Pedro Nel Ospina
|Pedro Nel Ospina|
|Photograph of General Pedro Nel Ospina|
|36th President of Colombia|
August 7, 1922 – August 7, 1926
|Preceded by||Jorge Holguín|
|Succeeded by||Miguel Abadía Méndez|
|7th Governor of Antioquia|
September 18, 1918 – April 12, 1920
|Preceded by||Pedro José Berrío|
|Succeeded by||Jesús María Marulanda|
|Born||Pedro Nel Tomás de Villanueva Ospina Vázquez
September 18, 1858
Bogotá, Antioquia State, Granadine Confederation
|Died||July 1, 1927
Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia
|Spouse(s)||Carolina Vásquez Uribe|
|Relations||Mariano Ospina Rodríguez (father)|
|Children||Pedro Nel Ospina Vásquez,
Luis Ospina Vásquez,
Manuel Ospina Vásquez, and
Elena Ospina Vásquez
|Alma mater||University of Antioquia,
|Occupation||Engineer, Businessman, Soldier, Professor, Rector and Politician|
|Allegiance||Colombian Conservative Party|
|Battles/wars||War of the Schools,
Thousand Days' War
Ospina was born in Bogotá, on September 18, 1858. He was born in the Presidential Palace, as his father Mariano Ospina Rodríguez was president of Colombia at the time. He died in Medellín, on July 1, 1927.
Colombia's first significant effort in mining engineering was brought about by the Escuela Nacional de Minas in the city of Medellín. This institution was conceived strictly as a mining institute, modeled after the School of Mines of the University of California, Berkeley, from which its first directors, Ospina and his brother Tulio Ospina were graduated. When the school began its second life after 1904, it also offered degrees in chemistry, civil, electrical, mining and mechanical engineering. As rectors of the school, echoing the themes of their father, they insistently preached the virtues of work, discipline and practicality.
Engineer and entrepreneur 
Antioqueño engineers thought of themselves primarily as industrial entrepreneurs rather than agents of state policy. Although some, such as Ospina and his nephew Mariano Ospina Pérez, became highly successful in national politics, antioqueño engineers continued to nurture the self-image of the apolitical, economically practical, hardworking paisa. Since 1910, successful businessmen and engineers emerged from the business community of Medellín, as did Ospina, who was a Berkeley-trained mining engineer and an industrial entrepreneur as well as a large-scale agriculturalist.
Ospina was elected MP to the Camara de Representantes (House of Representatives) in 1892 and 1894 for the province of Antioquia. During his first term he sponsored the bill to derogate the “Ley de los Caballos” and introduced a bill to enact the “freedom of speech”. During his second term he sponsored a bill to restructure the Banco Nacional (National Bank).
President Carlos Eugenio Restrepo, in 1910, appointed Ospina as the Colombian Ambassador to the United States. Upon his return to the country, he was elected to congress and later as Governor of Antioquia.
In 1918, Ospina was elected as Governor of the province of Antioquia. Later, in 1920, during the government of President Marco Fidel Suárez, Ospina was elected by congress as the nation’s vice president.
In 1922, he was elected as Colombia's 36th president. During his administration, he organized the Departments of Education, Health and the Treasury. He created the Central Bank (Banco de la Republica) and greatly advanced critical public works, such as the main national highways and railways systems, dams and bridges, and the crude oil pipelines connecting the mayor oil-fields to the sea ports.
Ospina, as president of the republic between 1922 and 1926, secured the creation of a modern central bank, and in 1928 he created the Bogotá stock exchange. During his administration, banking and commerce expanded and became more organized.
- "Colombia Elects Ospina President. Son of Former Head of Republic Defeats Liberal by 50,000 Votes. Marks Return of the Liberal Party to Political Participation in Country's Affairs". The New York Times. Associated Press. February 14, 1922. Retrieved 2011-02-12. "General Pedro Nel Ospina was chosen President of the Republic of Colombia in the elections held yesterday. He had a majority of 50,000 votes over the Liberal candidate, ..."
- Arismendi Posada, Ignacio; Gobernantes Colombianos; trans. Colombian Presidents; Interprint Editors Ltd., Italgraf, Segunda Edición; Page 175; Bogotá, Colombia; 1983
- Arismendi Posada, Ignacio; Gobernantes Colombianos; trans. Colombian Presidents; Interprint Editors Ltd., Italgraf, Segunda Edición; Page 178; Bogotá, Colombia; 1983
- Safford, Frank R., The Ideal of the Practical, University of Texas Press, Page 201 ISBN 0-292-73803-X
- Safford, Frank R., The Ideal of the Practical, University of Texas Press, Page 225, ISBN 0-292-73803-X
- Safford, Frank R., The Ideal of the Practical, University of Texas Press, Page 238, ISBN 0-292-73803-X
- Melo, Jorge Orlando; Historia de Antioquia, trans. History of Antioquia; Editorial Presencia Ltd.; Primera Edición; Page 138; Bogotá, Colombia; November, 1988
- Arismendi Posada, Ignacio; Gobernantes Colombianos; trans. Colombian Presidents; Interprint Editors Ltd., Italgraf, Segunda Edición; Page 177; Bogotá, Colombia; 1983
- Melo, Jorge Orlando; Historia de Antioquia, trans. History of Antioquia; Editorial Presencia Ltd.; Primera Edición; Page 141; Bogotá, Colombia; November, 1988
- Safford, Frank R., The Ideal of the Practical, University of Texas Press, Page 233, ISBN 0-292-73803-X