Pedro de Candia

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Pedro de Candia, Grandee of Spain, (1485- + 1542) was a Greek Conquistador [1][2] [3] and explorer. Born on the island of Crete that was also called "Candia" in some European languages.[4] He was killed in the Battle of Chupas, (Peru), on September 16 + 1542, Spanish Conquistador, Grandee of Spain, "Almirant of the Spanish Armada of the Southern Seas", author and travel writer, recorded the Spanish conquest of the Americas.
Eventually the Queen of Spain named Don Pedro de Candia, 2nd Alcalde of Cuzco at the Kingdom of Peru of the Spanish Catholic Crown, from 1534 to 1535.

Origin[edit]

He was born on the island of Crete, which then was a Venetian colony known as the Kingdom of Candia. He left the island through one of his mother's relatives at the service of the Crown of Aragon, who took him to Italy. During his period in Italy he was training to become a Condottieri and trained in the Arms, before transferring to the Iberian peninsula to serve the Spanish Catholic Queen and King.

Pedro was eventually married at Villalpando, by nobiliary arrangement to one of the daughters[5] of the Count of Benavente, Zamora of the Dukedom of the House of Osuna. His descendent were part of the Spanish and Italian nobility with holdings in regions of Europe and eventually additional new lands in the Americas during the colonization.

Career[edit]

Spanish Conquistador specialized in the use of firearms and artillery, then to become Don Pedro de Candia "Grande of Spain" and "Almirant of the Spanish Armada of the Southern Seas" (Sp: Don Pedro de Candia, Almirante de los Mares del Sur)[6] as recorded in the Spanish Colonial Registry of the "El Libro de Indias". He participated in the conquest of Peru and led an unsuccessful expedition to discover the rumored Kingdom of Amabaya, an El Dorado in the Amazon Basin. He was one of the Great 13th (Sp: Los 13 Grandes) of the conquest of South America; consequently he participated in the civil war in Chile and eventually was killed in Peru in the Battle of Chupas by Diego de Almagro II who suspected him of treachery. He had served in the Spanish royal guard, and fought in Italy against the Turks, and afterward went to America with Governor Pedro de los Ríos. He then accompanied Diego de Almagro and Francisco Pizarro during their first explorations along the coasts of Peru, and when the landing at Tacamez, north of Guayaquil, was effected, he already had command of the artillery. He was one of the thirteen men that remained in the islands of Gallo and Gorgona or San Cristobal with Pizarro, and during the subsequent explorations of the Peruvian ports he undertook to go in person to the Indian towns and investigate their condition.
He then visited Tumbez (afterward called Valencia), and returned to the fleet with a map of that city drawn on canvas. When he accompanied Pizarro to Spain to inform Charles V. of their discoveries, the emperor made Candia a nobleman, mayor of Tumbez, and commander-in-chief of artillery of the fleet sent out to conquer Peru.

  • Explorer of Panama, 1527
  • Explorer of Colombia and Ecuador, 1528
  • Explorer of Peru, 1530
  • Alcalde of Cuzco, by the Catholic Spanish Crown, from 1534 to 1535

He was present at the defeat and imprisonment of Atahualpa, and received a large share of the ransom paid by that Inca. While residing at Cuzco, he made arms and ammunition for Pizarro, who was then fighting against Almagro. After the defeat of Almagro at Battle of Las Salinas, Candia undertook the conquest of Ambaya beyond the Andes, but was unsuccessful, being finally arrested by order of Hernando Pizarro.[7] Disgusted at his treatment, and deserted by his old friends, he then joined the followers of Almagro and, with the aid of sixteen other Greeks, cast the guns that were taken by young Almagro to the battle of Chupas,[8] where Candia had decided to support the local natives and badly performed in the battle that Almagro suspected treason and ordered to be killed after attacking him with his own hands.

Sources[edit]

  • Herrera y Tordesillas (Antonio de) Historia general de los hechos de los Castellanos en las islas y tierra firme del mar Oceano (1601-1615) in Colección clasicos Tavera (serie 1, Vol. 1-2) Edizione su CD.
  • Marriage Record of the House of Osuna - La contabilidad de la Casa Ducal de Osuna durante la intervención real de su patrimonio (1591-1633), by Jesús Damián López Manjón.
  • Tauro del Pino, Alberto: Enciclopedia Ilustrada del Perú. Tercera Edición. Tomo 3, BEI-CAN. Lima, PEISA, 2001. ISBN 9972-40-149-9
  • Hobbs, Nicolas (2007). Grandes de España (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 October 2008.
  • Instituto de Salazar y Castro (in Spanish). Elenco de Grandezas y Titulos Nobiliarios Españoles. periodic publication
  • Gómara (Francisco López de) Historia general de las Indias (1552) in Bibl. Aut. Esp. Tomo LXII, Madrid 1946
  • Herrera y Tordesillas (Antonio de) Historia general de los hechos de los Castellanos en las islas y tierra firme del mar Oceano (1601-1615) in Colección clasicos Tavera (serie 1, Vol. 1-2) Edizione su CD
  • Oviedo y Valdés (Gonzalo Fernández de) Historia general y natural de las Indias in Bibl Aut. Esp. Tomi CXVII; CXVIII; CXIX; CXX; CXXI, Madrid 1992
  • Pizarro y Orellana (Fernando) "Vida del mariscal y adelantado Don Diego de Almagro el viejo y de su hijo Don Diego de Almagro" in Varones Illustres del Nuevo Mundo. Madrid 1639
  • Pizarro (Pedro) Relación del descubrimiento y conquista de los Reynos del peru. (1571) In Bibl. Aut. Esp. (tomo CLVIII, Madrid 1968)
  • Garcilaso (Inca de la Vega) La conquista del Peru (1617) BUR, Milano 2001
  • Zárate (Agustín de) Historia del descubrimiento y conquista de la provincia del Perú (1555) In Bibl. Aut. Esp. (tomo XXVI, Madrid 1947)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Spanish Peru, 1532-1560: a social history by James Lockhart p.g. 142
  2. ^ http://www.greenapple.gr/articlesdesc.php?id=129
  3. ^ Primera parte de los Comentarios reales que tratan de el origen de los Incas, Madrid 1829 by Garcilaso de la Vega p. 366
  4. ^ Bowring John, Report on Egypt and Candia, Clowes, G. Britain, 1840. p. 154: "Report on Candia. Island of Crete or Candia".
  5. ^ Genealogía de la Casa de Osuna. por Jesús Damián López Manjón.
  6. ^ • Mendiburu, Manuel: Diccionario histórico-biográfico del Perú. Parte primera que corresponde a la época de la dominación española. Tomo II. Lima, 1876.
  7. ^ Pizarro (Pedro) Relación del descubrimiento y conquista de los Reynos del peru. (1571) In Bibl. Aut. Esp. (tomo CLVIII, Madrid 1968)
  8. ^ Inca Garcilaso de la Vega: Historia general del Perú. Tomo I. Lima, Editorial Universo S.A., 1972.

See also[edit]