Pefloxacin

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Pefloxacin
Pefloxacin.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
1-ethyl-6-fluoro-7-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-4-oxo-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid
Clinical data
Legal status
?
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 100%
Protein binding 20–30%
Metabolism Hepatic
Half-life 8.6 hours
Excretion Mostly renal, also biliary
Identifiers
CAS number 70458-92-3 YesY
ATC code J01MA03
PubChem CID 51081
DrugBank DB00487
ChemSpider 46291 YesY
UNII 2H52Z9F2Q5 YesY
KEGG D02306 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:50199 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL267648 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C17H20FN3O3 
Mol. mass 333.358 g/mol
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Pefloxacin is a quinolone drug used to treat bacterial infections. It is an analog of norfloxacin, belonging to the 3rd generation of quinolones. Pefloxacin has not been approved for use in the United States.

History[edit]

Pefloxacin was developed in 1979 and approved in France for human use in 1985.[1]

Licensed uses[edit]

  • Uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in males.[2]
  • Bacterial infections in the gastrointestinal system.[2]
  • Genitourinary tract infections.[2]
  • Gonorrhoeae. however this indication is no longer effective due to bacterial resistance.[3]

Pefloxacin has been increasingly used as a veterinary medicine to treat microbial infections.[4]

Mode of action[edit]

Pefloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, and topoisomerase IV,[5] which is an enzyme necessary to separate, replicated DNA, thereby inhibiting cell division.

Adverse effects[edit]

Tendinitis and rupture, usually of the Achilles tendon, are a class-effects of the fluoroquinolones, most frequently reported with pefloxacin.[6] The estimated risk of tendon damage during pefloxacin therapy has been estimated by the French authorities in 2000 to be 1 case per 23,130 treatment days as compared to ciprofloxacin where it has been estimated to be 1 case per 779,600.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWHC/Patents/2008/2413.html
  2. ^ a b c http://www.pefloxacin.com/pefloxacin_usage.htm
  3. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (April 2007). "Update to CDC's sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006: fluoroquinolones no longer recommended for treatment of gonococcal infections". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 56 (14): 332–6. PMID 17431378. 
  4. ^ http://www.pefloxacin.com/pefloxacin_other.html
  5. ^ Drlica K, Zhao X (1 September 1997). "DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 61 (3): 377–92. PMC 232616. PMID 9293187. 
  6. ^ Khaliq Y, Zhanel GG (October 2005). "Musculoskeletal injury associated with fluoroquinolone antibiotics". Clin Plast Surg 32 (4): 495–502, vi. doi:10.1016/j.cps.2005.05.004. PMID 16139623. 
  7. ^ Casparian JM, Luchi M, Moffat RE, Hinthorn D (May 2000). "Quinolones and tendon ruptures". South. Med. J. 93 (5): 488–91. doi:10.1097/00007611-200093050-00008. PMID 10832946. 

External links[edit]