Peer mentoring

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Peer mentoring is a form of mentorship that usually takes place between a person who has lived through a specific experience (peer mentor) and a person who is new to that experience (the peer mentee). An example would be an experienced student being a peer mentor to a new student, the peer mentee, in a particular subject, or in a new school. Peer mentors are also used for health and lifestyle changes. For example, clients, or patients, with support from peers, may have one-on-one sessions that meet regularly to help them recover or rehabilitate. Peer mentoring provides individuals who have suffered from a specific life experience the chance to learn from those who have recovered, or rehabilitated, following such an experience. Peer mentors provide education, recreation and support opportunities to individuals. The peer mentor may challenge the mentee with new ideas, and encourage the mentee to move beyond the things that are most comfortable. Most peer mentors are picked for their sensibility, confidence, social skills and reliability.[1]

Critics[2][3] of peer mentoring insist that little is known of the nature of peer mentoring relationships and that there are few consistent studies indicating the outcomes of peer mentoring beyond good feelings among peers and the development of friendships. Peer mentoring led by senior students may discourage diversity and prevent critical analysis of the higher education system.

Program design characteristics[edit]

The frequency with which peer mentors and mentees meet varies according to the particular mentoring program. Some pairs may make contact once a month, while others may meet 3-4 times per month or more. It is usually advised that mentors and mentees meet more often in the beginning of the relationship in order to establish a good foundation. Mentors and mentees may maintain contact through email, telephone or in-person meetings. Peer mentoring organizations may also set up social events for those participating in the program. These events provide good opportunities for increased social interaction between mentors and mentees.[4]

The compatibility of mentor and mentee is a factor that should be taken into consideration when choosing pairs. Mentors and mentees may benefit from having similar backgrounds, interests and life experiences.[5] Age, gender, ethnicity, language preferences, and education may be taken into consideration when pairing mentors with mentees.[6][7]

The quality of the peer mentoring relationship is important for mentees to experience positive results.[8] A mentor relationship is more successful when the mentor cares for the whole person and not just the academic or career side of a person.[9] Successful mentors tend to be available, knowledgeable, educated in diversity issues, empathic, personable, encouraging, supportive, and passionate.[9] Although this is not an exhaustive list of qualities, they have been shown to be important for successful mentoring relationships.[9] It is important to keep qualities like this in mind when recruiting and training mentors.

The objectives of a peer mentoring program should be well-defined and measurable. The effectiveness of the program should be monitored to ensure that the objectives are being met. One way to monitor the effectiveness of a program is to administer evaluations to the mentors and mentees.[10]

In education[edit]

Peer mentoring in education was promoted during the 1960s by educator and theorist Paulo Freire:

"The fundamental task of the mentor is a liberatory task. It is not to encourage the mentor’s goals and aspirations and dreams to be reproduced in the mentees, the students, but to give rise to the possibility that the students become the owners of their own history. This is how I understand the need that teachers have to transcend their merely instructive task and to assume the ethical posture of a mentor who truly believes in the total autonomy, freedom, and development of those he or she mentors."[11]

Peer mentors appear mainly in secondary schools where students moving up from primary schools may need assistance in settling into the new schedule and lifestyle of secondary school life, however peer mentoring can occur at the grade school level, the undergraduate level, and the graduate school level. The goals of the program may vary according to the level, the educational institution or the discipline.[12]

Peer mentors in secondary schools aid in the transition of younger students from primary school to secondary school.[13] They may assist mentees with their school work and study skills, peer pressure (such as pressure to use drugs or have sex), issues with attendance and behavior, and typical family problems.[14] Youth mentors are persons for children or adolescents to spend time with, often to compensate for absent family members or an inadequate home environment.[15] Mentoring programs for youth can be especially useful for students who are suffering from a lack of social support, and who therefore may be susceptible to delinquency.

Peer mentors for undergraduates may assist newly admitted students with time management, study skills, organizational skills, curriculum planning, administrative issues, test preparation, term paper preparation, goal setting, and grade monitoring. Additionally, such mentors may provide other forms of social support for the student, such as friendship, networking, and aiding the student's adjustment to college life.[16]

A peer mentor at the graduate school level may assist new students in selecting an advisor, negotiating the advisor/advisee relationship, preparation for major examinations, publishing articles, searching for jobs, and adjusting to the rigors of graduate school life.[17]

In higher education[edit]

Peer mentoring in higher education has enjoyed a good name and is seen favorably by both educational administrators and students.[18] During the last decade, peer mentoring has expanded and is found in most colleges and universities, frequently as a means to outreach, retain, and recruit minority students.[4] Peer mentoring is used extensively in higher education for several reasons:

  • Benefits attributed to classical mentoring (when an older adult mentors a younger person) can translate to peer mentoring relationships, mainly when the peer mentor and the mentee have similar backgrounds;
  • The lack of role models or volunteers forces administrators and student leaders to use students as peer mentors of other students—usually first year students, ethnic minorities,[19] and women[20]--in order to guide, support, and instruct junior students;
  • Because peer mentoring programs require a low budget for administration and/or development, they become a cheap alternative to support students perceived as likely to fail.

Advantages in education[edit]

Peer mentoring may help new students adapt to a new academic environment faster. The relationship between the mentor and mentee gives the mentee a sense of being connected to the larger community where they may otherwise feel lost.[21] Mentors are chosen because they are academically successful and because they possess good communication, social and leadership skills. As a consequence, mentors serve as positive role models for the students, guiding them towards academic and social success. Mentors provide support, advice, encouragement, and even friendship to students. Peer mentoring may improve student retention rates.[22][23]

Mentors also stand to benefit from the mentor/mentee relationship. Mentors develop friendships through their participation in mentoring programs and usually derive satisfaction from helping a younger student, and possibly shaping his or her life in a positive way.[24] Mentors may also be paid, and they may receive other benefits such as prioritized registration, course credit, and references.

In higher education tutorial settings, the benefits of peer mentoring programs also extend to class tutors. Using grounded theory techniques, Outhred and Chester found that five themes underlie their experiences: role exploration, sharing responsibility, regulation of the peer-tutored groups, harnessing the peer tutors’ role, and community.[25]

Criticisms[edit]

Peer mentoring programs usually target ethnic minorities, people with disabilities and women. This approach tends to be conceived out of the "deficiency model" where multi-ethnic students, women and students with disabilities are perceived as being in need of help and unlikely to succeed unless senior students or successful adults help them.[26] One of the main criticisms of peer mentoring is the lack of research to show how peer mentoring relationships work, how they develop, and what their outcomes are.[27] Also, the nature of being either a mentor or mentee and at the same time a peer can make the relationship a dual one where other identities also converge.[28] Some peer mentoring programs promote assimilation among ethnic minority students because of the use of student role models who are perceived as successful in social and educational environments characterized by majority students.[29] These role models then become the people that peer mentees strive to imitate or emulate.[30] A more subtle criticism of peer mentoring refers to their lack of supervision and structure: most peer mentoring programs led by undergraduate students rarely have direct supervision of full-time university staff.

Given the fact that students are led by other students who serve as peer mentors, critics say that university staff may free themselves from their responsibility to listen and help first year students classified as peer mentees, the group with the largest attrition rate in higher education. Without extensive training and supervision, senior students who serve as mentors may offer unreliable guidance to peer mentees.[31] There is little research on what happens within peer mentoring relationships. Maryann Jacobi, in an extensive meta-analysis of mentoring research, concludes by asking, "Does mentoring help students succeed in college? If so, how? Both theoretical and empirical answers to these questions are lacking.”[2] Stephanie Budge states:

"The concept of mentoring has become increasingly popular over the past few decades. Mentoring has been advertised as necessary in order for students and employees to flourish in their environment. However, the lack of research concerning peer mentoring programs in particular is surprising. While there is an abundance of articles on the topic of mentoring in the educational setting, authors must be held to more stringent research standards and more definitional consistency. In addition to higher quality research, the fundamental flaws within peer mentoring programs need to be corrected before these programs can reach their full potential on college campuses."[3]

Peer mentoring in higher education usually focuses on social, academic, and cultural skills that can help students graduate from colleges and universities, and how the educational system works (e.g. how to apply for financial aid, how to register for classes, how to write papers, how to choose a major, etc.). The knowledge students receive usually comes from senior students who serve as peer mentors.

Although peer mentoring programs are appealing to most people and seem easy to implement and develop, there is little research to suggest that peer mentoring gives the same results as classical mentoring.

Vs. classical mentoring[edit]

Morton-Cooper and Palmer distinguish between classical mentoring (also known as primary mentoring) and contract or facilitated mentoring.[32] Classical mentoring is characterized as an informal, often spontaneous enabling relationship between an older mentor and a younger mentee, based on a shared wish to work together, usually for a long period, without financial compensation for the mentor.[15]

Peer mentoring differs from classical mentoring in two aspects.[33] First, in peer mentoring mentors and mentees are close in age, experience, educational level, and they may also overlap in their personal identities, which are usually the criteria for matching, but this may leave junior students vulnerable to peer pressure and unsupervised rivalry.[34] Second, peer mentoring programs are semi-structured planned programs with specific guidelines and frequently with a set number of meetings and activities within a predetermined amount of time. Students who enroll in peer mentoring programs tend to be matched mostly according to major, gender, language of preference, and ethnic background, and those students who share the largest number of similarities tend to become peers in the peer mentoring relationship. Little research is available to know what happens between peer mentors and peer mentees who have different characteristics.

Cross-age peer mentoring[edit]

The Handbook of Youth Mentoring provides the following definition of cross-age peer mentoring:

"Peer mentoring involves an interpersonal relationship between two youths of different ages that reflects a greater degree of hierarchical power imbalance than is typical of a friendship and in which the goal is for the older youth to promote one or more aspects of the younger youth's development. Peer mentoring refers to a sustained (long-term), usually formalized (i.e. program-based), developmental relationship. The relationship is "developmental" in that the older peer's goal is to help guide the younger mentee's development in domains such as interpersonal skills, self-esteem and conventional connectedness and attitudes (e.g. future motivation, hopefulness)."[35]

Cross-age mentoring can be distinguished from peer mentoring by the fact that the mentor is in a higher grade level and/or is older than the mentee, whereas in peer mentoring students of the same age are paired together based on varying levels of achievement. Karcher (2007) also notes:

"Cross-age peer mentoring programs utilize structure, meet for more than ten meetings, do not focus primarily on deficit or problem reduction, and require an age span of at least two years."[36]

Advantages[edit]

In general, cross-age mentoring programs can involve a tutoring or teaching component, personal mentorship and guidance, or both, and they incorporate many of the advantages of other forms of peer mentorship. Because student mentors are closer in age, knowledge, authority and cognitive development than adult mentors, mentees often feel freer to express ideas, ask questions, and take risks. These similarities also make it easier for mentors to understand personal and academic problems that the mentee may be experiencing, and present solutions in a more understandable and relevant way. Furthermore, unlike same-age peer mentoring, cross-age programs can prevent feelings of inferiority on the part of the mentee when they are mentored or tutored by a student of the same age or status. Thus, mentors who are slightly older than their mentees can take advantage of the higher status provided by their age difference while enjoying increased compatibility with their students. The specific benefits of cross-age mentoring/tutoring are numerous, and are briefly described here in three main categories: increased academic achievement, improved interpersonal skills, and personal development.[37][38]

Cross-age mentorship, and tutoring programs in particular, support the academic achievement and learning process of both the mentor and the mentee. Mentees benefit from increased personalized attention in a one-on-one setting and can work at their own pace. Sessions are customized for the mentee’s individual questions, needs, and learning styles, and mentees gain a greater mastery of the material and concepts while developing creativity and critical thinking skills. The mentor may also gain a deeper understanding of the material or subject that they are teaching, as this relationship often encourages a deeper dedication to their own studies so that they may more effectively communicate what they’ve learned. The mentor gains a deeper sense of responsibility, dedication, and pride in being able to help a peer, while both students take pride in mutual accomplishments and successes. Ultimately, cross-age mentorship programs may increase retention and graduation rates, especially among minority students.[37][38]

In addition to improved learning and transmission of information, the mentorship process allows both students to develop more effective interpersonal communication skills. Mentees learn how to effectively form and pose questions, seek advice, and practice active listening and concentration. Similarly, the mentors gain valuable practice in effective teaching strategies. This format fosters increased self-esteem, empathy and patience in both participants, potentially creating new friendships and breaking down social barriers for students struggling to adjust to a new academic setting. Often the mentor will serve as an important role-model, and can model academic skills and work habits as well as personal values (e.g. dedication to service, empathy, and internal motivation). This relationship can be pivotal for the success of new or underserved students in academia by providing an opportunity for peers to discuss academic issues, career choices, research ideas, and personal matters.[39]

Monitoring and evaluation[edit]

Cross-age mentoring programs require careful consideration of the goals, objectives and the available human, physical and financial resources in order to ultimately assess the progress made by the participants and the overall usefulness of the program. Frequent assessment is important as it gives valuable insight into how well the cross-age mentoring curriculum is organized and implemented, and provides positive reinforcement for both the mentor and mentee. Mentors should be pre-screened according to their academic proficiency and attitudes to ensure that they will be able to meet the needs of a mentee. Moreover, mentors will also benefit from ongoing training, supervision and psychological support by teachers, administrators, parents and other members of the community.[37]

An example: The Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program[edit]

One established cross-age mentoring program is the Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program (VYP), which originated in San Antonio, Texas through the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA). In an effort to decrease truancy, the need for disciplinary actions and drop-out rates of students, this program paired up “at-risk” middle school students to tutor “at-risk” elementary school students, both primarily of Hispanic origin with limited English proficiency.[40] In this case, the tutors who participated were not only rewarded by getting paid and receiving course credit, but also by receiving recognition for their service and by improving their own academic and tutoring skills through special tutoring classes. These VYP program benefits, in turn, resulted in a positive impact on school success and lowered the dropout rates of these tutors.[41]

In the workplace[edit]

Peer mentoring can offer employees a valuable source of support and information in the workplace.[42] Peer mentoring offers a low cost way to train new employees or to upgrade the skills of less experienced workers.[43] Mentees may feel more comfortable learning from a peer than in a hierarchical setting.[44] Mentors as well as mentees may also benefit from the bonds they form with colleagues.[45] In 1978 Edgar Schein described multiple roles for successful mentors in the work setting.[46] New employees who are paired with a mentor are twice as likely to remain in their job than those who do not receive mentorship.[47][48]

In health care[edit]

Peer mentoring has been shown to increase resistance to stress-related anxiety and depression in patients, or clients, affected by chronic illness or mental health issues. Mental health peer mentors and peer support groups help clients change their lifestyle and adhere to a more productive healthy lifestyle by adjusting habits and helping them realize helpful ways of coping and taking on personal responsibility, for example, the Wildflowers' Movement. Peer mentors can also help patients prepare for medical and surgical procedures and adhere to treatment regimes. Peer mentoring has been implemented in programs to support survivors of traumatic brain injury,[49] cancer patients,[50] dialysis patients,[51] diabetics[52] persons with spinal cord injuries,[53][54][55] and to reduce HIV transmission and increase adherence to treatment in HIV-positive IV drug users.[56] Peer mentoring is also used in training health care workers.[57][58][59][60]

Other applications[edit]

Peer mentoring has also been used to prevent gang violence in schoolchildren[61] and teens,[62] to improve the quality of child care among economically disadvantaged first-time mothers,[63] and to improve performance in military recruits.[64]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  34. ^ Pompper, D.; Adams, J. (2006). "Under the microscope: Gender and mentor-protege relationships". Public Relations Review (Science Direct) 32 (32): 309–315. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2006.05.019. 
  35. ^ DuBois, David L.; Michael J. Karcher (2005). Handbook of Youth Mentoring. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications Ltd. ISBN 0-7619-2977-0. 
  36. ^ Michael Karcher (2007) "Cross-age Peer Mentoring," Research in Action, Issue 7, 2007, MENTOR/National Mentoring Partnership, Alexandria, VA, p. 8.
  37. ^ a b c Gaustad, Joan. Peer and Cross-Age Tutoring. ERIC Digest, Number 79. ERIC #:ED354608 Publication Date: 1993-03-00
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  39. ^ Gensemer P. "Effectiveness of Cross-Age and Peer Mentoring Programs." (Monograph) 2000.
  40. ^ "Continuities – Lessons for the Future of Education from the IDRA Coca­-Cola Valued Youth Program," Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, Texas, 2009.
  41. ^ Cardenas, Jose A., et al. "Valued Youth Program: Dropout Prevention Strategies for At-Risk Students. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Illinois, April 1991. 25 pages.
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  43. ^ Ensher, Ellen A.; Thomas, Craig; Murphy, Susan E. (2001). Journal of Business and Psychology 15 (3): 419. doi:10.1023/A:1007870600459. 
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  46. ^ Schein, Edgar H. (June 1978). Career Dynamics: Matching Individual and Organizational Needs. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-06834-6. 
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  48. ^ Orpen, Christopher (1995). "The Effects of Mentoring on Employees' Career Success". The Journal of Social Psychology 135 (5): 667. doi:10.1080/00224545.1995.9712242. 
  49. ^ Hibbard MR, Cantor J, Charatz H, Rosenthal R, Ashman T, Gundersen N, et al. "Peer support in the community: Initial findings of a mentoring program for individuals with traumatic brain injury and their families." The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation, 2002;17(2):112.
  50. ^ Rini C, Lawsin C, Austin J, DuHamel K, Markarian Y, Burkhalter J, et al. "Peer mentoring and survivors' stories for cancer patients: positive effects and some cautionary notes." Journal of Clinical Oncology 2007;25(1):163.
  51. ^ Perry E, Swartz J, Brown S, Smith D, Kelly G, Swartz R. "Peer mentoring: a culturally sensitive approach to end-of-life planning for long-term dialysis patients." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2005;46(1):111-119.
  52. ^ Riva Greenberg, "Peer Mentoring Powerful for Diabetes Behavior Change," The Huffington Post, Jan 19, 2011.
  53. ^ Sherman JE, DeVinney DJ, Sperling KB. "Social Support and Adjustment After Spinal Cord Injury: Influence of Past Peer-Mentoring Experiences and Current Live-In Partner." Rehabilitation Psychology, 2004;49(2):140.
  54. ^ Veith EM, Sherman JE, Pellino TA, Yasui NY. "Qualitative analysis of the peer-mentoring relationship among individuals with spinal cord injury." Rehabilitation Psychology 2006;51(4):289-298.
  55. ^ Spinal Cord Injury Peer Mentoring
  56. ^ Purcell DW, Latka MH, Metsch LR, Latkin CA, Gómez CA, Mizuno Y, et al. "Results from a randomized controlled trial of a peer-mentoring intervention to reduce HIV transmission and increase access to care and adherence to HIV medications among HIV-seropositive injection drug users." JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2007;46:S35.
  57. ^ Angelini, D.J. (1995). "Mentoring in the career development of hospital staff nurses: Models and practices." Journal of Professional Nursing, 11:2, pp. 89-97.
  58. ^ Carol Kostovich, Karen Saban, Eileen Collins, "Becoming a Nurse Researcher: The Importance of Mentorship," Nursing Science Quarterly, October 1, 2010 v. 23, pp. 281-286.
  59. ^ Glass, N & Walter, R 2000, "An experience of peer mentoring with student nurses: enhancement of personal and professional growth," Journal of Nursing Education, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1-6.
  60. ^ Pollock J, Georgievski Z. "Peer mentoring in undergraduate clinical education of orthoptic students." Paper presented at the HERDSA Annual International Conference. Melbourne, 12-15 July 1999.
  61. ^ Sheehan K, DiCara JA, LeBailly S, Christoffel KK. "Adapting the gang model: Peer mentoring for violence prevention." Pediatrics 1999;104(1):50.
  62. ^ Burnette, A.P. (1995). "Mentoring: one solution to teen violence." The Negro Educational Review, 46, pp. 87-94.
  63. ^ Murphy CA, Cupples ME, Percy A, Halliday HL, Stewart MC. "Peer-mentoring for first-time mothers from areas of socio-economic disadvantage: a qualitative study within a randomised controlled trial." BMC Health Services Research 2008;8(1):46.
  64. ^ Keller RT, Greenberg N, Bobo WV, Roberts P, Jones N, Orman DT. "Soldier peer mentoring care and support-bringing psychological awareness to the front." Military Medicine 2005;170(5):355-361.

Further reading[edit]

  • Washington Reading Corps. Peer and Cross-Age Tutoring. Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, Washington Reading Corps Toolkit Module 6, 37 pages.

External links[edit]