Pediococcus acidilactici

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Pediococcus acidilactici
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Division: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Lactobacillaceae
Genus: Pediococcus
Species: P. acidlactici
Binomial name
Pediococcus acidilactici
Lindner 1887

Pediococcus acidilactici is a species of gram positive coccus that is often found in pairs or tetrads. Pediococcus acidilactici is a homo-fermentative bacterium that can grow in a wide range of pH, temperature and osmotic pressure, therefore being able to colonize the digestive tract.[1] Pediococcus acidilactici has emerged as a potential probiotic that has shown promising results in animal and human experiments, though some of the results are limited. They are commonly found in fermented vegetables, fermented dairy products and meat.[2]

Pediococcus acidilactici are facultative anaerobes that grow well on MRS (deMann, Rogosa, Sharpe) agar of an optimum pH of 6.2, with an overnight incubation at 37 degrees Celsius and 45 degrees Celsius. They are also viable at higher temperatures of up to 65 degrees Celsius.[3]

Pediococcus acidilactici are also acidophilic bacteria which are viable at very low pH. The probiotic, Pediococcus acidilactici is a facultative anaerobe with lesser sensitivity to oxygen. Pediococci exert antagonism against other microorganisms, including enteric pathogens, primarily through the production of lactic acid and secretion of bacteriocins known as pediocins.[4]

Potential Benefits[edit]

Pediococcus acidilactici has a wide range of potential benefits of which are still being studied. Though it is being used as probiotic supplements in treating constipation, diarrhea, relieving stress, enhancing immune response among birds and small animals, human trials are still limited. Pediococcus acidilactici is also known to prevent colonization of the small intestine by pathogens like Shigella, Salmonella, Clostridium difficile and Escherichia coli among small animals.

Digestive Disorders[edit]

Pediococcus acidilactici have been used to treat dogs with digestive disorders and also those dogs which were infected by Parvovirus. Prior to treatment with orally administered mixtures of Pediococcus acidilactici and Saccharomyces boulardii the dogs diagnosed with parvovirus infection were shown to exhibit severe gastro-intestinal distress such as vomiting and bloody diarrhea. After the treatment for three days, the bloody diarrhea ceased and the dogs had solid stools.[5]

Alternative Medicines[edit]

Pediococcus acidilactici has not been stated in any literature to have toxic effects. Another potential benefit of using them as Probiotics is their use as alternative medicines against infectious parasitic pathogens like Eimeria in broiler-chicken.[6] Pediococcus acidilactici in conjunction with Saccharomyces boulardii stimulates humoral immune response to produce higher Eimeria-specific antibody levels while also reducing the number of oocysts shed by possible competitive inhibition and pediocin production which inhibit pathogenic bacteria and other gram-positive spoilage [7][8]

Immune Health Benefits[edit]

Pediococcus acidilactici can function as immune modulators. Animals fed with P. acidilactici have shown enhanced immune responses against infectious coccidioidal diseases.[9][10]

Antibiotic Treatment[edit]

Dogs typically undergo antibiotic treatment to eliminate infectious pathogens or parasites and to prevent secondary infections. However, the treatment of antibiotics can also disrupt the ecosystems of beneficial microorganisms in dog’s gastrointestinal (GI) tracts. When dogs with digestive disorders were treated by antibiotics together with Pediococcus acidilactici probiotic products, the surviving millions of Pediococcus product are able to alleviate the disruptive balance of microorganisms in dogs’ GI tracts caused by antibiotics treatment and to normalize the intestinal microflora.[11]

Moreover, since antibiotics kill many of competitive pathogenic microorganisms, Pediococcus product can have better beneficial effects in dogs and cats GI tracts when administered together with antibiotics.

Difference from other Probiotic Strains[edit]

Most strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are sensitive to room temperature, which raises concerns for storage conditions and maintenance of cell viability. In addition, most Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are sensitive to acidic exposure and have difficulty in surviving environments with low pH, such as of stomach acid [12]

.[13] Therefore, obtaining consistent and reproducible results becomes the major challenge for the commercial products of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium.

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Barros R.R., Carvalho G.S., Peralta J.M., Facklam R.R., Teixeira L.M. 2001. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Pediococcus strains isolated from human clinical sources. J. Clin Microbiol. April;39(4): 1241–1246.
  3. ^ Lin J.J. 2006. Probiotics as alternative Biomedicines for pets with digestive disorders
  4. ^ Daeschel M.A., Klaenhaemmer T.R. 1985. Association of a 13.6-megadalton plasmid in Pediococcus pentosaceus with bacteriocin activity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: 1538S-1541S
  5. ^ Lin J.J. 2006. Probiotics as alternative Biomedicines for pets with digestive disorders
  6. ^ Dalloul R.A., Lillehoj H.S, Lee J.S., Lee S.H., Chung K.S. 2006. Immunopotentiating effect of a Fomitella fraxinea – derived lectin on chicken immunity and resistance to coccidiosis. Poult. Sci. 85: 446S-451S
  7. ^ Ennahar S., Deschamps N. 2000. Anti-Listeria effect of enoterocin A, produced by cheese-isolated Enterococcus faecium EFM01, relative to other bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria. J.Appl. Microbiol. 88:449S-457S
  8. ^ Lee SH, Lillehoj HS, Dalloul RA, Park DW, Hong YH, and Lin JJ. 2007. Influence of Pediococcus –based probiotic on coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Poultry Sci. 86:63-66
  9. ^ Lee SH, Lillehoj HS, Park DW, Hong YH, and Lin JJ. 2007. Effects of Pediococcus –and Saccharomyces -based probiotic (MitoMax) on coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Comparative Immuno Microbiol & Infectious disease. 30:261-268
  10. ^ Lin J.J. 2006. Probiotics as alternative Biomedicines for pets with digestive disorders. Proceeding of 8th Annual meeting of JBVP. 3-288-292.
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  18. ^ Dalloul R.A., Lillehoj H.S, Lee J.S., Lee S.H., Chung K.S. 2006. Immunopotentiating effect of a Fomitella fraxinea – derived lectin on chicken immunity and resistance to coccidiosis. Poult. Sci. 85: 446S-451S
  19. ^ Ennahar S., Deschamps N. 2000. Anti-Listeria effect of enoterocin A, produced by cheese-isolated Enterococcus faecium EFM01, relative to other bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria. J.Appl. Microbiol. 88:449S-457S
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See also[edit]