Toronto Pearson International Airport
|Toronto Pearson International Airport|
|IATA: YYZ – ICAO: CYYZ
– WMO: 71624
|Operator||Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA)|
|Serves||Greater Toronto Area|
|Time zone||EST (UTC−05:00)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC−04:00)|
|Elevation AMSL||569 ft / 173 m|
|Number of Passengers||34,912,456|
|Sources: Canada Flight Supplement
Movements from Statistics Canada
Passengers and Movements from Airports Council International
Toronto Pearson International Airport (also known as Lester B. Pearson International Airport or simply Pearson Airport or Toronto Pearson) (IATA: YYZ, ICAO: CYYZ) is an international airport serving Toronto, Ontario, Canada, its metropolitan area, and the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration that is home to 8.7 million people. The airport is located 22.5 km (14.0 mi) northwest of downtown Toronto, in the adjacent city of Mississauga. The airport is named in honour of Lester B. Pearson, the 14th Prime Minister of Canada.
Pearson Airport is the largest and busiest airport in Canada. In 2013, it handled 36,109,469 passengers and 435,592 aircraft movements. It is the world's 35th-busiest airport by total passenger traffic, 23rd-busiest airport by international passenger traffic, and 18th-busiest airport by flights. Pearson is a major North American global gateway, handling more international passengers than any airport in North America other than John F. Kennedy International Airport.
Toronto Pearson is the main hub for Air Canada. It is also a hub for passenger airline WestJet and cargo airline FedEx Express, and serves as an operating base for passenger airlines Air Transat and Sunwing Airlines. Pearson Airport is operated by the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA) as part of Transport Canada's National Airports System and is one of eight Canadian airports with facilities for United States border preclearance.
An extensive network of non-stop domestic flights is operated from Toronto Pearson by several airlines to all major and many secondary cities across all provinces of Canada. There are 75 airlines operating at Toronto Pearson, connecting the airport to over 155 international destinations worldwide. Pearson is one of only two airports in North America, the other being JFK International Airport, with scheduled direct flights to all six of the world's inhabited continents.
- 1 History
- 2 Terminals
- 3 Infrastructure and services
- 4 Airlines and destinations
- 5 Cargo operations
- 6 Access
- 7 Accidents and incidents
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
In February 1935, the Government of Canada announced its intention to build an airport in Toronto. A site near Malton, Ontario, northwest of Toronto, was chosen as the location for the new airport.
In April 1937, land agents representing the Toronto Harbour Commission approached farmers in Malton who owned Lots 6-10 on Concession 5 and 6 to acquire land for Malton Airport. Agreements were drawn up for a total purchase of 1,410.8 acres, and several farmers sold lots ranging in size from 50 to 200 acres.
The second terminal, a standard wood frame building, was built in 1938. The airport at the time covered 420 acres (1.7 km2) with full lighting, radio, weather reporting equipment, two hard surface runways, and one grass landing strip. The first scheduled passenger flight to Malton Airport was a Trans-Canada Airlines DC-3 that landed on August 29, 1939.
A third "TCA" terminal was built to the west side of second wood frame terminal in 1949. It could handle 400,000 passengers per year and had an observation deck on the roof. In front of the old terminal was a set of stairs leading to a ramp to allow visitors to access the rooftop observation deck. Further expansion saw the expropriation of land near the hamlet of Elmbank. The runways were 11,050 ft (3,368 m) runway 5/23 (used for test flights of the CF-105 Arrow (Avro Arrow) fighter from the Avro Canada plant); 14/32, a 11,475 ft (3,498 m) runway (replaced by 15L/33R); and 10/28, a 7,425 ft (2,263 m) runway that now is a taxiway.
The 1939 and 1949 addition (and surrounding structures) were torn down in 1964 with the area developed for Air Canada's hangar with the terminal site now occupied by the Vista Cargo Centres (Cargo Area 5).
U.S. Border Preclearance
Preclearance was pioneered at Pearson in 1952 as a convenience to allow it to connect as a domestic airport to the many smaller airports in the United States that at the time lacked customs and immigration facilities. It was at first a service performed by U.S. Customs agents at the gate. U.S. federal government concerns over smuggling between precleared and non-cleared passengers at Toronto Pearson (who at that time shared mixed terminal space) nearly ended the program in the 1970s, until a compromise was reached that called for segregated facilities. Today, Pearson handles 8 million passengers through its U.S. customs and immigration preclearance facilities per year, which is roughly one quarter of all passenger traffic at the airport.
The third "TCA" terminal was demolished in the late 1960s and replaced by the Aeroquay One terminal building, which was built further south of the original site along Airport Road. Aeroquay One (also called Terminal One) had a square central structure housing ticketing and baggage facilities topped by a parking garage with about eight levels and ringed by a two-storey passenger concourse leading to the gates. It was designed by John B. Parkin, with construction taking place between 1957 and 1964. Aeroquay One was officially opened on February 28, 1964 by Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson.
Aeroquay One ceased operations on April 5, 2004, and has since been demolished.
Former Terminal 2
Considered state-of-the-art in the 1960s, the original Terminal 1 became overloaded by the early 1970s. Terminal 2 opened as a passenger airline terminal on June 15, 1972. Initially, it served only charter airlines, but it became the hub for Air Canada passenger flights on April 29, 1973.
While a legend suggests that Terminal 2 was originally intended as a freight terminal, this was not the case. The legend may have stemmed from the fact that a cargo facility was used as a temporary passenger terminal while waiting for completion of the new terminal 
Terminal 2 had a facility for United States border preclearance and handled both domestic and international trans-border traffic. Domestic traffic was moved to the new Terminal 1 when it became operational, leaving Terminal 2 to handle international traffic to the United States for Air Canada and its Star Alliance partner United Airlines.
The airport was renamed Lester B. Pearson International Airport in 1984, in honour of Lester B. Pearson, the fourteenth Prime Minister of Canada and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. Operationally, the airport is often referred to as Toronto Pearson.
A passenger tunnel with moving walkways at the northwest corner of Terminal 2 connected it with Terminal 1.
Terminal 2 saw its last day in operation as a passenger terminal January 29, 2007. The following day, airlines moved to the newly completed Pier F, or Hammerhead Pier at the current Terminal 1.
Demolition of Terminal 2 began in April 2007 and concluded in November 2008.
Operation Yellow Ribbon
During the September 11 attacks in 2001, Toronto Pearson International Airport played a role in Operation Yellow Ribbon. It received 14 of the diverted international flights that were destined for the United States after the closure of US airspace.
In order to accommodate its growing aircraft volume, substantial redevelopment of the airside and infield systems has taken place. Cargo facilities were added to the centre of the airport between the parallel north–south runways in order to increase capabilities and to offset the loss of the cargo facilities that were removed for the current terminal buildings. Two runways were built to increase the number of aircraft that Toronto Pearson could process. A north–south runway, 15R/33L, was added and completed in 1997. Another east–west runway, 06R/24L, was completed in 2002.
The continued increase of air traffic at Toronto Pearson resulted in a 2013 decision by Transport Canada to proceed with the planning and construction of Toronto Pickering International Airport (following a 2001 decision to simply revive plans for the airport), which would be approximately 50 km (31 mi) east of Toronto Pearson and handle up to 11.9 million passengers per year by 2032 with its three runways.
Toronto Pearson International Airport has two operating terminals, Terminals 1 and 3. T1 opened on April 6, 2004. The old Terminal 1, which closed simultaneously with the opening, was demolished to make room for additional gates at Pier E. Pier F at Terminal 1, which has an enlarged end called "Hammerhead F", opened on January 30, 2007 to replace Terminal 2. This pier accommodates international traffic and adds 7 million passengers per year to the airport's total capacity. Redevelopment of the airport was a logistical challenge, as the existing terminals remained operational throughout construction and demolition.
As of August 2010, free high-speed Wi-Fi internet access is available throughout all passenger terminals at Toronto Pearson.
Terminal 1 is designed to handle domestic, international, and trans-border flights in one facility. The terminal features three piers: Piers D and E with 38 gates and Pier F with 23 gates. Pier F serves transborder and international flights, replacing Terminal 2 and the Infield Terminal (IFT). A Pier G is slated to be built in the future if demand warrants.
Air Canada and all other Star Alliance airlines that serve Toronto operate out of Terminal 1; however, the terminal is also used by airlines that are not members of Star Alliance. Terminal 1 contains 58 gates: 101, 103, 105, 107–112, 120, 122, 124, 126, 128, 131–145, 151, 153, 155, 157, 160–163, 164A–164B, 165, 166A–166B, 167–181, 191, and 193. Two of the gates can accommodate the Airbus A380. Emirates is the only operator of this type of airplane at Toronto Pearson.
Measuring over 567,000 square metres (6,000,000 sq ft), Terminal 1 is the 11th-largest airport terminal in the world in terms of floor area.
Along with the standard border facilities, the terminal also contains a few customs "B" checkpoints along the international arrivals walkway. Passengers that are connecting from an international or trans-border arrival to another international (non-U.S.) departure in Terminal 1 go to one of these checkpoints for passport control and immigration checks, then are directed to Pier F. This alleviates the need to recheck bags, pass through security screening, and relieves congestion in the primary customs hall.
Terminal 3, which opened on February 21, 1991, was built to offset traffic from the old Terminals 1 and 2. Terminal 3 was initially advertised as "Trillium Terminal 3" and the "Trillium Terminal". It was built as a private venture and was a state-of-the-art terminal containing a U.S. customs preclearance facility, among other things. A parking garage and hotel is located across from the terminal and is connected by an elevated pedestrian walkway. At the time of the opening, the hotel was managed by Swissôtel. However, it was rebranded as a Sheraton property in October 1993. In 1997, the GTAA purchased Terminal 3 and shortly thereafter implemented a C$350 million expansion.
A team of coordinators known as T3RD oversaw the redevelopment and expansion of Terminal 3. In 2004, the Pier C Expansion opened, followed by the East Processor Extension (EPE) in June 2006, adding 40 new check-in counters, new retail space, additional secure 'hold-screening' for baggage, and a huge picture window that offers one of the most convenient apron viewing locations at the airport. This phase of the expansion also included improved Canadian Border services and a more open arrivals hall. Phase II of the EPE was completed in 2007 and includes larger security screening areas and additional international baggage claim areas. The West Processor Expansion Shell was completed in early 2008.
All SkyTeam and Oneworld airlines that serve Pearson operate from Terminal 3, along with WestJet, Air Transat, and most other airlines that are unaffiliated with an airline alliance. Terminal 3 has 39 gates: A1–A6, B7–B20, B22 and C24–C41.
The infield terminal was built to handle traffic displaced during the development and construction of the current Terminal 1. The terminal, also known as the IFT, has 11 gates (521 to 531). Although it is currently closed, plans are in place to reactivate it if necessary in the future to accommodate seasonal or overflow demand, or to provide additional capacity during future terminal building construction at the airport. When it was in use, passengers were transported by bus between Terminal 1 and the IFT to reach their gates. 
The Infield Terminal is frequently used as a location to film major motion pictures and television productions.
Infrastructure and services
In July 2006, the automated LINK Train people mover opened, with two 6-car trains that run between Terminal 1, Terminal 3, and the Sheraton Gateway Hotel, where a reduced rate and airport staff parking lot exists between Airport Road and Viscount Road. A parking garage was constructed at 6B parking lot, opposite the 6A Station and linked via a bridge across Viscount Road. It opened in December 2009 with a capacity of 8,500 vehicles. This is a mixed-use building that accommodates long term parking, employee parking, and rental car operations.
- Peel Regional Police is the primary law enforcement service at the airport. Airport Division is located on 2951 Convair Drive, on the southern perimeter of the airport near the Facilities Building adjacent to Highway 401.
- The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) maintains a Toronto Airport Detachment to provide federal police services and is located at 255 Attwell Drive east of the airport in Etobicoke. The RCMP formerly provided policing at the airport. In December 2009, the Peel force asked the RCMP to assist in policing the airport due to the failed bombing incident at Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport. The Canada Border Services Agency, as well as the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, maintain extensive operations at the airport.
- The Greater Toronto Airports Authority administration offices are located on Convair Drive near the southeast corner of the airport. They were relocated when the original office was demolished to make way for the new Terminal 1 parking facilities.
- Skyservice Business Aviation
- Cara Operations – onboard food catering
- Federal Express - located at the northwest end of the airport
There are two supplies of aviation fuel at the airport:
Air Traffic Control
Pearson is one of two airports in Canada with a Traffic Management Unit (TMU) to help control planes on the taxiways and apron areas. The TMU is located in the tower at Terminal 1. The airport's main control tower is located within the infield operations area.
All three major airline alliances (Star Alliance, SkyTeam, and Oneworld) have a large presence at Toronto Pearson, and therefor all maintain frequent flyer lounges within the airport. There are also several "Pay-In" lounges open for use by all passengers, regardless of airline, frequent flyer status, or class of travel.
- Terminal 1
- Air Canada Maple Leaf Lounge (Star Alliance)
- Domestic (Take elevator to the left at security, next to Tim Hortons)
- International (Level 3, before the escalators down to gates)
- International – USA Transborder (Level 4, take elevators to the right at security)
- Plaza Premium Lounge ("Pay-In" Lounge)
- Domestic (After main security on Level 3, on the right)
- International (Next to Gate E77, take the elevator to Level 3)
- International - USA Transborder (Near Gate F91)
- Terminal 3
- American Airlines Admirals Club (Oneworld)
- British Airways The Galleries Club Lounge (Oneworld)
- British Airways The Galleries First Lounge (Oneworld)
- KLM Crown Lounge (SkyTeam)
- Plaza Premium Lounge ("Pay-In" Lounge)
- Domestic (Between Gate B23 and C24)
- International (Next to Gate C32, take the elevator to the AT level)
The airport's 115-member airfield maintenance unit is responsible for general maintenance and repairs at the airport. From mid-November to mid-April, the unit is in winter mode armed with a $38 million snow removal budget. The airport employs 11 Vammas PSB series and 4 Oshkosh HT-Series snowplow units.
Pearson Airport's Central De-icing Facility is the largest in the world, servicing about 10,500 aircraft each winter. The six de-icing bays can handle up to 12 aircraft at a time, taking between 2 and 19 minutes per aircraft.
During de-icing, a heated glycol and water mixture is applied to the aircraft to remove frozen contamination adhering to critical flight control surfaces. During anti-icing, additional chemicals are applied to provide long-term protection against icing.
Airlines and destinations
Passenger airlines and destinations
- ^1 : Philippine Airlines flights to/from Manila stop in Vancouver. However, Philippine Airlines does not have Fifth freedom rights to transport passengers solely between Toronto and Vancouver, and thus only carries passengers traveling between Toronto and Manila.
Cargo airlines and destinations
|Cathay Pacific Cargo||Anchorage, Hong Kong, New York–JFK||VISTA|
|FedEx Express||Indianapolis, Memphis, Minneapolis/St. Paul||FedEx|
operated by Morningstar Air Express
|Calgary, Edmonton, Montreal–Mirabel, Vancouver, Winnipeg||FedEx|
|Korean Air Cargo||Anchorage, Seoul–Incheon||Cargo West|
Pearson operates two primary cargo facilities. The Cargo West Facilities are located between runways 15L/33R and 15R/33L, and the Cargo Area 5 or VISTA Cargo Centres Incorporated are located north of Terminal 3. A third facility dedicted to FedEx operations occupies facilities at the north side of the airport near runway 05/23. 
|American Airlines||Canada Border Services Agency|
|CAS Canada Inc.||Korean Air Cargo|
|WestJet Air Supply||Worldwide Flight Services|
|Air Canada Cargo||ACE Freight||AeroLogic||Air France Cargo||Airline Cargo Sales||Air-Ship International||Air Time Express||Alitalia||All Trade Shipping||American Aviation Parts & Service||Airport Terminal Services|
|Austrian Airlines||Canada Border Services Agency||Canada Post||Cargo Sales Resources||Cargo Zone||CAS Cargo and Travel||Cathay Pacific||Delta Air Lines||DHL Express|
|El Al||EVA Air||Excel Cargo||Exp-Air Cargo||Freight Systems Incorporated||Air India||Handlex Incorporated||International Cargo||International Fastline Forwarding||Japan Airlines||KLM Cargo|
|LAN Chile||LOT Polish Airlines||Lufthansa Cargo||Mayfield Cargo||Finnair||Onward Transportation||Orbit Brokers||SATA Cargo||Pine Tree Express||Platinum Air Cargo|
|Prestige International||Secure Maple Freight||Swiss International Airlines||Swissport||Turkish Airlines Cargo||TBI||U Freight International||UPS Airlines||VCC Cargo Services|
|Shell Aerocentre Hangars and Flight Lounge||All Cargo Airlines Ltd|
The airport is accessible from Highway 427 (just north of the Highway 401 spaghetti interchange) or from Highway 409, a spur off Highway 401 that leads directly into the airport. Airport Road to the north and Dixon Road to the east both provide local access to the airport.
Restricted road access from Courtney Park Drive and Britannia Road to the west of the airport are for authorized vehicles only. Various roads to the cargo area to the north are also restricted. Other roads that travel along the airport grounds and runways are blocked off by fencing and gates. When drivers pick up or drop off guests at Toronto Pearson, they are permitted to stop momentarily outside the Arrivals and Departure areas at both terminals.
Bus services that connect Toronto and the surrounding region to Pearson Airport include the Toronto Transit Commission (public transit), GO Transit (public regional transit), MiWay (public transit), Brampton Transit (public transit), Toronto Airport Express Coach (private airport coach service), and Can-ar Coach Service (private airport coach service):
|Route||Destination||Service Times||Terminals Served||Schedule|
|Toronto Transit Commission (TTC)|
|192 Airport Rocket||Express service to Kipling Station on the||All-day||1 and 3|||
|52A Lawrence West (replaced 58 Malton (58, 58A, 58B, 58D)||Local service serving Dixon Road and Lawrence Avenue to Lawrence Station via Lawrence West Station, both on the||All-day||1 and 3|||
|300A Bloor-Danforth||Runs express from the airport to Burnhamthorpe Road at Highway 427, then serves Bloor Street and Danforth Avenue to Warden Avenue||Overnight only
(approximately 2:00 a.m.–6:00 a.m. daily)
|1 and 3|||
|307 Eglinton West||Local service along Eglinton Avenue to Yonge Street||Overnight only
(approximately 2:00 a.m.–6:00 a.m. daily)
|1 and 3|||
|34 Brampton Local||Eastbound: Semi-express service to York Mills and Yorkdale TTC subway stations on the||All-day||1 only|||
|40 Pearson Airport||Express service to Richmond Hill Centre bus terminal.||All-day||1 only|||
|7 Airport||Local service to:||All-day||1 only|||
|107 Malton Express||Express service to:
Access from the airport's offsite parking is made via Viscount LINK Station.
This route will become one of the branches of Mississauga's BRT system.
(approximately 5:00 a.m.–8:00 p.m.)
|Viscount LINK Station|||
|24 Northwest||Local service to:||Rush hour||Viscount LINK Station|||
|57 Courtneypark||Local service from the airport's Infield Cargo area to:
Northbound: Meadowvale Town Centre
|59 Infield||Local service from Westwood Mall to the airport's Infield Cargo area||One trip daily||None|||
|115 Airport Express||Semi-express service to Bramalea bus terminal||All-day||1 only|||
|Toronto Airport Express Coach|
|Pacific Western Transportation operates airport shuttle coach buses between downtown locations and Pearson Airport under the Toronto Airport Express brand.||All-day||1 and 3|||
|Can-ar Coach Service|
|Operates a once-a-day coach service to Port Elgin, Ontario, serving communities in Dufferin, Grey, and Bruce counties.|||
Taxis, limousines, and shuttle vehicles
Toronto Pearson International Airport has pick-up locations for taxis, limousines, out-of-town bus, and/or shuttle services, all of which offer transportation to downtown Toronto, cities throughout Ontario, and into Detroit, Michigan, USA. Taxis are licensed by the City of Mississauga, not from the City of Toronto. Taxis that are licensed in Toronto can deliver to Pearson, but only airport-licensed taxis and limos can pick up at Pearson legally. Rides can also be prearranged through GTA Airport Taxi or GTA Airport Limo at the Airport, providing prompt pick-up outside of the terminal. Pearson Airport Limousine companies use GTAA authorized out-of-town flat rates for pick-ups from Pearson Airport.
Toronto Pearson International Airport supports many out-of-town small bus, van, and shuttle operators, offering transportation from the airport to cities, towns, and villages throughout Southern Ontario. Some operators offer connections to other airports in Ontario (John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport in Hamilton and London International Airport in London) or in the United States (Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport in Detroit, Michigan and Buffalo Niagara International Airport in Buffalo, New York).
Future transit connections
Toronto Pearson Terminal 1 Station is under construction to serve the future Union Pearson Express, which is expected to begin service before the 2015 Pan American Games. The airport is not served by trains even though it is near an existent railway line. The closest rail station is Malton GO Station, at Derry Road east of Airport Road. As of June 2013[update], MiWay routes 7, 58, and 115 connect the station to the airport in 10 minutes.
The Eglinton Crosstown light rail line was originally projected to connect Pearson to Scarborough by 2018 as part of the Transit City plan. However, when the four Transit City lines were found to be $2.4 billion over their funding envelope in January 2010, parts of the network were deferred, including the western section of the Eglinton Crosstown LRT.
One of the routes in GO Transit's proposed Highway 407 BRT system would reach the airport. As a precursor, GO as of June 2013[update] operates the 40 Airport Express route between Richmond Hill Centre Terminal and Pearson Airport. This route formerly served Mississauga City Centre, but was shortened due to MiWay's launch of its own Airport Express route. A bus rapid transit route is planned to use the Mississauga Transitway, which is under construction. Mississauga Transit's 107 Malton Express has been in service since March 2010, connecting Mississauga City Centre, Malton, and Pearson Airport via the LINK Train's Viscount Station during peak hours only. After the completion of the transitway in late 2013, travel times between these destinations would be cut down to 19 minutes (compared to 7 Airport's 41 minutes and to the current 107's 29 minutes). Also, an all-day, all-week connection between the two destinations would be established.
Accidents and incidents
- On October 3, 1959, Vickers Viscount CF-TGY of Trans-Canada Air Lines was written off when it landed short of the runway.
- On June 13, 1964, Vickers Viscount CF-THT of Air Canada was damaged beyond economical repair when it crash-landed after the failure of two engines on approach.
- The airport's deadliest accident occurred on July 5, 1970, when Air Canada Flight 621, a DC-8 jet, flew on a Montreal–Toronto–Los Angeles route. The pilots inadvertently deployed spoilers before the plane attempted landing, forcing the pilots to abort landing and takeoff. Damage to the aircraft that was caused during the failed landing attempt caused the plane to break up in the air during the go-around, killing all 100 passengers and nine crew members on board when it crashed into a field southeast of Brampton. Controversy remains over the cleanup effort following the crash, as both plane wreckage debris and human remains from the crash are still found on the site.
- On August 30, 1970, Douglas C-47 CF-JRY of D G Harris Productions was damaged beyond economic repair in a storm.
- On June 26, 1978, Air Canada Flight 189 to Winnipeg overran the runway during an aborted takeoff, and crashed into the Etobicoke Creek ravine. Two of the 107 passengers on board the DC-9 were killed.
- On June 22, 1983, Douglas C-47A C-GUBT of Skycraft Air Transport crashed on takeoff roll at Toronto International Airport while on an international cargo flight from Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, Ohio. Both of the crew members were killed.
- On August 2, 2005, Air France Flight 358, an Airbus A340-300 (registration F-GLZQ) inbound from Paris, landed on runway 24L during a severe thunderstorm, failed to stop, and ran off of the runway into the Etobicoke Creek ravine. The rear third of the plane burst into flames, eventually engulfing the whole plane except the cockpit and wings. There were 12 serious injuries, but no fatalities. The investigation predominantly blamed pilot error when faced with the severe weather conditions.
- On December 7, 2010, an Emirates Airbus A380 was damaged when a scissor-lift catering truck collapsed on the right wing. The aircraft was taken out of service and repaired at a makeshift repair facility located at the north apron of the Infield Terminal.
- Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 24 July 2014 to 0901Z 18 September 2014
- "Synoptic/Metstat Station Information". Retrieved 2011-05-15.
- "Airport Divestiture Status Report". Tc.gc.ca. January 12, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- "Total aircraft movements by class of operation — NAV CANADA towers". Statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2013-10-04.
- "Airport Traffic Reports". Aci-na.org. Retrieved 2013-04-14.
- "2006 Census: Portrait of the Canadian Population in 2006: Findings". Statistics Canada. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
- "Chapter 14: Land Use". The Airport Master Plan (2000-2020). Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Retrieved 2012-01-26.
- "Toronto Pearson Fast Facts". GTAA. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
- "Toronto Pearson (Enplaned + Deplaned) Passengers". GTAA. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-10.
- "Toronto Pearson Fast Facts". Airports Council International. Retrieved 2014-04-18.
- "About Air Canada - Corporate Profile". aircanada.com. Retrieved 2014-07-14.
- "2013 Annual Information Form - Air Canada". aircanada.com. 2014-03-28. Retrieved 2014-07-14.
- "Airports in the national airports category (Appendix A)". Transport Canada. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
- "Airlines & Destinations: Canadian Destinations". torontopearson.com. Retrieved 2014-07-14.
- "Airport Facts". GTAA.com. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-11.
- "Airlines and Destinations: International Destinations". Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Retrieved 2014-07-11.
- "Airlines and Destinations: US Destinations". Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Retrieved 2014-07-11.
- Cook, Dave (2010). Fading History Vol. 2. Mississauga, Ontario: David L. Cook. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-9734265-3-3.
- Hicks, Kathleen A. (2006). Malton: Farms to Flying. Mississauga, Ontario: Friends of the Mississauga Library System. p. 133. ISBN 0-9697873-9-1.
- Dexter, Brian (March 16, 1974). "Malton residents say they've had enough". Toronto Star. p. B09.
- "Flight Ontario – BCATP Schools". Flightontario.com. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- "Toronto Port Authority". Torontoport.com. Retrieved 2010-03-11.
- "1. Introduction". GTAA Master Plan. p. 1.19.
- "Preclearance Act Review: Information Document." Government of Canada. Retrieved 2012-04-23.
- "Celebrating Success pg 10". http://www.torontopearson.com. Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "CTV News". Ctv.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-19.[dead link]
- "Congressional Bills 112th US Congress - H. Res. 286 Introduced in House (IH)". US Government. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- "GTAA – Chapter 4:Layout 1" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- "GTAA – Chapter 5:Layout 1" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- Transport Canada, Press Release, June 11, 2013;
- Cf. Transport Canada, Plan Showing Pickering Airport Site; also Greater Toronto Airports Authority, Pickering Airport Draft Plan Report, 6.3. By comparison, Toronto Pearson International Airport had 32.3 million passengers in 2008, with an average of 1,179 "aircraft movements" per day (GTTA, Toronto Pearson Fast Facts; and Pickering Airport Site Zoning Regulations, September 30, 2004.
- Byers, Jim (4 August 2010). "Free Wi-Fi begins at Toronto Pearson Airport". Toronto Star (Thestar.com). Retrieved 2013-01-02.
- Schwartz, Adele C. (1 December 2005). "Bonus Design". Air Transport World (Silver Spring, Maryland). Archived from the original on 2013-09-16. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
- Harold D. Kalman. "Airport Architecture". The Canadian Encyclopedia. thecanadianencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
- "ThyssenKrupp Airport Systems on growth track" (Press release). ThyssenKrupp. 11 April 2006. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
- "Sheraton takes over Swissotel, increases Metro hotels to 4". Toronto Star (Thestar.com). 8 October 1993. p. F7. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
- Joan Bryden (2 April 1997). "Settlement near over cancelled airport contract". Toronto Star (Thestar.com). p. B3. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
- Hack, Shazar; Thompson, Jeremy (March–April 2006). "The Redevelopment of Terminal 3" (PDF). Toronto Pearson Today (GTAA). Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Toronto Pearson Master Plan - Chapter 6 : Passenger Terminals". Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- "Lights, cameras and action at Toronto Pearson International Airport". Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- Irwin Rapoport (2006-07-06). "Airport opens automated people mover: New train system connects three terminals, parking area". Toronto: Daily Commercial News. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-12. "It’s a 1.5-kilometre train with three stations gliding along an elevated guideway connecting Terminals 1, 3 and a reduced rate parking area serving both passengers and employees of the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA)."
- Christopher Hume (14 December 2012). "All Eyes on the Ground". Toronto Star (Thestar.com). Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Travel Info – Maple Leaf Lounges". aircanada.com. 24 November 2008. Retrieved 2010-03-11.
- "Plaza Premium Lounge – Toronto". Plaza-network.com. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- "Admirals Club Airport Lounges". AA.com. March 31, 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-11.
- "Lounge locations". British Airways. Retrieved 2010-03-11.
- "Locations of the KLM Crown Lounge". KLM.com. Retrieved 2010-03-11.
- Sunday, April 14, 2013 6:04 PM EDT Facebook Twitter RSS (2009-11-29). "Clearing Pearson airport for takeoff in the winter | Toronto Star". Thestar.com. Retrieved 2013-04-14.
- "Oshkosh HT-Series Chosen by Toronto International Airport | Team Eagle Ltd. ~ Your Airfield Solutions Partner". Team-eagle.ca. 2010-08-04. Retrieved 2013-04-14.
- Patel, Arti (Feb 3, 2011). "Clearing a Plane of Snow is Deicing on the Cake". The Globe and Mail.
- "Winter Operations". Greater Toronto Airports Authority. Retrieved December 2013.
- aircanada.com - Air Canada to Launch Year-Round Service to Rio de Janeiro
- Air Canada Mainline Replaces rouge on Toronto – Sarasota Service from Nov 2014
- "Air Canada rouge Expands to Hawaii" (Press release). Air Canada. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-10.
- aircanada.com - Timetable (Flight Schedules)
- westjet.com - WestJet Encore says bienvenue to Quebec City
- "Advanced Cargo Facilities". GTAA. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Vista Cargo Terminals Inc Tenants list". Greater Toronto Airports Authority. June 2011.
- "Directions: From South-QEW". GTAA.com. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Public Transportation". GTAA.com. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "192 Airport Rocket-Northbound". .ttc.ca. 23 December 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "58 Malton-Eastbound". .ttc.ca. 19 March 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "300 Bloor – Danforth-Eastbound". January 27, 2011. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "307 Eglinton West-Eastbound". .ttc.ca. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Table 34: Brampton/North York". GOTransit.com. 1 September 1012. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Table 40: Pearson Airport Express". GOTransit.com. 1 September 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Routes & Schedules". MiWay. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "115: Airport Express". Brampton Transit. 13 February 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Schedule". Torontoairportexpress.com. 5 November 2011. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- Toronto Bus Station, Ontario Bus lines - Coach Bus Services in Toronto and Southern Ontario, Canada | Ground Transportation. Can-arcoach.com. Retrieved on 2014-04-12.
- "Taxis & Limousines". GTAA.com. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Limousine Out of town tariffs". GTAA.com. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Out-of-Town Van Services". Gtaa.com. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Request for Approval of the Eglinton Crosstown LRT Transit Project Assessment Study". ttc.com. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- Jack Collins (19 May 2010). "Achieving 5 in 10". Metrolinx. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Rapid". MiWay. Fall 2009. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
- Wilkes, Jim (6 July 2004). "Ghosts of Flight 621 haunt Brampton field". Toronto Star (Thestar.com). p. A1. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "CF-JRY Hull-loss description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- "C-GUBT Accident report". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2010-07-27.
- Neil Denslow (8 December 2010). "Emirates A380 Grounded on Caterer Truck Damage, Flight Reports". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toronto Pearson International Airport.|
- Official website
- Malton: Farms to Flying Book by Kathleen A. Hicks - PDF
- Airport Wayfinder: Interactive video guide and detailed informations about Toronto-Pearson International Airport.
- Toronto Airport Limo, Pearson Airport Taxi Transportation in Toronto
- Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Toronto Pearson International Airport from Nav Canada as available.