686 40 1.660
 Saudi Arabia 80 2.003 97 2.119 108 2.214 98 2.175 112 2.250 108 2.251 105 2.250
 Togo 80 2.003 67 1.954
 Mozambique 82 2.004 61 1.910 52 1.847 56 1.840 46 1.770 47 1.762 45 1.700
 Guyana 83 2.013 70 1.962 68 1.962 88 2.116 94 2.130 94 2.082
 Liberia 84 2.014 80 2.048 86 2.067 85 2.058 91 2.110
 Ecuador 85 2.042 83 2.059 84 2.050 83 2.074 97 2.150 105 2.197 100 2.170
 Greece 86 2.052 68 1.957 62 1.909 59 1.860 58 1.840 62 1.850 58 1.810
 Macedonia 87 2.056 79 2.044 72 1.972 71 1.971 80 2.020 86 2.052 76 1.960
 Swaziland 87 2.056 88 2.069 82 2.046 78 2.034 72 1.950
 Trinidad and Tobago 89 2.065 90 2.074 90 2.092 75 2.023 86 2.070 77 1.985 89 2.060
 Papua New Guinea 90 2.066 99 2.126 92 2.124 95 2.153 91 2.110 91 2.075 96 2.130
 Brazil 91 2.073 81 2.051 83 2.046 77 2.028 84 2.050 87 2.058 93 2.100
 Belarus 92 2.078 96 2.117 94 2.132 84 2.075 87 2.080 85 2.046 89 2.060
 Equatorial Guinea 93 2.079 89 2.072 81 2.045 76 2.023 70 1.940 56 1.808 69 1.900
 Gambia 94 2.085 93 2.091 77 2.019 68 1.949 67 1.920
 Dominican Republic 95 2.093 94 2.103 87 2.077 86 2.107 86 2.070 79 2.004 83 2.040
 Turkmenistan 95 2.093 103 2.154 104 2.182 94 2.132 104 2.190 90 2.075 97 2.160
 Armenia 97 2.097 98 2.123 109 2.214 106 2.216 115 2.300
 Bangladesh 98 2.106 105 2.159 97 2.150 92 2.123 93 2.120 93 2.082 93 2.100
 Haiti 99 2.127 92 2.075 102 2.177 111 2.260 113 2.280 120 2.406 114 2.350
 Benin 100 2.129 104 2.156 110 2.229
 United States of America 101 2.137 100 2.126 103 2.182 102 2.201 107 2.200 104 2.195 100 2.170
 Angola 102 2.143 102 2.148 95 2.144 82 2.070 80 2.020 84 2.045 100 2.170
 Kazakhstan 103 2.150 78 2.031 96 2.147 89 2.119 96 2.140 97 2.141 82 2.030
 Uzbekistan 104 2.179 124 2.333 120 2.317 109 2.239 110 2.230 109 2.274 113 2.325
 Sri Lanka 105 2.197 110 2.230 107 2.201 132 2.523 134 2.690 126 2.571 120 2.450
 Cambodia 106 2.201 115 2.263 117 2.297 110 2.246 112 2.250 101 2.178 95 2.120
 Jamaica 107 2.203 117 2.274 113 2.268 103 2.203 88 2.090 89 2.065 89 2.060
 People's Republic of China 108 2.207 101 2.142 98 2.154 96 2.157 101 2.160 83 2.045 82 2.030
 Republic of the Congo 109 2.211 107 2.183 101 2.174 90 2.119 101 2.160 99 2.161 101 2.180
 Uganda 110 2.221 106 2.180 106 2.200 105 2.211 110 2.230 103 2.188 110 2.300
 Bahrain 111 2.225 95 2.109 89 2.083 99 2.192 47 1.780 57 1.815 57 1.800
 Georgia 111 2.225 139 2.511 137 2.546 136 2.580 141 3.020 134 2.842
 Cameroon 113 2.235 108 2.191 93 2.132 87 2.114 108 2.210 95 2.111 93 2.100
 Algeria 114 2.239 119 2.284 118 2.298 129 2.445 118 2.330 110 2.276 108 2.290
 Guatemala 115 2.248 109 2.221 119 2.314 122 2.337 107 2.200 102 2.187 102 2.210
 El Salvador 116 2.280 112 2.240 122 2.327 101 2.200 103 2.180 92 2.080 93 2.100
 Honduras 117 2.281 123 2.332 125 2.345 121 2.335 123 2.410 116 2.379 116 2.370
 Guinea 118 2.296 116 2.272 100 2.156 97 2.161
 Peru 119 2.304 114 2.258 91 2.094 92 2.123 91 2.110 78 2.000 89 2.060
 Mauritania 120 2.350 122 2.326 130 2.390 128 2.438 117 2.320 117 2.388 105 2.250
 Niger 121 2.351 127 2.362 129 2.387 126 2.426
 South Africa 122 2.364 121 2.292 114 2.270 115 2.272 115 2.300 112 2.317 95 2.120
 Azerbaijan 123 2.365 126 2.350 116 2.284 117 2.278 120 2.340 114 2.342 108 2.290
 Eritrea 124 2.377 120 2.288 115 2.282 116 2.278
 Kyrgyzstan 125 2.382 131 2.391 127 2.360 113 2.268
 Thailand 126 2.395 130 2.378 131 2.395 119 2.294 124 2.440 119 2.399 111 2.324
 Tajikistan 126 2.395 118 2.282 105 2.185 115 2.272
 Turkey 128 2.402 134 2.437 121 2.320 124 2.386 125 2.470 124 2.538 119 2.430
 Venezuela 129 2.410 128 2.370 123 2.329 123 2.380 121 2.350 115 2.348 103 2.240
 Burundi 130 2.418 144 2.593 141 2.618 135 2.579 129 2.570 123 2.536
 Iran 131 2.437 137 2.473 132 2.417 127 2.438 120 2.340 106 2.241 106 2.241
 Kenya 132 2.452 136 2.466 124 2.332 120 2.306 122 2.380 111 2.297 118 2.380
 Libya 133 2.453 145 2.604 148 2.822 138 2.653 52 1.810 54 1.790 65 1.870
 Philippines 134 2.456 129 2.374 128 2.386 130 2.509 127 2.520 118 2.397 116 2.370
 Mali 135 2.465 125 2.346 112 2.267 107 2.220 117 2.320 107 2.250 108 2.290
 Myanmar 136 2.473 140 2.528 138 2.549 133 2.523 130 2.601 122 2.495 124 2.540
 Rwanda 137 2.494 135 2.444 126 2.348 112 2.264 96 2.140 81 2.025 66 1.870
 Mexico 138 2.500 133 2.434 134 2.444 118 2.282 101 2.160 98 2.158 89 2.060
 Ethiopia 139 2.502 146 2.630 139 2.572 131 2.520 127 2.520 130 2.635 126 2.460
 Cote d'Ivoire 140 2.546 151 2.732 136 2.494 125 2.410 103 2.180 113 2.320 109 2.300
 Ukraine 141 2.546 111 2.238 88 2.081 81 2.054 101 2.160 100 2.166 80 2.020
 Chad 142 2.558 138 2.493 145 2.631 139 2.685 139 2.940 135 2.959 134 2.970
 Egypt 143 2.571 113 2.258 111 2.231 74 2.011 52 1.810 68 1.872 74 1.950
 India 144 2.571 141 2.570 144 2.675 142 2.707 133 2.680 125 2.554 123 2.490
 Guinea-Bissau 145 2.591 132 2.431 135 2.455
 Lebanon 146 2.620 142 2.575 133 2.435 134 2.552 128 2.530 128 2.606 127 2.670
 Yemen 147 2.629 152 2.747 145 2.697 141 2.706 133 2.680 121 2.416 111 2.324
 Zimbabwe 148 2.662 149 2.696 140 2.599 143 2.767 135 2.700 131 2.700 134 2.380
 Israel 149 2.689 150 2.730 147 2.767 145 2.883 140 3.000 137 3.012 134 2.970
 Colombia 150 2.701 147 2.634 143 2.640 140 2.697 136 2.790 129 2.625 125 2.610
 Nigeria 151 2.710 148 2.693 146 2.707 137 2.613 131 2.630 127 2.599 118 2.570
 Russia 152 3.039 155 3.060 152 2.969 146 2.982 142 3.080 138 3.064 131 2.870
 North Korea 153 3.071 154 3.044 151 2.943 148 3.067 138 2.900 133 2.771 129 2.750
 Pakistan 154 3.107 157 3.106 153 3.000 149 3.070 144 3.150 140 3.087 132 2.890
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 155 3.213 156 3.085 154 3.099 147 3.052 144 3.150 136 2.988 128 2.690
 Central African Republic 156 3.331 153 3.031 150 2.909 144 2.854 137 2.860 132 2.706 130 2.810
 Sudan 157 3.362 158 3.242 157 3.398 152 3.360 145 3.270 139 3.086 136 3.150
 Somalia 158 3.368 161 3.394 158 3.486 153 3.446 147 3.460 141 3.269 137 3.320
 Iraq 159 3.377 159 3.245 155 3.227 151 3.342 148 3.500 143 3.370 138 3.370
 South Sudan 160 3.397 143 2.576
 Afghanistan 161 3.416 162 3.440 156 3.366 150 3.287 146 3.360 142 3.358 135 3.000
 Syria 162 3.650 160 3.393 149 2.869 108 2.228 107 2.200 96 2.112 77 1.990
Note: There have been changes to the methodology for the 2013 data.[22]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Global Peace Index". http://economicsandpeace.org. 
  2. ^ As listed in "2013 Global Peace Index". Institute for Economics and Peace. Retrieved 2013-06-24. 
  3. ^ Information about indicators and methodology "2013 Global Peace Index". Institute for Economics and Peace. Retrieved 2013-06-24. 
  4. ^ a b c In this case, a conflict is defined as, "a contested incompatibility that concerns government and/or territory where the use of armed force between two parties, of which at least one is the government of a state, results in at least 25 battle-related deaths in a year."
  5. ^ Excludes militia and national guard forces.
  6. ^ This includes, "cash outlays of central or federal government to meet the costs of national armed forces—including strategic, land, naval, air, command, administration and support forces as well as paramilitary forces, customs forces and border guards if these are trained and equipped as a military force."
  7. ^ a b This includes transfers, purchases, or gifts of aircraft, armoured vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, ships, engines
  8. ^ rates the destructive capability of a country's stock of heavy weapons via a categorised system. As of 2013, countries with nuclear capabilities receive a score of five, the highest possible score
  9. ^ "Global Peace Index Report, Methodology, pg. 51-54". Vision of Humanity. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  10. ^ a b Global Peace Index (http:/ / www. visionofhumanity. org/ pdf/ gpi/ 2013_Global_Peace_Index_Report. pdf) - Methodology and Data Sources
  11. ^ First Global Peace Index Ranks 121 Countries, PP Newswire
  12. ^ "Global Peace Index: Drivers of Peace". Vision of Humanity. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  13. ^ Charles, Deborah (May 30, 2007). "New Peace Index Ranks US Among Worst Nations". Reuters. Retrieved 2007-08-09. 
  14. ^ "Give peace a rating". The Economist. May 31, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-09. 
  15. ^ Eisler, Riane (July 26, 2007). "Dark underbelly of the world's most 'peaceful' countries". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2007-08-09. 
  16. ^ "‘The Supreme Crime Against Humanity’ in Iraq, and Beyond". Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  17. ^ "World-less peaceful in 2010 report". PR Newswire. Retrieved 2010-06-15. 
  18. ^ "Endorsers for GPI". Vision of Humanity. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  19. ^ "Norway rated most peaceful nation". BBC News. 2007-05-30. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  20. ^ All information in the table of rankings from: "About the Global Peace Index". Vision of Humanity. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  21. ^ page 12, Global Peace Index 2012.pdf http://economicsandpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/2012-Global-Peace-Index-Report.pdf
  22. ^ Global Peace Index - Methodology and Data Sources

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