Pedro de Toledo, 1st Marquis of Mancera

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Pedro Álvarez de Toledo
Marqués de Mancera
Caballero de Alcántara
15th Viceroy of Peru
In office
December 18, 1639 – September 20, 1648
Monarch Philip IV
Prime Minister Count-Duke of Olivares
Preceded by The Count of Chinchón
Succeeded by The Count of Salvatierra
Personal details
Born c.1585
Madrid, Spain
Died March 9, 1654(1654-03-09) (aged 69)
Madrid, Spain
Spouse(s) Luisa Feijóo de Novoa
María Luisa de Salazar
Children Antonio Sebastián Álvarez de Toledo
Profession Lieutenant General
Religion Catholic

Pedro Álvarez de Toledo y Leiva, 1st Marquis of Mancera[1] (c. 1585–1654), was a Spanish nobleman general, colonial administrator, and diplomat who served as Viceroy of Galicia and Peru from December 18, 1639 to September 20, 1648.

Early life[edit]

Pedro de Toledo was the son of Don Luis de Toledo, 4th Lord of Mancera, and of his second wife Isabel de Leiva. He served with the Spanish armies in Italy, rising to the rank of lieutenant general in the royal galleys of Sicily. King Philip IV of Spain raised his title from Lord to Marquis of Mancera in 1623. Thereafter he served eight years as governor and captain general of Galicia. He was named viceroy of Peru in 1639, at the age of 54.

As Viceroy of Peru[edit]

Pedro Álvarez de Toledo traveled to Peru with his son, Antonio Sebastián Álvarez de Toledo, whom later became viceroy of New Spain (1664–73).

As viceroy, the Marquis introduced the papel sellado (literally, sealed paper).[2] He expanded the naval forces and fortified the ports of Valdivia, Valparaíso, Arica and Callao. In Callao he ordered the construction of a 4-km-long wall, which was completed in 1647. Mancera island at the mouth of the Valdivia River is named after him.

He organized literary discussion parties, tertulias a formalized kind of official salon. In these was introduced the mancerina, a ceramic or silver saucer with a framework for holding a jícara, or chocolate cup.[3] The manufacture of mancerinas later became an industry in the Spanish towns of Manises and Talavera.

At the end of his term as viceroy, Álvarez de Toledo returned to Spain. He died in Madrid in 1654.


The Marquis married for the first time with Luisa Feijóo de Novoa y Zamudio, with whom he had one daughter. In 1621 he married for a second time with María Luisa de Salazar y Enríquez de Navarra, 3rd Lady of El Mármol, with whom he had another two children.

By Luisa Feijóo de Novoa:

By María Luisa de Salazar:


8. Pedro de Toledo
1st Lord of Mancera
4. Enrique de Toledo
3rd Lord of Mancera
9. Leonor de Ayala
2. Luis de Toledo
4th Lord of Mancera
10. Diego de Castilla
3rd Lord of Gor
5. Isabel de Mendoza
11. Beatriz de Mendoza
1. Pedro Álvarez de Toledo
12. Sancho Martínez
Lord of the house of Leiva
6. Sancho Martínez de Leiva
Lord of the house of Leiva
13. Francisca Ladrón de Guevara
3. Isabel de Leiva
14. Garcí II Hurtado de Mendoza
8th Lord of la Corzana
7. Leonor de Mendoza
15. Ana de Leiva

Additional information[edit]


  1. ^ in full, Spanish: Don Pedro Álvarez de Toledo y Leiva, sexto señor y primer Marqués de Mancera, Virrey de Galicia y del Perú, embajador en Alemania y Venecia, del Consejo de Guerra de Don Felipe II, caballero de la orden de Alcalá y comendador de Esparragosa)
  2. ^ For the purpose of increasing royal revenues in the first part of the seventeenth century, a series of measures were adopted. One of the measures was the introduction of papel sellado, by a royal decree of 1638. This required the use of seals on official documents in the Indies, such as contracts, judicial decrees, deeds, etc. A tax was charged for the seals.
  3. ^ See zarf.


  • Castro Pereira Mouzinho de Albuquerque e Cunha, Fernando de (1995). Instrumentário Genealógico - Linhagens Milenárias (in Portuguese). pp. 329–30. 
  • Hobbs, Nicolas (2007). "Grandes de España" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 October 2008. 
  • Instituto de Salazar y Castro. Elenco de Grandezas y Titulos Nobiliarios Españoles (in Spanish). periodic publication. 

External links[edit]

Government offices
Preceded by
The Count of Chinchón
Viceroy of Peru
Succeeded by
The Count of Salvatierra
Spanish nobility
New title Marquis of Mancera
Succeeded by
Antonio Sebastián
de Toledo