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Location in Spain, in the province of Ciudad Real
|Autonomous community||Castile-La Mancha|
|• Mayor||José Juan Fernández Zarco (PSOE)|
|• Total||101.3 km2 (39.1 sq mi)|
|Elevation||656 m (2,152 ft)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code(s)||34 (Spain) + 926 (Ciudad Real)|
Pedro Muñoz is a municipality in the autonomous community named Castile-La Mancha, Spain. It is located in the province of Ciudad Real, northeast of the province on the basin of the Záncara river. It is in the La Mancha region, in the "Mancha Alta" sub-region. It is a small municipality due to its abandonment as a municipality in 1410, but Pedro Muñoz has 45,27 enterprises for each 1000 inhabitants.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Demographics
- 3 History
- 4 Major events in Pedro Muñoz
- 5 Monuments and sites of interest
- 6 Archaeological discoveries
- 7 Historic celebrities
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The municipality is bounded on the north by El Toboso, on the west by Campo de Criptana, on the east by Mota del Cuervo, and on the south by Socuéllamos and Tomelloso. It has an area of 101.3 km ² and is located 113 km from the provincial capital. Although it is at a comparatively high altitude, the region itself is flat. It is a typical village in La Mancha with the concentrated population and low housing typical of the region.
It is located in the southern part of the sub-mesa south of the Iberian peninsula, in the Guadiana river basin and the Záncara river, and has a nature reserve surrounding a lake complex.
This lake complex has seven lakes. La Vega or Laguna del pueblo lagoon is considered "green", Alcahozo, Manjavacas and Monte Chico are salt lakes and Retamar and Navalafuente are endorreic lakes (not providing any outflow of water such as streams or rivers).
It had a population of 8,711 inhabitants in 2009 and, according to the 2011 census, 8,639 inhabitants as of today. Its population density is 78.04 inhabitants per km².
In pre-Roman times, the area had a population of about 100 people in the Cerro de La Nieve area. Several samples of Iberian sculptures have been found in this area. This area was later occupied by the Romans, but was conquered in the fourth century by the Visigoths, and in the eighth century by Iberian Muslims, and then finally came under the Castillians in the 13th century, them then founded the village under the priory of Uclés. The village was founded through the efforts of the Archdeacon of Alcaraz named Pero Muñoz. He was looking to find high, defensible points in the La Mancha plains, close to his headquarters near Alcaraz, that were safe from the raids often carried out by the Muslim armies, causing great havoc among Christians. Alcaraz aimed to populate strategic locations resulting in the village being founded in 1284, the year of the death of King Alfonso X (the Wise) of Castile, whose son Sancho IV succeeded to the throne.
The Archbishop of Toledo had asked permission to create churches throughout this region, expropriating the land on which they stood. Realizing that the site was inhabited, he tried to make the villagers abandon the village so that he could to take it. The Archdeacon of Alcaraz (Pero Muñoz) petitioned the Archbishop of Toledo for permission to annex the inhabited land. The Archbishop became famous for the complicated lawsuit that ruled in Alcaraz's favour. The Archbishop of Toledo was forced to concede the town to Alcaraz, and relinquish his own rights to it. For this reason, the villagers honored him by putting his name to the village.
In 1324 Alfonso XI conceded the village, but in 1410 the villagers were driven out of the barren land by pests. In wetland areas, the lagoon from the villa was drying, dividing the lake into three, making the land near it very prone to disease.
In 1525 the town began to be repopulated again by a family from Cuenca, named Mayordomo. The patriarch of the family, Juan Mayordomo, was encouraged to go to the abandoned village and settle there with his family by what he heard about the fertility of its lands, and due to his having to abandon their old village, Cervera del Llano, for standing up to the Marquis de Villena.
Juan Mayodomo later decided to leave the village to inform his relatives that it was a suitable and welcoming place and thus persuade them to settle and spread the word to other people. John's family was responsible for spreading this message and soon other families began to arrive until the town was reborn. John would thus become the first mayor of the municipality due to his leadership.
Farmers residing in the nearby villages of Socuéllamos, El Toboso, Golf Criptana and Mota del Cuervo, attempted to destroy the houses where the newcomers had settled. They were fearful that they would lose the defensive borders, forests and meadows they had gained when the village was abandoned in 1410. To avoid this Juan Mayordomo, along with some residents, took his case to the courts of Ocaña, Toledo, Avila, and Madrid asking for the granting of town powers to the people. However the councils of Socuéllamos, El Toboso, Golf and Mota del Cuervo Criptana also filed a lawsuit to prevent this concession, vying in favor of Pedro Muñoz. Spain was at that time positioned as one of the major European powers, Emperor Charles I was occupying the Spanish throne, but had to leave Spain to resolve issues in its European territories. Queen Isabella of Portugal and Aragon therefore granted town privileges to Pedro Muñoz on August 10, 1531, saving the town from future threats against its homes. For this reason there appears in the right lower quarter of the towns heraldic shield a crown in gratitude to the monarchy, especially Isabel, for her decision, in such difficult times, to make the village a town.
In 1691, Pedro Muñoz was included in the province of La Mancha, with Almagro as the capital, having been segregated from the Toledo province.
In the seventeenth century, a number of large mansions, such as "Paca's House-Palace", were built. In 1700 the construction of the Church of St. Peter the Apostle began, which epitomized all that was beautiful in the Renaissance and Baroque and reflected the splendor of the town.
Pedro Muñoz has far to go to match the glory it achieved in the beginning of the twentieth century, with the beginnings of the vineyards and winemaking industry. It gained momentum for greater democracy and freedom for its enterprising citizens who created companies to meet the market needs of the people and to provide jobs for its neighbors and those in the region who, in turn, helped to maintain and grow this great municipality that is located in the heart of La Mancha.
Major events in Pedro Muñoz
- In 1284 the town was named Pedro Muñoz; this is the recorded year of inception, but the town was not settled until 40 years later.
- In 1324 Alfonso XI granted it Town Privilege, in the General Chapter held in Mérida.
- In 1410 it was abandoned by the municipality when a drought dried up the water sources.
- In 1525 John Majordomo consolidated the town after 115 years of neglect.
- In 1531 Doña Isobel (wife of Charles I of Spain) grants town Privilege once more to Pedro Muñoz.
- During the Carlist wars there was an agreement signed in this village between the conflicting parties. In fact, one of its streets refers to this agreement (Acuerdo street). Because of this, one of the fields of the town's shield contains, under a crossed sword and baton, two clasped right hands. This is depicted on the genuine glass shield at the head of the stairs of the City Hall.
- On August 12, 1994, at about 4 pm, a storm of mud and hail caused chaos in the town. It was of such magnitude that several hundred year old cypress trees in the local cemetery were uprooted and fell on surrounding tombstones. The swimming pool was crowded with people (minutes before the thermometer marked more than 40 °C) and there was mass panic. Fortunately, nobody was injured as there was enough shelter in the locker room.
- Coincidentally, also on August 12, but in 2007 an earthquake (magnitude 5.1 on the Richter scale) with its epicenter in the municipality of Pedro Muñoz shook most of the Iberian peninsula. It could be felt in more than a dozen different communities, though without causing noticeable damage; only a portion of the Municipal Theater Almagro, over ninety miles away, sank. The epicenter was six miles underground.
Monuments and sites of interest
The City Hall is located in the Plaza de España (Spain square), in the center of town. It has been remodeled several times to reach its current renewed state. It emphasizes the twentieth century tower historicist style, but retains the sole remaining original Old Town Hall, built in the early twentieth century in the neo-Mudejar style (a sixteenth century Spanish architectural style), being the actual 1946 building. The design stresses its slenderness, and it is capped with a cover dome. Its forms and curves contain eastern aspects and elements and it is ornamented with dovecotes and an upper turret.
Church of St. Peter the Apostle
As the inhabitants of Pedro Muñoz had fled looking for drier, healthier lands, they had to abandon the old Church of San Antonio. The pedroteños (demonym for the residents of Pedro Muñoz) then decided that it was necessary to build a new church. On September 8, 1700 the foundation stone for the present church was laid. Work on the Church began in 1722.
The church is certainly the best representation of Pedro Muñoz's architecture as a whole. It is of a graceful style that mixes in the Renaissance Baroque style. The church has a Latin cross with low body townhouses in three of the corners of the tower and a cruise square floor plan. Rehabilitation work and mounting a bell tower were done to coincide with the celebration of the third centenary of the start of work. These upgrades have contributed to enhancing the church's beauty.
Chapel of the Madonna of Los Angeles
Mrs. De Los Angeles wished to perpetuate the name of the only daughter of our founder John Majordomo, who was born shortly after arriving in the town and died a few years after birth while still a child. When it started to build new houses in the second restocking, was present at the Cuesta de la Tahona and on the streets of the Campo. That was when the works started in the chapel of Santa Ana and of Ntra. Mrs. De Los Angeles, the latter apparently took on a construición that were there before. It is a rustic chapel on the basis of little rock and a lot of land.
In 1769 work began on the new chapel, but it did not resume until 1771 and ended eight years later. He had extensive arcades and seating throughout. The building was largely destroyed in the Civil War and was not rebuilt until the war ended.
Among the manor houses out of the Paca House, the manor house was built in 1760 (eighteenth century). It has a baroque facade blasonada, vain symmetrical grids forge typical inner courtyard and Spanish. It is designated as casa-palacio. The facade excels main front, built in red sandstone contrasts with the white walls. Inside is accessed through a hall door and security. The central courtyard manages the distribution of the rooms.
House of Granero
The House-Palace of the family Granero Heredia, known since its founding "The house of Graneros" built in postrimetrías of s. XVIII by D. Juan Jose Granero Heredia and Quiros Garces of Marcilla. Above the central balcony of artistic forging, is the shield of the family, which has a single field gules, five silver castles and a lion rampant in the center of gold, with the following motto or legend:
"Siendo entre tus hechos, aqueste señero a tus castillos Heredia Granero añade el león feroz que mataste que nan tu rey también amparaste".
"Being among your facts, this Sir to your castles Heredia Granero added that ferocious lion that you killed for your king also save him".
It takes cimera, but if a warrior armed with a sword and the cross of Saint James in the chest, bordura baroque and a border with eight bundles of arrows, the symbol of the Catholic Monarchs.
Fernandez Cuellar's House
It is a manor house of s. XVIII, with facade with coat of amrs, whose founder not have a history, it is believed that once belonged to Fernandez Cuellar, surname that existed in the town and later disappeared. He holds the arms of one field with a pine and a wolf lifted on their feet. Typically your typical Spanish courtyard, with main gate of rustic wood and artistic forge.
The Roman bridge is a bridge formed for three eyes located on the river Záncara linking other way also built by them. The bridge still linger in time but the road has been progressively destroyed by the work on crops nearby.
Bridge of San Miguel
Also on the river Záncara, this bridge beside the hermitage of San Miguel. Recently there have carried out major tasks of recovery and beautification of this environment with two "greenways" to both banks of the river.
The Vega Lake
It has an area of 34 hectares. Its wildlife is abundant, highlights ducks and limícolas, but there are more than 23 different species of waterfowl.
Facing the Vega or Laguna del Pueblo, and on a wide plateau elevation of marl clay, accumulated remnants of successive reconstructions of the Iberian type of adobe buildings were found. While clearing the land, a subsidence area was found. The land was later cleared and there were approximately five fee of deposits, similar to the old clay pots. The skeleton of an animal that appeared to be a carnivore was found in one of them. There were also stones glued together with mud, forming Cyclopean walls. There were large animal teeth. It appeared that it was a Carpetani settlement, Celtic people settling among Oretani, the Celtiberians, the Vaccaei and the Vettones.
Archaeological excavations carried out at Cerro de La Nieve, between 1984 and 1990, further threw light on the first inhabitants of Pedro Muñoz. In successive interventions made at the site numerous archaeological remains have been found, including small-scale metal through a possible copper smelter workshop; ceramics hand traditions, bronze fibules and Greek pottery, numerous Iberian cemeteries as well as a Roman and many medieval cemeteries. The settlement probably was part of a system of towns of Iberian contemporaries at the time, Las Mesas, (Cuenca) and Campo de Criptana (Ciudad Real) being the closest.
- Juan Mayordomo (n/d), re-founder of the village 1525.
- Manuel Gallardo (1642 - 1718) was chaplain of the Spanish Army, preacher of the king and commissioner of Jerusalem from the former Spanish provinces of Sicily.
- Francisco Castillo (1664 - 1714) was a master in philosophy and theology; rector of the Colegio Santo Tomás de Alcalá and grader of the Spanish Inquisition.
- Felipe Sanz (1683 - 1770), was Dominican monk, rector of the Colegio de Santo Tomás de Alcalá and prior of the Convents of Toledo and Cuenca.
- Jesús Chocano Olivares (1854 - d ? ) was a second lieutenant of infantry achieving two medals by war merits.
- Julián del Pozo la Orden (19th century - 1932) was a famous painter during the ending of the 19th century and early 20th.
- Federico Rafael Soriano Cañas (1879 - d ?), son of Luis Soriano (famous doctor of the town with a street named because of him) y graduated in Law, was in charge of several state administrative sections, and other political achievements. Also known by his poems of manners.
- Alejandro Muñoz Pulpón, retired cyclist.
- Bernabé Ramos Ramírez de Arellano, painter. (NB: dead in 2011)
- Jesús Julián Lucendo, former FC Barcelona player and the Andorra National Football Team, after getting the double nationality.
- Jesús Polo González, ex-president of the football club C.D. Leganés.
- José Luis Laguía retired cyclist.
- José Manuel Exojo Mena, painter.
- José Manuel Rodríguez Carretero, political.
- Juande Ramos, football manager.
- Rosa Rosado, radio announcer.
- Santiago Garci, painter.
- Pedro Muñoz... Una Historia. Miguel Tirado Zarco. 1984. ISBN 84-505-0455-4
- Una banda, un pueblo y 120 años de historia. Historia de la Banda Municipal de Música. Juan Antonio Rejano. 2000
- Tirado, 1984, p. 251-258.
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