Battle of Baitag Bogd

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Battle of Baitag Bogd
Part of Ili Rebellion
Date 1946-1948
Location Pei-ta-shan, Xinjiang, Mongolia
Status Mongolian and Soviet Pyrrhic victory[1]
Belligerents
Taiwan Republic of China  Soviet Union
Mongolia Mongolian People's Republic
Commanders and leaders
Taiwan Chiang Kai-shek

Taiwan Zhang Zhizhong
Taiwan Ma Chengxiang
Taiwan Ma Xizhen
Taiwan Han Youwen

Taiwan Ospan Batyr
Soviet Union Joseph Stalin
MongoliaKhorloogiin Choibalsan
Strength
National Revolutionary Army

700 Troops of the 14th Tungan (Chinese Muslim) Cavalry regiment
[1]

Turkic Kazakh forces
Soviet Air Forces
Mongolian People's Army
Casualties and losses
unknown unknown

The Pei-ta-shan Incident or Battle of Baitag Bogd Mountain (Mongolian: Байтаг богдын тулгарал; Chinese: 北塔山事件; pinyin: Běitǎshān shìjiàn; Wade–Giles: Pei-ta-shan shih-chien; alternatively Baitak Bogdo incident) was a border conflict between the Republic of China and the Mongolian People's Republic. The Mongolian People's Republic became involved in a border dispute with the Republic of China, as Chinese Muslim Hui cavalry regiment was sent by the Chinese government to attack Mongol and Soviet positions.[2]

There had always been a Xinjiang police station manned by a Chinese police force with Chinese sentry posts before and after 1945.[3][4]

As Commander of the First Cavalry Division, Salar Muslim Major-General Han Youwen was sent to Beitashan by the Kuomintang military command to reinforce Ma Xizhen with a company of troops, approximately three months before the fighting broke out.[5] At Pei-ta-shan, Major General Han Youwen was in command of all the Muslim cavalry defending against Soviet and Mongol forces.[6][7] Han Youwen (Han Yu-wen) said "that he believed the border should be about 40 miles to the north of the mountains" to A. Doak Barnett, an American reporter.[1]

Chinese Muslim and Turkic Kazakh forces working for the Chinese Kuomintang, battled Soviet and Mongol troops. In June 1947 the Mongols and the Soviets launched an attack against the Kazakhs, driving them back to the Chinese side. However, fighting continued for another year, 13 clashes taking place between 5 June 1947 and July 1948.[1]

Mongolia invaded Xinjiang with the intention to assist Li Rihan, the pro-Soviet Special Commissioner, to gain control of Xinjiang, over Special Commissioner Us Man (Osman) who was pro-ROC. The Chinese defence ministry spokesman announced that Outer Mongolian soldiers were captured at Pei-ta-shan, and stated that troops[clarification needed] were resisting near Pei-ta-shan.[8]

Elite Qinghai Chinese Muslim cavalry were sent by the Chinese Kuomintang to destroy the Mongols and the Soviets in 1947.[9][10]

In early June 1947, Pei-ta-shan was re-taken by Chinese troops, who continued to fight against Soviet and Mongolian bomber planes; China's Legislative Yuan demanded stronger policies against the Soviet Union in response to the Mongol invasion.[11] The bombs started dropping from Mongol and Soviet planes on 5 June.[12]

The Chinese General Ma Xizhen and the Kazakh Osman Batur fought against the Mongol troops and airplanes throughout June as fierce fighting erupted.[13] The MPR used a battalion size force and had Soviet air support on June 1947.[14] The Mongolians repeatedly probed the Chinese lines.[15][16]

The border constantly shifted around the area. In January 1948, Chinese Cavalry, numbering 700 tried to cross the border into Khobdo and battled against Mongolian border posts, but never managed to penetrate through them.[17]

Osman continued to fight against the Uyghur forces of the Yili regime in north Ashan after being defeated by the Soviet forces.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 215. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  2. ^ Li, Chang. "THE SOVIET GRIP ON SINKIANG". JSTOR 20031047. 
  3. ^ Taylor & Francis. China and the Soviet Union. p. 233. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  4. ^ United States. Dept. of State (1972). Foreign relations of the United States: diplomatic papers, Volume 7. For sale by the Supt. of Docs. p. 563. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  5. ^ David D. Wang (1999). Under the Soviet shadow: the Yining Incident : ethnic conflicts and international rivalry in Xinjiang, 1944-1949. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press. p. 274. ISBN 962-201-831-9. Retrieved 2011-04-04. 
  6. ^ Royal Central Asian Society, London (1949). Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, Volumes 36-38. Royal Central Asian Society. p. 67. Retrieved 2011-04-04. 
  7. ^ Royal Central Asian Society (1949). Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, Volume 36. Royal Central Asian Society. p. 67. Retrieved 2011-04-04. 
  8. ^ "Political Implications in Mongolian Invasion of N. China Province". The Canberra Times. 13 June 1947. 
  9. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 214. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  10. ^ Dickens, Mark. "The Soviets in Xinjiang 1911-1949". Oxus Communications. Retrieved 2008-11-18. 
  11. ^ "CHINESE TROOPS RECAPTURE PEI-TA-SHAN". The Canberra Times. 13 June 1947. 
  12. ^ Hsiao-ting Lin (2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Taylor & Francis. p. 107. ISBN 0-415-58264-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  13. ^ David D. Wang (1999). Clouds over Tianshan: essays on social disturbance in Xinjiang in the 1940s. NIAS Press. p. 87. ISBN 87-87062-62-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  14. ^ Xiaoyuan Liu (2006). Reins of liberation: an entangled history of Mongolian independence, Chinese territoriality, and great power hegemony, 1911-1950. Stanford University Press. p. 380. ISBN 0-8047-5426-8. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  15. ^ "CHINA: Encirclement". TIME magazine. 6 October 1947. 
  16. ^ "A Letter From The Publisher, Oct. 20, 1947". TIME magazine. 20 October 1947. 
  17. ^ Hsiao-ting Lin (2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Taylor & Francis. p. 108. ISBN 0-415-58264-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  18. ^ David D. Wang (1999). Under the Soviet shadow: the Yining Incident : ethnic conflicts and international rivalry in Xinjiang, 1944-1949. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press. pp. 275, 301, 302. ISBN 962-201-831-9. Retrieved 2010-06-28.