Peter I of Portugal
|Reign||8 May 1357 – 18 January 1367|
|Spouse||Blanche of Castile
Constance of Peñafiel
Inês de Castro (disputed afterdeath queen)
|Infanta Maria, Marchioness of Tortosa
Infanta Beatriz, Countess of Alburquerque
Infante João, Duke of Valencia de Campos
Infante Dinis, Lord of Cifuentes
|House||House of Borgonha|
|Father||Afonso IV of Portugal|
|Mother||Beatrice of Castile|
|Born||8 April 1320
Coimbra, Kingdom of Portugal
|Died||18 January 1367 (aged 46)
Estremoz, Kingdom of Portugal
|Burial||Monastery of Alcobaça, Alcobaça, District of Leiria, Portugal|
Peter I (Portuguese: Pedro I [ˈpedɾu] (8 April 1320 – 18 January 1367), called the Just or the Cruel (Portuguese: o Justo, O Cruél), was King of Portugal and the Algarve from 1357 until his death. He was the third but only surviving son of Afonso IV of Portugal and his wife, princess Beatrice of Castile.
Afonso IV married his daughter, Maria, to Alfonso XI of Castile, but quickly learned that she was being mistreated by her husband. Alfonso's cousin, Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena, had also been rebuffed by the king when his daughter Constanza was rejected in favor of the Portuguese princess. Feeling as though his daughter was being dishonored, Afonso was glad to enter into an alliance with Juan Manuel and married his son and heir, Peter, to Constance.
When Constanza arrived in Portugal, Inês de Castro, the daughter of an aristocratic Castilian land-owner, accompanied her as her lady-in-waiting. Peter fell in love with Inês very quickly, and the two conducted an affair that lasted until Constance's death in 1345. The scandal of this affair caused Afonso to banish Inês from court, but this did not end the relationship, and the two began living together in secret.
According to the chronicle of Fernão Lopes, during this period, Peter began giving Inês's brothers important positions at court. This behavior alarmed Afonso and made him believe that upon his death, the Portuguese throne would fall to the Castilians. This is the official motive behind Afonso's next action: he sent three men to find Inês and murder her in 1355. Pedro's rage at the murder of his love is what allegedly sparked his revolt against his father. This revolt began in 1355 and lasted into 1356, when Afonso finally defeated his son. One year later Afonso died, and Peter succeeded to the throne.
King of Portugal
Fernão Lopes labels Peter as "the Just" and said that Peter loved justice—especially the dispensing of it, which he enjoyed doing for himself. Inês' assassins received his harshest punishment: the three had escaped to Castile, but Peter arranged for them to be exchanged for Castilian fugitives residing in Portugal with his nephew, Peter of Castile. One man escaped, but the other two were brought to justice, and Lopes says that Pedro ripped their hearts out with his own hands. It is possible that Peter I of Portugal has been confused with Peter of Castile: both have the same name, both lived at the same time, the two were closely related, and both are credited with committing violent acts towards their subjects. Despite his gruesome legacy, Peter I of Portugal did have a peaceful reign and managed to install a system of justice which was relatively fair for the times. He attempted this with his Beneplácito Régio in 1361, which forbade any Papal Bulls to be published without his prior consent. This was a result of the number of fake papal documents that had been entering the country. He also began the "nationalization" of the military orders by placing his youngest son João (an illegitimate child born after Inês' death; later king John I) as the Master of the Order of Avis. He claimed that he and Inês had been married and thus that their four children were legitimate, but nothing ever came of this. Peter and Inês' children went to live in Castile.
Legend holds that Peter later had Inês' body exhumed and placed upon a throne, dressed in rich robes and jewels, requiring all of his vassals to kiss the hand of the deceased "queen". This has never been proven, but what is known is that Peter did have Inês' body removed from her resting place in Coimbra and taken to Alcobaça where her body was laid to rest in the monastery. Peter had two tombs constructed in the monastery, one for each of them. These still exist today; they contain images of Peter and Inês facing each other, with the words "Até o fim do mundo..." ("Until the end of the world...") inscribed on the marble.
Peter was also the father of Ferdinand I of Portugal and John I of Portugal. John was the Master of the military order of Avis, and he would become the founder of the Avis dynasty in 1385, after defeating an attempt by Beatrice of Portugal and John I of Castile to ascend the Portuguese throne.
Marriage and descendants
|Blanca of Castile (c. 1315–1375; married in 1325; annulled in 1333)|
|Constance of Penafiel (c. 1320–1345; married in 24 August 1339)|
|Infante Luís (Louis)||1340||1340|
|Infanta Maria||6 April 1342||a. 1367||Marchioness Consort of Tortosa by marriage to Infante Fernando of Aragon, Marquis of Tortosa.|
|Infante Fernando (Ferdinand)||31 October 1345||22 October 1383||Succeeded him as Ferdinand I, 9th King of Portugal.|
|By Inês de Castro (c. 1325–1355; possibly married in 1354)|
|Afonso||1346||1346||Died shortly after his birth.|
|Infanta Beatriz (Beatrice)||1347||1381||Countess Consort of Alburquerque by marriage to Sancho of Castile, Count of Alburquerque y Haro.|
|Infante João (John)||1349||1397||Lord of Porto de Mós, Seia and Montelongo, and also Duke of Valencia de Campos. Claimant to the throne during the 1383-1385 Crisis.|
|Infante Dinis, Lord of Cifuentes||1354||1397||Lord of Villar-Dompardo. And later, Cifuentes, Escalona and Alvar de Tormes. Claimant to the throne during the 1383-1385 Crisis.|
|By Teresa Lourenço (c. 1330-?)|
|João (John)||11 April 1357||14 August 1433||Natural son. Grand Master of the Order of Aviz. Succeeded his half-brother Ferdinand I after the 1383-1385 Crisis as John I, 10th King of Portugal, the first of the House of Aviz.|
|Ancestors of Peter I of Portugal|
Peter I of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of BurgundyBorn: 8 April 1320 Died: 18 January 1367
|King of Portugal and the Algarve
- Douglas L. Wheeler, Walter C. Opello, Jr. Historical Dictionary of Portugal 2010 Page 206 "PEDRO I, KING (1320–1367). The eighth king of Portugal and fourth son of King Afonso IV and Beatriz of Castile."
- IMDB datasheet
- Gerli, Michael (2002). Medieval Iberia. UK: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8240-8095-5.
- Rothwell, Phillip (2007). A canon of empty fathers. USA: Bucknell University Press. ISBN 0-8387-5687-5.