Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará
|Prince Pedro de Alcântara|
|Prince of Grão-Pará|
|Spouse||Countess Elisabeth Dobržensky de Dobrženicz|
|Princess Isabelle, Countess of Paris
Prince Pedro Gastão
Princess Maria Francisca, Duchess of Braganza
Prince João Maria
|Pedro de Alcântara Luiz Filipe Maria Gastão Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga|
|House||House of Orléans-Braganza|
|Father||Gaston, comte d'Eu|
|Mother||Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil|
|Born||15 October 1875
|Died||29 January 1940
Dom Pedro de Alcântara of Orléans and Braganza, Prince of Grão Para (15 October 1875 – 29 January 1940) was the first-born son of Dona Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil and her husband Gaston of Orléans, count d'Eu and, as such, was born second-in-line to the Imperial throne of Brazil, during the reign of his grandfather, Emperor Dom Pedro II, until the empire's abolition. He went into exile to Europe with his mother when his grandfather was deposed in 1889, and grew up largely in France, at a family apartment in Boulogne-sur-Seine, and at his father's castle, the château d'Eu in Normandie.
In 1908 Dom Pedro wanted to marry Countess Elisabeth Dobržensky de Dobrženicz (1875–1951) who, although a noblewoman of the kingdom of Bohemia, did not belong to a royal or reigning dynasty. Although the constitution of the Brazilian Empire did not require a dynast to marry equally, his mother ruled that the marriage would not be valid dynastically for the Brazilian succession, and as a result he renounced his rights to the throne of Brazil on 30 October 1908: To solemnize this, Dom Pedro, aged thirty-three, signed the document translated here:
|“||I Prince Pedro de Alcântara Luiz Filipe Maria Gastão Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga of Orléans and Braganza, having maturely reflected, have resolved to renounce the right that, by the Constitution of the Empire of Brazil, promulgated on 25 March 1824, accords to me the Crown of that nation. I declare, therefore, that by my free and spontaneous will I hereby renounce, in my own name, as well as for any and all of my descendants, to all and any rights that the aforesaid Constitution confers upon us to the Brazilian Crown and Throne, which shall pass to the lines which follow mine, conforming to the order of succession as established by article 117. Before God I promise, for myself and my descendants, to hold to the present declaration.
Cannes 30 October 1908 signed: Pedro de Alcântara of Orléans-Braganza
This renunciation was followed by a letter from Isabel to royalists in Brazil:
9 November 1908, [Castle of] Eu
Most Excellent Gentlemen Members of the Monarchist Directory,
With all my heart I thank you for the congratulations upon the marriages of my dear children Pedro and Luiz. Luis´s took place in Cannes on the 4th with the brilliance that is desired for so solemn an act in the life of my successor to the Throne of Brazil. I was very pleased. Pedro´s shall take place next on the 14th. Before the marriage of Luis he signed his resignation to the crown of Brazil, and here I send it to you, while keeping here an identical copy. I believe that this news must be published as soon as possible (you gentlemen shall do it in the way that you judge to be most satisfactory) in order to prevent the formation of parties that would be a great evil for our country. Pedro will continue to love his homeland, and will give all possible support to his brother. Thank God they are very united. Luis will engage actively in everything with respect to the monarchy and any good for our land. However, without giving up my rights I want that he be up to date on everything so that he may prepare himself for the position which with all my heart I desire that one day he will hold. You may write to him as many times as you may want to so that he shall be informed of everything. My strength is not the same as it once was, but my heart is still the same to love my homeland and all those who are so dedicated to us. I give you all my friendship and confidence,
a) Isabel, comtesse d'Eu
Nonetheless, a few years before his death Prince Pedro de Alcântara told a Brazilian newspaper:
- "My resignation was not valid for many reasons: besides, it was not a hereditary resignation."[unreliable source?]
Death of the Princess Imperial
After the death of the Princess Imperial in 1921, the deceased Dom Luiz's son, Prince Pedro Henrique of Orléans-Braganza, assumed the position of claimant to the Brazilian throne and was recognized as such by many of Europe's dynasties. After Dom Pedro de Alcântara's death in 1940 his eldest son, Prince Pedro Gastão of Orléans-Braganza, asserted a counter-claim as the proper successor (garnering the support of his brothers-in-law, the pretenders to the thrones of Orléanist France and Miguelist Portugal), and some Brazilian legal scholars subsequently argued that his father's renunciation would, indeed, have been constitutionally invalid under the monarchy. Although Pedro de Alcântara's daughter, Princess Isabel, is said to have referred to Dom Pedro Gastão as "My brother, the Brazilian Emperor", she acknowledged in her memoirs that their father nonetheless regarded his renunciation as binding, and treated it as effective.
- Princess Isabelle of Orléans-Braganza (1911–2003) married Henri, count of Paris - parents of Henri, the current Orleanist pretender to the throne of France.
- Prince Pedro Gastão of Orléans-Braganza (1913–2007) married Princess Maria de la Esperanza of Bourbon-Two Sicilies - parents of Princess Maria da Gloria, Duchess of Segorbe, the last Crown Princess of Yugoslavia.
- Princess Maria Francisca of Orléans-Braganza (1914–1968) married Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza - parents of Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, the current pretender to the throne of Portugal.
- Prince João Maria of Orléans-Braganza (1916–2005)
- Princess Teresa of Orléans-Braganza (1919–2011)
- Montjouvent, Philippe de (1998). Le comte de Paris et sa Descendance (in French). Charenton: Éditions du Chaney. p. 50. ISBN 2-913211-00-3.
- Sainty, Guy Stair. "House of Bourbon: Branch of Orléans-Braganza". Chivalric Orders. Retrieved 2009-01-07.
- <BARMAN, Roderick J., Princesa Isabel do Brasil: gênero e poder no século XIX, UNESP, 2005
- VIANNA, Hélio. Vultos do Império. São Paulo: Companhia Editoria Nacional, 1968, p.224
- FREYRE, Gilberto. Ordem e Progresso. Rio de Janeiro: José Olympio, 1959, p.517 and 591
- LYRA, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II - 1825-1891. São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 1940, vol.III, p.300
- Enciclopaedia Barsa, vol. IV, article "Braganza", p.210, 1992
- JANOTTI, Maria de Lourdes. Os Subversivos da República. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1986, p.255-7
- MALATIAN, Teresa Maria. A Ação Imperial Patrianovista Brasileira. São Paulo, 1978, p.153-9
- Montjouvent, Philippe de (1998). Le comte de Paris et sa Descendance (in French). Charenton: Éditions du Chaney. p. 97. ISBN 2-913211-00-3.
- Bodstein, Astrid (2006). "The Imperial Family of Brazil". Royalty Digest Quarterly (3). Archived from the original on 2007-10-16. Retrieved 2007-12-28.
- Tout m'est bonheur, tome 1 (Paris: R. Laffont, 1978), page 445 (French)
Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará
Cadet branch of the House of OrléansBorn: 15 October 1875 Died: 29 January 1940
Title last held byPrincess Maria
|Prince of Grão-Pará
15 October 1875 – November 15, 1889
|Titles in pretence|
|Republic declared||Prince of Grão-Pará
November 15, 1889 – 5 December 1891
Title next held byPrince Pedro Henrique
|Prince Imperial of Brazil
5 December 1891 – 9 November 1908