Pelé in 2008
|Born||Edson Arantes do Nascimento
21 October 1940 
Três Corações, Brazil
|Occupation||Footballer (retired), humanitarian|
|Height||1.73 m (5 ft 8 in)|
|Spouse(s)||Rosemeri dos Reis Cholbi (m. 1966–82)
Assíria Lemos Seixas (m. 1994)
|Parents||Dondinho, Dona Celeste Arantes|
Association football career
Edson Arantes do Nascimento (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈɛtsõ (w)ɐˈɾɐ̃tʃiz du nɐsiˈmẽtu]), who is better known as Pelé (Brazilian Portuguese: [pe̞ˈlɛ], and who was born on either October 21 or 23, 1940,), is a retired Brazilian footballer who is widely regarded to be the best football player of all time. In 1999, he was voted World Player of the Century by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS). The same year, France Football consulted their former Ballon D'Or winners to elect the Football Player of the Century, selecting Pelé. In 1999, Pelé was elected Athlete of the Century by the IOC, and Time named him in their list of 100 most influential people of the 20th century. In 2013 he received the FIFA Ballon d'Or Prix d'Honneur in recognition of his career and achievements as a global icon of football.
According to the IFFHS, Pelé is the most successful league goal scorer in the world, with 541 league goals. In total Pelé scored 1281 goals in 1363 games, including unofficial friendlies and tour games, for which he was listed in the Guinness World Records for most career goals scored in football. During his playing days, Pelé was for a period the best-paid athlete in the world. In his native Brazil, he is hailed as a national hero, for his accomplishments in football, and for his vocal support of policies to improve the social conditions of the poor. In 1961, Brazil President Jânio Quadros had Pelé declared a national treasure. During his career, he became known as "The Black Pearl" (Pérola Negra), "The King of Football" (O Rei do Futebol), "The King Pelé" (O Rei Pelé) or simply "The King" (O Rei).
Pelé began playing for Santos at 15 and the Brazil national football team at 16. He won three FIFA World Cups; 1958, 1962 and 1970, the only player ever to do so, and is the all-time leading goalscorer for Brazil with 77 goals in 92 games. At club level he is also the record goalscorer for Santos, and led them to the 1962 and 1963 Copa Libertadores. Pelé’s electrifying play and penchant for spectacular goals made him a star around the world, and his club team Santos toured internationally in order to take full advantage of his popularity.
Since retiring in 1977, Pelé has been a worldwide ambassador for football and has undertaken various acting roles and commercial ventures. In 2010, he was named the Honorary President of the New York Cosmos.
- 1 Early years
- 2 Club career
- 3 National team career
- 4 Reception and legacy
- 5 Personal life
- 6 After football
- 7 Honours
- 8 Career statistics
- 9 Acting and film career
- 10 Cultural references
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Pelé was born in Três Corações, Minas Gerais, Brazil, the son of Fluminense footballer Dondinho (born João Ramos do Nascimento) and Celeste Arantes. He was the elder of two siblings. He was named after the American inventor Thomas Edison. His parents decided to remove the "i" and call him "Edson", but there was a mistake on the birth certificate, leading many documents to show his name as "Edison", not "Edson", as he is called. He was originally nicknamed Dico by his family. He received the nickname "Pelé" during his school days, when it is claimed he was given it because of his pronunciation of the name of his favorite player, local Vasco da Gama goalkeeper Bilé, which he misspoke but the more he complained the more it stuck. In his autobiography, Pelé stated he had no idea what the name means, nor did his old friends. Apart from the assertion that the name is derived from that of Bilé, and that it is Hebrew for "miracle," the word has no known meaning in Portuguese.
Pelé grew up in poverty in Bauru, São Paulo. He earned extra money by working in tea shops as a servant. Taught to play by his father, he could not afford a proper football and usually played with either a sock stuffed with newspaper and tied with a string or a grapefruit. Pelé played for several amateur teams in his youth, including Sete de Setembro, Canto do Rio, São Paulinho, and Amériquinha.
Pelé played in Bauru. He led Bauru Athletic Club juniors (coached by Waldemar de Brito) to three consecutive São Paulo state youth championships between 1954 and 1956. He also dominated Futebol de Salão (indoor football) competitions in the region and won several championships with local team Radium.
In 1956, de Brito took Pelé to Santos, an industrial and port city in the state of São Paulo, to try out for professional club Santos FC, telling the directors at Santos that the 15-year-old would be "the greatest football player in the world." Pelé impressed Santos coach Lula during his trial at the Estádio Vila Belmiro, and he signed a professional contract with the club in June 1956. Pelé was highly promoted in the local media as a future superstar. He made his senior team debut on 7 September 1956 at the age of 16 against Corinthians Santo Andre and had an impressive performance in a 7–1 victory. Pelé scored the first of his record 1281 goals in football during the match.
When the 1957 season started, Pelé was given a starting place in the first team and, at the age of 16, became the top scorer in the league. Ten months after signing professionally, the teenager was called up to the Brazil national team. After the 1962 World Cup, wealthy European clubs such as Real Madrid, Juventus and Manchester United tried to sign him, but the government of Brazil declared Pelé an "official national treasure" to prevent him from being transferred out of the country.
Pelé won his first major title with Santos in 1958 as the team won the Campeonato Paulista; Pelé would finish the tournament as top scorer with 58 goals, a record that stands today. A year later, he would help the team earn their first victory in the Torneio Rio-São Paulo with a 3–0 over Vasco da Gama. However, Santos was unable to retain the Paulista title. In 1960, Pelé scored 33 goals to help his team regain the Campeonato Paulista trophy but lost out on the Rio-São Paulo tournament after finishing in 8th place. Another 47 goals from Pelé saw Santos retain the Campeonato Paulista. The club went on to win the Taça Brasil that same year, beating Bahia in the finals; Pelé finished as top scorer of the tournament with 9 goals. The victory allowed Santos to participate in the Copa Libertadores, the most prestigious club tournament in the Western hemisphere.
Santos's most successful club season started in 1962; the team was seeded in Group 1 alongside Cerro Porteño and Deportivo Municipal Bolivia, winning every match of their group but one (a 1–1 away tie vs Cerro), with Pelé scoring his first goal in a brace against Cerro. Santos defeated Universidad Católica in the semifinals and met defending champions Peñarol in the finals in which Pelé scored another brace in the playoff match to secure the first title for a Brazilian club. Pelé finished as the second best scorer of the competition with 4 goals. That same year, Santos would defend, with success, the Campeonato Brasiliero (with 37 goals from Pelé) and the Taça Brasil (Pelé scoring four goals in the final series against Botafogo). Santos would also win the 1962 Intercontinental Cup against Benfica. Wearing his iconic number 10 shirt, Pelé produced one of his best ever performances and scored a hat-trick in Lisbon, as Santos beat the European champions, 5–2.
As the defending champions, Santos qualified automatically to the semifinal stage of the 1963 Copa Libertadores. The ballet blanco managed to retain the title in spectacular fashion after impressive victories over Botafogo and Boca Juniors. Pelé helped Santos overcome a Botafogo team that contained legends such as Garrincha and Jairzinho with an agonizing last-minute goal in the first leg of the semifinals and bring the match to 1–1. In the second leg, Pelé produced one of his best performances as a footballer with a hat-trick in the Estádio do Maracanã as Santos crushed Botafogo, 0–4, in the second leg. Appearing in their second consecutive final, Santos started the series by winning, 3–2, in the first leg and defeating the Boca Juniors of José Sanfilippo and Antonio Rattín, 1–2, in La Bombonera, with another goal from Pelé, becoming the first (and so far only) Brazilian team to lift the Copa Libertadores in Argentine soil. Pelé finished the tournament as the topscorer runner-up with 5 goals. Santos lost the Campeonato Paulista after finishing in third place but went on to win the Rio-São Paulo tournament after an impressive 0–3 win over Flamengo in the final, with Pelé scoring one. Pelé would also help Santos retain the Intercontinental Cup and the Taça Brasil.
Santos tried to defend their title again in 1964 but they were thoroughly beaten in both legs of the semifinals by Independiente. Santos won again the Campeonato Paulista, with Pelé netting 34 goals. The club also shared the Rio-São Paulo title with Botafogo and win the Taça Brasil for the fourth consecutive year. The Santistas would try to resurge in 1965 by winning, for the 9th time, the Campeonato Paulista and the Taça Brasil. In the 1965 Copa Libertadores, Santos started convincingly by winning every match of their group in the first round. In the semifinals, Santos met Peñarol in a rematch of the 1962 final. After two legendary matches, a playoff was needed to break the tie. Unlike 1962, Peñarol came out on top and eliminated Santos 2–1. Pelé would, however, finish as the topscorer of the tournament with eight goals. This proved to be the start of a decline as Santos failed to retain the Torneio Rio-São Paulo.
In 1966, Pelé and Santos also failed to retain the Taça Brasil as O Rei's goals weren't enough to prevent a 9–4 routing by Cruzeiro (led by Tostão) in the final series. Although Santos won the Campeonato Paulista in 1967, 1968 and 1969, Pelé became less and less a contributing factor to the Santistas now-limited success. On 19 November 1969, Pelé scored his 1000th goal in all competitions. This was a highly anticipated moment in Brazil. The goal, called popularly O Milésimo (The Thousandth), occurred in a match against Vasco da Gama, when Pelé scored from a penalty kick, at the Maracanã Stadium.
Pelé states that his most beautiful goal was scored at Rua Javari stadium on a Campeonato Paulista match against São Paulo rival Juventus on 2 August 1959. As there is no video footage of this match, Pelé asked that a computer animation be made of this specific goal. In March 1961, Pelé scored the gol de placa (goal worthy of a plaque), against Fluminense at the Maracanã. Pelé received the ball on the edge of his own penalty area, and ran the length of the field, eluding opposition players with feints, before striking the ball beyond the goalkeeper. The goal was regarded as being so spectacular that a plaque was commissioned with a dedication to the most beautiful goal in the history of the Maracanã.
Pelé’s electrifying play and penchant for spectacular goals made him a star around the world. His team Santos toured internationally in order to take full advantage of his popularity. In 1967, the two factions involved in the Nigerian Civil War agreed to a 48-hour ceasefire so they could watch Pelé play an exhibition game in Lagos. During his time at Santos, Pelé played alongside many gifted players, including Zito, Pepe, and Coutinho; the latter partnered him in numerous one-two plays, attacks, and goals.
New York Cosmos
After the 1974 season (his 19th with Santos), Pelé retired from Brazilian club football although he continued to occasionally play for Santos in official competitive matches. Two years later, he came out of semi-retirement to sign with the New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League (NASL) for the 1975 season. Though well past his prime at this point, Pelé is credited with significantly increasing public awareness and interest in soccer in the United States. He led the Cosmos to the 1977 NASL championship, in his third and final season with the club.
On 1 October 1977, Pelé closed out his career in an exhibition match between the Cosmos and Santos. Santos arrived in New York and New Jersey after previously defeating the Seattle Sounders, 2–0. The match was played in front of a sold out crowd at Giants Stadium and was televised in the United States on ABC's Wide World of Sports as well as throughout the world. Pelé's father and wife both attended the match, as well as Muhammad Ali and Bobby Moore. Pelé played the first half for the Cosmos and the second half for Santos. Pelé scored his final goal from a direct free kick, and Cosmos won 2–1.
National team career
Pelé's first international match was a 2–1 defeat against Argentina on 7 July 1957 at the Maracanã. In that match, he scored his first goal for Brazil aged 16 years and 9 months to become the youngest player to score in International football.
1958 World Cup
Pelé arrived in Sweden sidelined by a knee injury but on his return from the treatment room, his colleagues closed ranks and insisted upon his selection. His first match was against the USSR in the third match of the first round of the 1958 FIFA World Cup, where he gave the assist to Vavá's second goal. He was the youngest player of that tournament, and at the time the youngest ever to play in the World Cup. He scored his first World Cup goal against Wales in quarter-finals, the only goal of the match, to help Brazil advance to semifinals, while becoming the youngest ever World Cup goalscorer at 17 years and 239 days. Against France in the semifinal, Brazil were leading 2–1 at halftime, and then Pelé scored a hat-trick, becoming the youngest in World Cup history to do so.
On 19 June 1958 Pelé became the youngest player to play in a World Cup final match at 17 years and 249 days. He scored two goals in the final as Brazil beat Sweden 5–2. His first goal where he flicked the ball over a defender before volleying into the corner of the net, was selected as one of the best goals in the history of the World Cup. Following Pelé's second goal, Swedish player Sigvard Parling would later comment; "When Pelé scored the fifth goal in that Final, I have to be honest and say I felt like applauding". When the match ended, Pelé passed out on the field, and had to be attended by the medical staff. He then recovered, and was compelled by the victory to weep as he was being congratulated by his teammates. He finished the tournament with six goals in four matches played, tied for second place, behind record-breaker Just Fontaine, and was named best young player of the tournament.
It was in the 1958 World Cup that Pelé began wearing a jersey with number 10. Recently it has become known that the event was the result of disorganization: the leaders did not send the shirt numbers of players and it was up to FIFA to choose the number 10 shirt to Pele who was a substitute on the occasion. The press of the time cataloged Pelé as the greatest revelation of the 1958 Cup who was also given retroactively the Silver Ball as the second best player of the tournament, behind Didi.
1962 World Cup
This was expected to be Pelé's World Cup, as he was rated as the best player in the world at the time. In the first match of the 1962 World Cup, against Mexico, Pelé assisted the first goal and then scored the second one, after a run past four defenders, to go up 2–0. He injured himself while attempting a long-range shot against Czechoslovakia. This would keep him out of the rest of the tournament, and forced coach Aymoré Moreira to make his only lineup change of the tournament. The substitute was Amarildo, who performed well for the rest of the tournament. However, it was Garrincha who would take the leading role and carry Brazil to their second World Cup title.
1966 World Cup
The 1966 World Cup was marked, among other things, for the brutal fouling on Pelé, by the Bulgarian and Portuguese defenders. Pelé was the most famous footballer in the world, and Brazil fielded some world champions like Garrincha, Gilmar and Djalma Santos with the addition of other stars like Jairzinho, Tostão and Gérson, leading to high expectations for them. Brazil was eliminated in the first round, playing only three matches. Pelé scored the first goal from a free kick against Bulgaria, becoming the first player to score in three successive FIFA World Cups, but due to his injury, a result of persistent fouling by the Bulgarians, he missed the second game against Hungary. Brazil lost that game and Pelé, although still recovering, was brought back for the last crucial match against Portugal for which the Brazilian coach, Vicente Feola, panicked. He changed the entire defense, including the goalkeeper. In the attack, he maintained Jairzinho and substituted the other two players. In the midfield, he returned to the formation of the first match, even knowing that Pelé was still recovering from his serious injuries. In that game João Morais brutally fouled Pelé, but was not sent off by referee George McCabe, of whom it is acknowledged let "the Portuguese get away with murder". Pelé had to stay on the field limping for the rest of the game, since substitutes were not allowed at that time. After this game he vowed he would not play again in the World Cup, a decision he would later change.
1970 World Cup
Pelé was called to the national team in early 1969, he refused at first, but then accepted and played in six World Cup qualifying matches, scoring six goals. The 1970 World Cup in Mexico was to be Pelé's last. Brazil's squad for the tournament featured major changes in relation to the 1966 squad. Players like Garrincha, Nilton Santos, Valdir Pereira, Djalma Santos and Gilmar had already retired, but the team, with Pelé, Rivelino, Jairzinho, Gérson, Carlos Alberto Torres, Tostão and Clodoaldo, is often considered to be the greatest football team in history.
The front five of Jairzinho, Pelé, Gerson, Tostão and Rivelino were all number 10s in their own right and together they created an attacking momentum, with Pelé having a central role in Brazil's way to the final. In the first match, against Czechoslovakia, Pelé gave Brazil a 2–1 lead, by controlling Gerson's long pass with his chest and then scoring. In this match Pelé audaciously attempted to lob goalkeeper Ivo Viktor from the half-way line, only narrowly missing the Czechoslovak goal. Brazil went on to win the match, 4–1. In the first half of the match against England, Pelé nearly scored with a header that was spectacularly saved by Gordon Banks. In the second half, he controlled a cross from Tostão before nonchanantly flicking the ball to Jairzinho who scored the only goal of the match.
Against Romania, Pelé scored the first goal with a bending free kick hit with the outside of his right foot. Later in the match he scored again to make it 3–1. Brazil won by a final score of 3–2. In the quarterfinals against Peru, Brazil won 4–2, with Pelé assisting Tostão for Brazil's third goal. In the semi-finals, Brazil faced Uruguay for the first time since the 1950 World Cup final round match. Jairzinho put Brazil ahead 2–1, and Pelé assisted Rivelino for the 3–1. During that match, Pelé made one of his most famous plays. Tostão passed the ball for Pelé to collect which Uruguay's goalkeeper Ladislao Mazurkiewicz took notice of and ran off his line to get the ball before Pelé. However, Pelé got there first and fooled Mazurkiewicz with a feint by not touching the ball, causing it to roll to the goalkeepers left, while Pelé went to the goalkeepers right. Pelé ran around the goalkeeper to retrieve the ball and took a shot while turning towards the goal, but he turned in excess as he shot, and the ball drifted just wide of the far post.
Brazil played Italy in the final, with Pelé scoring the opener, with a header over Italian defender Tarcisio Burgnich. He then made assists on Jairzinho's and Carlos Alberto's goals, the latter one coming after an impressive collective play with Pelé making a blind pass which fell perfectly into the path of Carlos Alberto who struck the ball without breaking stride to score. Brazil won the match 4–1, keeping the Jules Rimet Trophy indefinitely, and Pelé received the Golden Ball as the player of the tournament. Burgnich, who marked Pelé during the final, was quoted saying "I told myself before the game, he's made of skin and bones just like everyone else — but I was wrong".
Pelé's last international match was on 18 July 1971 against Yugoslavia in Rio de Janeiro. With Pelé on the field, the Brazilian team's record was 67 wins, 14 draws and 11 losses. Brazil never lost a match while fielding both Pelé and Garrincha.
South American Championship
Pelé also played in the South American Championship. In the 1959 competition he was named best player of the tournament and was top scorer with 8 goals, as Brazil came second despite being unbeaten in the tournament.
Reception and legacy
Pelé is one of the most lauded players in history and is frequently ranked the best player ever. Among his contemporaries, Dutch legend Johan Cruyff stated; "Pelé was the only footballer who surpassed the boundaries of logic." Brazil's 1970 FIFA World Cup-winning captain Carlos Alberto Torres opined; "His great secret was improvisation. Those things he did were in one moment. He had an extraordinary perception of the game." Tostão, his strike partner at the 1970 World Cup; "Pelé was the greatest – he was simply flawless. And off the pitch he is always smiling and upbeat. You never see him bad-tempered. He loves being Pelé." His Brazilian teammate Clodoaldo commented on the adulation he witnessed; "In some countries they wanted to touch him, in some they wanted to kiss him. In others they even kissed the ground he walked on. I thought it was beautiful, just beautiful." Former Real Madrid and Hungary legend Ferenc Puskás stated; "The greatest player in history was Di Stefano. I refuse to classify Pelé as a player. He was above that." Just Fontaine, French striker and leading scorer at the 1958 World Cup; "When I saw Pelé play, it made me feel I should hang up my boots." England's 1966 FIFA World Cup-winning captain Bobby Moore commented: "Pelé was the most complete player I've ever seen, he had everything. Two good feet. Magic in the air. Quick. Powerful. Could beat people with skill. Could outrun people. Only 5 ft 8 in tall, yet he seemed a giant of an athlete on the pitch. Perfect balance and impossible vision. He was the greatest because he could do anything and everything on a football pitch. I remember Saldhana the coach being asked by a Brazilian journalist who was the best goalkeeper in his squad. He said Pelé. The man could play in any position". Former Manchester United striker and member of England's 1966 FIFA World Cup-winning team Sir Bobby Charlton stated; "I sometimes feel as though football was invented for this magical player." During the 1970 World Cup, a British television commentator asked; "How do you spell Pelé?", with the response; "Easy: G-O-D."
Since retiring, Pelé has continued to be lauded by modern day players, coaches, journalists and others. Brazilian attacking midfielder Zico, who represented Brazil at the 1978, 1982 and 1986 FIFA World Cup, stated; "This debate about the player of the century is absurd. There's only one possible answer: Pelé. He's the greatest player of all time, and by some distance I might add". French three time Balon D'or winner Michel Platini said; "There's Pelé the man, and then Pelé the player. And to play like Pelé is to play like God." Joint FIFA Player of the Century, Argentina legend and 1986 FIFA World Cup-winning captain Diego Maradona stated; "It's too bad we never got along, but he was an awesome player". Prolific Brazilian striker Romário, winner of the 1994 FIFA World Cup and player of the tournament stated; "It's only inevitable I look up to Pelé. He's like a God to us". Former FIFA Player and of the Year and current Real Madrid player Cristiano Ronaldo said: "Pelé is the greatest player in football history, and there will only be one Pelé". Jose Mourinho, two time UEFA Champions League winning manager, commented; "I think he is football. You have the real special one - Mr Pelé." Real Madrid honorary president and former player, Alfredo Di Stéfano, opined; "The best player ever? Pelé. Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo are both great players with specific qualities, but Pelé was better".
Presenting Pelé a lifetime achievement award, former South African president Nelson Mandela said; "To watch him play was to watch the delight of a child combined with the extraordinary grace of a man in full." U.S statesman and political scientist Henry Kissinger stated; "Performance at a high level in any sport is to exceed the ordinary human scale. But Pelé's performance transcended that of the ordinary star by as much as the star exceeds ordinary performance." Former Brazilian ambassador to the United Nations, J.B. Pinheiro, commented; "Pelé played football for 22 years, and in that time he did more to promote world friendship and fraternity than any other ambassador anywhere." With crowds flocking wherever he goes, a reporter asked if his fame compared to that of Jesus Christ's, Pelé in response quipped, "There are parts of the world where Jesus Christ is not so well known."
On 21 February 1966, Pelé married Rosemeri dos Reis Cholbi. He has two daughters Kelly Cristina ( born 13 January 1967) who married Dr. Arthur DeLuca, and Jennifer (1978), as well as a son Edson ("Edinho", born 27 August 1970). The couple divorced in 1982. From 1981 to 1986, Pelé had been romantically linked with Xuxa and was seen influential in launching the career of the model who was 17 when they started to date. In April 1994 Pelé married psychologist and gospel singer Assíria Lemos Seixas, who gave birth on 28 September 1996 to twins Joshua and Celeste through fertility treatments. They are now separated. Also Pele had at least two children from former affairs. Sandra Macedo, his daughter with a housemaid Anizia Machado in 1964, for years fought to be acknowledged by Pelé, who refused to submit to DNA tests. Although she was recognized by courts as his daughter based on DNA evidence in 1993, Pelé never acknowledged his eldest daughter even after her death, in 2006, nor her two children Octavio and Gabriel. Pelé had had another daughter, Flavia Kurts, in an extra-marital affair in 1968 with a journalist called Lenita Kurtz. Flavia was recognized by him as his daughter. Pelé, aged 73, has announced he is planning to marry 41 year old Marcia Cibele Aoki, a Japanese-Brazilian importer of medical equipment, who he has been dating since 2010, from Penápolis, São Paulo. They first met in the mid-1980s in New York, where Pele was living with his children from his first marriage. In 2008, the then-still-married Aoki ran into Pelé in the elevator of a building where they both lived and chatted for a while. A year and a half later, they ran into each other again. "I said I was renovating my place and she (by this time now divorced), invited me up to see her apartment. This Japanese girl then lassoed me!" he joked. According to Pelé, Marcia is his "final" love: "My first crush was a Japanese and the last will be too," recalling a girlfriend he had during his teenage years.
In 1970, Pelé was investigated by the Brazilian military dictatorship for suspected leftist sympathies. Declassified documents show Pelé was investigated after being handed a manifesto calling for the release of political prisoners. Pelé himself did not get further involved within political struggles in the country. Eventually Pelé has been criticized in the public opinion for his conservative views. In June 2013, during the Brazilian protests, he asked for people to "forget the demonstrations" and support the Brazilian National Football Team. In November 2012, Pelé underwent a successful hip operation. In May 2014, his son Edinho was jailed for 33 years for laundering money from drug trafficking.
In February 2012, Legends 10 began handling the Pelé brand and brought all marketing and management efforts under one roof, including all intellectual property rights, global licensing, branding, endorsements, and public appearances.
He was awarded Brazil's Gold Medal for outstanding services to the sport in 1995; Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso appointed him to the position of Extraordinary Minister for Sport, and he was appointed a UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador. During this time he proposed legislation to reduce corruption in Brazilian football, which became known as the "Pelé law." Pelé left his position in 2001 after he was accused of involvement in a corruption scandal, although nothing was proven, and it was denied by UNICEF. In 1997, Pelé received an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire from Queen Elizabeth II, at a ceremony in Buckingham Palace.
Pelé publicly accused the Brazilian football administrator Ricardo Teixeira of corruption after Pelé's television company was rejected in a contest for the Brazilian domestic rights. Pelé accusations led to an eight year feud between the pair. As a consequence of the affair, the President of FIFA, João Havelange banned Pelé from the draw for the 1994 FIFA World Cup in Las Vegas. Criticisms over the ban were perceived to have negatively affected Havelange's chances of re-election as FIFA's president in 1994.
Pelé has published several autobiographies, starred in documentary films, and composed musical pieces, including the entire soundtrack for the film Pelé in 1977. He appeared, alongside other footballers of the 1960s and 1970s, with Michael Caine, and Sylvester Stallone, in the 1981 film Escape to Victory, about an attempted escape from a World War II German POW camp.
In 2005, Pelé received a lifetime achievement award from the BBC and, in June 2006, helped inaugurate the 2006 FIFA World Cup finals, alongside supermodel Claudia Schiffer. Pelé also produced an international ad campaign for drug company Pfizer to promote Viagra and raise world awareness of erectile dysfunction.
Pelé was guest of honour at the world's oldest football club, Sheffield's 150th anniversary match against Inter Milan in November 2007. Inter won 5–2 in front of an appreciative crowd at Bramall Lane. As part of his visit, Pelé opened an exhibition which included the first public showing in 40 years of the original hand-written rules of football.
In 2009, he cooperated with Ubisoft on arcade football game Academy of Champions: Soccer for the Wii and appeared in the game as a coach to its players. On FIFA 14 released in 2013, Pelé features for the Ultimate team known as Legends for the Xbox One, where game-players can acquire classic players from different eras.
On 1 August 2010, Pelé was introduced as the Honorary President of a revived New York Cosmos, aiming to field a team in Major League Soccer. On 3 August 2011, it was reported that Santos were considering bringing him out of retirement for a cameo role in the 2011 FIFA Club World Cup, although this later turned out to be false.
In 2012, Pelé was awarded an honorary degree from the University of Edinburgh for "significant contribution to humanitarian and environmental causes, as well as his sporting achievements", his first such degree from a European university.
- Roca Cup: 1957, 1963
- FIFA World Cup:
- Copa América:
- Runner-up: 1959
- Cruz Cup: 1958, 1962, 1968
- Bernardo O'Higgins Cup: 1959
- Atlantic Cup: 1960
- Oswaldo Cruz Cup: 1958, 1962, 1968
- Copa Libertadores (2): 1962, 1963
- Intercontinental Supercup (1): 1968
- Supercopa de Campeones Intercontinentales (1): 1968
- Intercontinental Cup (2): 1962, 1963
- Campeonato Brasileiro Série A (6): 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1968
- Torneio Rio-São Paulo (4): 1959, 1963, 1964, 1966
- Campeonato Paulista (10): 1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1973
- North American Soccer League, Soccer Bowl (1): 1977
- North American Soccer League, Atlantic Conference Championship (1): 1977
- Intercontinental Cup: All-Time Leading Scorer
- Copa Libertadores Top Scorer (1): 1965.
- Campeonato Brasileiro Série A Top Scorer (3): 1961, 1963, 1964.
- Campeonato Paulista Top Scorer (11): 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1969, 1973.
- Torneio Rio-São Paulo Top Scorer (1): 1963.
- FIFA World Cup (Best Young Player):
- Winner (1): 1958
- FIFA World Cup (Silver Boot): 1958
- FIFA World Cup Silver Ball: 1958
- FIFA World Cup Golden Ball (Best Player):
- Winner (1): 1970
- Copa America Best Player: 1959
- FIFA Ballon d'Or Prix d'Honneur: 2013
- Guinness World Records: Most career goals (football): 1283 goals in 1363 games.
- Guinness World Records: Most World Cup Winners’ Medals.
- International Federation of Football History and Statistics(IFFHS): World´s most successful Top Division Goal Scorer: 541 goals
- All time Top Scorer in one calendar year: 127 goals(1959)
- World record number of hat tricks: 92
- BBC Sports Personality of the Year Overseas Personality:
- Winner (1): 1970
- BBC Sports Personality of the Year Lifetime Achievement Award:
- Winner (1): 2005
- Greatest football player to have ever played the game, by Golden Foot: 2012
- Athlete of the Century, by Reuters News Agency: 1999
- Athlete of the Century, elected by International Olympic Committee: 1999
- Athlete of the Century, elected by world wide journalists, poll by French daily L'Equipe: 1981
- South American Footballer of the Year: 1973
- Inducted into the American National Soccer Hall of Fame in 1993.
- Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire: 1997
- In 1989 DPR Korea issued a postage stamp depicting Pelé.
- UNICEF Football Player of the Century: 1999
- TIME One of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century: 1999
- FIFA Player of the Century : 2000
- Football Player of the Century, elected by France Football's Ballon d'Or Winners : 1999
- Football Player of the Century, by IFFHS International Federation of Football History and Statistics: 1999
- South America Football Player of the Century, by IFFHS International Federation of Football History and Statistics: 1999
- Laureus World Sports Awards Lifetime Achievement Award from South African President Nelson Mandela: 2000
- FIFA World Cup All-Time Team: 1994
- World Team of the 20th Century: 1998
- FIFA World Cup Dream Team: 2002
- World Soccer Greatest XI of all time: 2013
In December 2000, Pelé and Maradona shared the prize of FIFA Player of the Century by FIFA. The award was originally intended to be based upon votes in a web poll, but after it became apparent that it favoured Diego Maradona, many observers complained that the Internet nature of the poll would have meant a skewed demographic of younger fans who would have seen Maradona play, but not Pelé. FIFA then appointed a "Family of Football" committee of FIFA members to decide the winner of the award together with the votes of the readers of the FIFA Magazine. The committee chose Pelé. Since Maradona was winning the Internet poll, however, it was decided he and Pelé should share the award.
- Honorary degree from the University of Edinburgh celebrating Pelé’s "significant contribution to humanitarian and environmental causes, as well as his sporting achievements": 2012
- Prize from the French Academy of Sports, Award given to a player of a team sport for the very first time: 1971
- Red Medal of Paris, Given by the City Hall of the French Capital: 1971
- Sword of Soccer Honor, Given by the English Soccer Annual. The sword was handmade by the Queen’s weapon manufacturers. Pelé was the first ever non-British person to receive this award: 1966
- Knight of the Legion d’Honneur of France, Award given by the French Government: 1963
Pelé's goalscoring record is often reported by FIFA among others as being 1281 goals in 1363 games. This figure includes goals scored by Pelé in friendly club matches, for example, international tours Pelé completed with Santos and the New York Cosmos, and a few games Pelé played in for armed forces teams during his national service in Brazil.
The tables below record every goal Pelé scored in major club competitions for Santos and the New York Cosmos. During much of Pelé's playing career in Brazil there was no national league championship. From 1960 onwards the Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF) were required to provide meritocratic entrants for the then-new Copa Libertadores, a South American international club competition broadly equivalent to the European Cup. To enable them to do this, the CBF organised two national competitions: the Taça de Prata and Taça Brasil. A national league championship, the Campeonato Brasileiro, was first played in 1971, alongside traditional state and interstate competitions such as the Campeonato Paulista and the Torneio Rio-São Paulo.
The number of league goals scored by Pelé for Santos and New York Cosmos is listed as 656 in 702 games, which is a world record for League competitions. This number is the sum of the goals scored by Pelé in domestic league-based competitions: the Campeonato Paulista (SPS), Torneio Rio-São Paulo (RSPS), Taça de Prata and Campeonato Brasileiro. The Taça Brasil was a national competition organised on a knockout basis.
Pelé is the top scorer of the Brazil national football team with 77 goals in 92 official appearances. In addition, he has scored 18 times in 21 unofficial games. This makes an unofficial total of 113 games and 95 goals. He has also scored 12 goals and is credited with 10 assists in 14 World Cup appearances, including 4 goals and 7 assists in 1970. Pelé shares with Uwe Seeler and Miroslav Klose the achievement of being the only three footballers to have scored in four separate World Cup tournaments.
|FIFA World Cup goals|
|1958-06-19||Ullevi, Gothenburg, Sweden||Wales||1–0||1–0||1958||Quarterfinal|
|1958-06-24||Råsunda Stadium, Solna, Sweden||France||1–3||2–5||1958||Semifinal|
|1958-06-24||Råsunda Stadium, Solna, Sweden||France||1–4||2–5||1958||Semifinal|
|1958-06-24||Råsunda Stadium, Solna, Sweden||France||1–5||2–5||1958||Semifinal|
|1958-06-29||Råsunda Stadium, Solna, Sweden||Sweden||1–3||2–5||1958||Final|
|1958-06-29||Råsunda Stadium, Solna, Sweden||Sweden||2–5||2–5||1958||Final|
|1962-05-30||Estadio Sausalito, Viña del Mar, Chile||Mexico||2– 0||2–0||1962||Group stage|
|1966-07-12||Goodison Park, Liverpool, England||Bulgaria||1–0||2–0||1966||Group stage|
|1970-06-03||Estadio Jalisco, Guadalajara, Mexico||Czechoslovakia||2–1||4–1||1970||Group stage|
|1970-06-10||Estadio Jalisco, Guadalajara, Mexico||Romania||1–0||3–2||1970||Group stage|
|1970-06-10||Estadio Jalisco, Guadalajara, Mexico||Romania||3–1||3–2||1970||Group stage|
|1970-06-21||Estadio Azteca, Mexico City, Mexico||Italy||1–0||4–1||1970||Final|
|International appearances (92) and goals (77)|
|1957-07-07||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||1–2||Argentina||Roca Cup||1|
|1957-07-10||São Paulo||Brazil||2–0||Argentina||Roca Cup||1|
|1958-05-04||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||5–1||Paraguay||Oswaldo Cruz Cup||1|
|1958-05-14||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||4–0||Bulgaria||Friendly|
|1958-06-15||Gothenburg||Brazil||2–0||Soviet Union||World Cup|
|1959-03-10||Buenos Aires||Brazil||2–2||Peru||Copa América||1|
|1959-03-15||Buenos Aires||Brazil||3–0||Chile||Copa América||2|
|1959-03-21||Buenos Aires||Brazil||4–2||Bolivia||Copa América||1|
|1959-03-26||Buenos Aires||Brazil||3–1||Uruguay||Copa América|
|1959-03-29||Buenos Aires||Brazil||4–1||Paraguay||Copa América||3|
|1959-04-04||Buenos Aires||Argentina||1–1||Brazil||Copa América||1|
|1959-05-13||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||2–0||England||Friendly|
|1959-09-17||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||7–0||Chile||O'Higgins Cup||3|
|1959-09-20||São Paulo||Brazil||1–0||Chile||O'Higgins Cup|
|1960-07-12||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||5–1||Argentina||Atlantic Cup||1|
|1962-04-21||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||6–0||Paraguay||Oswaldo Cruz Cup||1|
|1962-04-24||São Paulo||Brazil||4–0||Paraguay||Oswaldo Cruz Cup||2|
|1962-05-09||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||1–0||Portugal||Friendly||1|
|1962-05-12||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||3–1||Wales||Friendly||1|
|1962-05-30||Viña del Mar||Brazil||2–0||Mexico||World Cup||1|
|1962-06-02||Viña del Mar||Brazil||0–0||Czechoslovakia||World Cup|
|1963-04-13||São Paulo||Brazil||2–3||Argentina||Roca Cup|
|1963-04-16||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||5–2||Argentina||Roca Cup||3|
|1964-05-30||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||5–1||England||Taça das Nações||1|
|1964-06-03||São Paulo||Brazil||0–3||Argentina||Taça das Nações|
|1964-06-07||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||4–1||Portugal||Taça das Nações||1|
|1965-06-02||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||5–0||Belgium||Friendly||3|
|1965-06-06||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||2–0||West Germany||Friendly||1|
|1965-06-09||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||0–0||Argentina||Friendly|
|1965-11-21||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||2–2||Soviet Union||Friendly||1|
|1966-05-19||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||1–0||Chile||Friendly|
|1966-06-08||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||2–1||Poland||Friendly|
|1966-06-12||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||2–1||Czechoslovakia||Friendly||2|
|1966-06-15||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||2–2||Czechoslovakia||Friendly||1|
|1968-07-25||Asunción||Paraguay||0–4||Brazil||Oswaldo Cruz Cup||2|
|1968-07-28||Asunción||Paraguay||1–0||Brazil||Oswaldo Cruz Cup|
|1968-10-31||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||1–2||Mexico||Friendly|
|1968-11-06||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||2–1||FIFA XI||Friendly|
|1968-12-14||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||2–2||West Germany||Friendly|
|1968-12-17||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||3–3||Yugoslavia||Friendly||1|
|969-04-09||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||3–2||Peru||Friendly||1|
|1969-06-12||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||2–1||England||Friendly|
|1969-08-06||Bogotá||Colombia||0–2||Brazil||World Cup Qualifiers|
|1969-08-10||Caracas||Venezuela||0–5||Brazil||World Cup Qualifiers||2|
|1969-08-17||Asunción||Paraguay||0–3||Brazil||World Cup Qualifiers|
|1969-08-21||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||6–2||Colombia||World Cup Qualifiers||1|
|1969-08-24||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||6–0||Venezuela||World Cup Qualifiers||2|
|1969-08-31||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||1–0||Paraguay||World Cup Qualifiers||1|
|1970-03-08||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||2–1||Argentina||Friendly||1|
|1970-03-26||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||2–1||Chile||Friendly|
|1970-04-12||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||0–0||Paraguay||Friendly|
|1970-04-29||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||1–0||Austria||Friendly|
|1970-06-21||Mexico City||Brazil||4–1||Italy||World Cup||1|
|1970-09-30||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||2–1||Mexico||Friendly|
|1970-10-04||Santiago de Chile||Chile||1–5||Brazil||Friendly||1|
|1971-07-18||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||2–2||Yugoslavia||Friendly|
|Unofficial international appearances (21) and goals (18)|
|1958-05-21||São Paulo||Brazil||5 – 0||Corinthians|
|1960-05-08||Malmö||Malmö FF||1 – 7||Brazil||2|
|1960-05-12||Milano||Inter Milan||2 – 2||Brazil||2|
|1960-05-16||Lisbon||Sporting Lisbon||0 – 4||Brazil|
|1963-05-03||Eindhoven||PSV Eindhoven||0 – 1||Brazil|
|1966-05-01||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||2 – 0||Rio Grande do Sul|
|1966-06-21||Madrid||Atlético Madrid||3 – 5||Brazil||3|
|1966-07-04||Stockholm||AIK||2 – 4||Brazil||2|
|1966-07-06||Malmö||Malmö FF||1 – 3||Brazil||2|
|1968-11-13||Curitiba||Coritiba||1 – 2||Brazil|
|1969-07-06||Salvador||Bahia||0 – 4||Brazil||1|
|1969-07-09||Aracaju||Rio Grande do Sul||2 – 8||Brazil|
|1969-07-13||Recife||Pernambuco||1 – 6||Brazil||1|
|1969-08-01||Bogotá||Millonarios||0 – 2||Brazil|
|1969-09-03||Belo Horizonte||Atlético Mineiro||2 – 1||Brazil||1|
|1970-03-14||Rio de Janeiro||Bangu||1 – 1||Brazil|
|1970-04-05||Manaus||Amazonas A||1 – 4||Brazil||1|
|1970-04-19||Belo Horizonte||Minas Gerais||1 – 3||Brazil|
|1970-05-06||Guadalajara||Guadalajara XI||0 – 3||Brazil||1|
|1970-05-17||León||León XI||2 – 5||Brazil||2|
|1970-05-24||Irapuato||Irapuato||0 – 3||Brazil|
Pelé numbers differ between sources mostly due to friendly games. The RSSSF states that Pelé scored 767 goals in 831 official games, 1281 goals in 1367 overall while he was active, 1284 in 1375 taking into account benefit games after retirement. The following table is a compendium of sources that include Santos and FIFA among others.
|Friendly matches and other defunct Tournaments||554||526||0.95|
|New York Cosmos||107||66||0.62|
Acting and film career
- Os Estranhos (1969) (TV series)
- O Barão Otelo no Barato dos Bilhões (1971)
- A Marcha (1973)
- Os Trombadinhas (1978)
- Escape to Victory (1981)
- A Minor Miracle (1983)
- Pedro Mico (1985)
- Os Trapalhões e o Rei do Futebol (1986)
- Hotshot (1987)
- Solidão, Uma Linda História de Amor (1990)
- Mike Bassett: England Manager (2001)
- Pelé Eterno (2004) – a documentary about Pelé's career
- Puskás Hungary (2009)
- In 1977, Andy Warhol portrait of Pelé as part of Warhol's Athletes Series.
- In 1989 DPR Korea issued a postage stamp depicting Pelé.
- Mentioned in the song "Ghetto Supastar" by Pras.
- Professional Wrestler AJ Styles named his backflip head-kick "The Pelé".
- In the film Kicking & Screaming, Phil, played by Will Ferrell, competes against his father in order to win his dad's Pelé ball.
- In 1980, Pelé endorsed the Atari 2600 videogame Pelé's Soccer.
- Official forename and birth date, as written on his birth certificate, are "Edison" and "21 October 1940":
CERTIDÃO DE NASCIMENTO
CERTIFICO que sob o n° 7.095 às fls. 123 do livro n° 21-A de Registro de Nascimento consta o assento de Edison Arantes do Nascimento nascido aos vinte e um (21) outubro de mil novecentos e quarenta (1940) às 03 horas e --- minutos em esta Cidade de Três Corações sexo masculino filho de João Ramos do Nascimento e de Celeste Arantes
However, Pelé has always maintained that those are mistakes, that he was actually named Edson and that he was born on 23 October 1940.
Pelé; Orlando Duarte; Alex Bellos (2006). Pelé : the autobiography. London: Simon & Schuster UK Ltd. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7432-7582-8. Retrieved 2 October 2010. "Shortly before I came along, there was another arrival in Três Corações: electricity. In order to celebrate this great improvement to our daily lives, Dondinho named me Edson, a tribute to Thomas Edison, the inventor of the lightbulb. In fact, on my birth certificate I am actually called Edison with an 'i', a mistake that persists to this day. I'm Edson with no 'i', but to my eternal annoyance quite often the 'i' appears on official or personal documents and time after time I have to explain why. As if that wasn't confusing enough, they got the date wrong on my birth certificate as well – it says 21 October. I'm not sure how this came about; probably because in Brazil we're not so fussy about accuracy. This is another mistake that carries on to this day. When I took out my first passport, the date was put in as 21 October and each time I have renewed it the date has stayed the same."
- "Pelé and Maradona - two very different number tens". FIFA.com. Retrieved 14 October 2012
- Arantes, Edson (2007). My Life and the Beautiful Game: The Autobiography of Pele. Skyhorse Publishing. p. 108,. ISBN 1602391963.
- "The Great Creators". FIFA.com. Retrieved 14 October 2012
- "Pele edges Eusebio as Santos defend title". FIFA.com. Retrieved 14 October 2012
- Pelé: The Autobiography. London: Simon & Schuster UK Ltd. 2006. p. 41,. ISBN 978-1416511212.
- "Santos profile: Pele" . Santos Futbol Clube. Retrieved 14 October 2012
- "Attacking midfielder/‘Hole’ player" . Talk Football. Retrieved 14 October 2012
- Pele: Xavi. FIFA.com. Retrieved 14 October 2012
- Quand Pelé rêvait d'être Xavi . L'equipe. Retrieved 14 October 2012
- "NASL Player Profile – Pele". Nasljerseys.com. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- Pele: The greatest of them all FIFA.com
The Best of The Best. RSSF.com
"What they said about Pele". FIFA.com.
-Bobby Moore: "Pele was the most complete player I've ever seen, he had everything. Two good feet. Magic in the air. Quick. Powerful. Could beat people with skill. Could outrun people. Only 5 ft 8 in tall, yet he seemed a giant of an athlete on the pitch. Perfect balance and impossible vision. He was the greatest because he could do anything and everything on a football pitch. I remember Saldhana the coach being asked by a Brazilian journalist who was the best goalkeeper in his squad. He said Pele. The man could play in any position." Independent.co.uk
-Ferenc Puskas: "The greatest player in history was Di Stefano. I refuse to classify Pele as a player. He was above that." FIFA.com
-José Mourinho: "I think he is football. You have the real special one - Mr Pele." BBC Sport
-Nevio Scala: "Pelé will always be the number one for me."
-Sir Alex Ferguson: "Question:-Best player you ever saw? -AF: Pelé, di Stefano, Maradona, Cruyff. -Q:In that order? -AF: Yes, I think so." Newstatesman.com
-Romario: "Messi has all the conditions to be the best, but first he has to beat Maradona, Romario and then eventually Pele." Mtnfootball.com
-Costa Pereira: "I arrived hoping to stop a great man, but I went away convinced I had been undone by someone who was not born on the same planet as the rest of us." FIFA.com
-Michel Platini: "There's Pele the man, and then Pele the player. And to play like Pele is to play like God."
-Eusebio: "Pele played in an era which had so many great players and in that atmosphere he stood out above the others. He was the complete player in every aspect as well as being a kind human being. Cristiano Ronaldo is young yet, and has many years ahead of himself. But as of now, I do not see anyone who can compare with Pele" Lacancha.com
-Johan Cruyff: "Pele was the only footballer who surpassed the boundaries of logic." FIFA.com
-Sir Bobby Charlton: "I sometimes feel as though football was invented for this magical player." FIFA.com
-Tostao: "Pele was the greatest – he was simply flawless. And off the pitch he is always smiling and upbeat. You never see him bad-tempered. He loves being Pele."
-Zico: "This debate about the player of the century is absurd. There's only one possible answer: Pele. He's the greatest player of all time, and by some distance I might add."
-Franz Beckenbauer: "Pele is the greatest player of all time. He reigned supreme for 20 years. All the others - Diego Maradona, Johan Cruyff, Michel Platini - rank beneath him. There's no one to compare with Pele." -
-Tarcisio Burgnich: "Before the match, I told myself that Pele was just flesh and bones like the rest of us. Later I realised I'd been wrong."
-Cesar Luis Menotti: "It's ugly to compare but the greatest was Pele. If we believe that God made man, the "black" Pelé he made him perfect. He gave him everything. He lacked nothing, header, physical power, dribbling, finishing, inspiration, genius, temper, vision, goal. Everything."
-Gianni Rivera: "However, I do think there's someone who was even better(than Messi) and that's Pele. He used both feet on the pitch. He was as dangerous with his right as he was with his left. He was strong in the air as well, and created a lot of chances." Soccerway.com
-Hugo Gatti: "Pelé had the skin of a player, head, pace, everything. He was a panther dressed in white, I played with him. He entered to play in the last minute and he could turn the match. And the big difference is that Pelé on the field created fear, Maradona not...For me, it is Pelé, Alfredo Di Stefano and Maradona, in that order. I appreciate Diego, he is a great player. But from another planet was Pelé, not him." Diariomundonuevo.com
-Teófilo Cubillas: "I confronted him several times on the pitch and I think there will be no one like him."
"The Best of The Best". Rsssf.com. 19 June 2009. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
The Best x Players of the Century/All-Time. RSSF.com
Pele tops World Cup legends poll BBC News
THE LIST: The greatest players in the history of football Daily Mail.
title=Pelé "The King" to be crowned in Monte Carlo at 10th edition of the "Golden Foot" Awards GoldenFoot
IFFHS' Century Elections. RSSF.com
- Ingo Faulhaber. "IFFHS". Iffhs.de. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- France Football's Football Player of the Century Retrieved 1 May 2011
- Kissinger, Henry (14 June 1999). "The Time 100, Heroes and icons — Pelé". TIME. Retrieved 1 October 2006.
- "Pele receives FIFA Ballon d’Or Prix d’Honneur". FIFA.com. Retrieved 14 January 2014
- Ingo Faulhaber. "IFFHS". Iffhs.de. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- PELÉ: The King of Football FIFA.com.
title=Pelé, Olé! - Statistics of Pelé's Career
Pelé honoured with two Guinness World Records achievements in London. Guinness World Records.
Most Career Goals (football). Guinness World Records
- Ebony - Google Books. Books.google.se. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Harris, Harry (2002), Pelé: his life and times. p.190. Welcome Rain Publishers. Retrieved 27 June 2011
"Pelé, King of Futbol" ESPN| accessdate =1 October 2006
- "The King of football". FIFA.com.
- "Pele (Brazilian athlete) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
Various from many of his biographies, See for example  3rd section, last line: " 'The King' was given to Pelé by the French press in 1961 after he played a few matches with SFC in Europe" Or the already quote  Or the book "Pele, King of Soccer/Pele, El rey del futbol – Monica Brown (Author) & Rudy Gutierrez (Illustrator) Rayo Publishing Dec.2008 ISBN 978-0-06-122779-0 "
"Pele (soccer player) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Pele (soccer player)". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- 10 World Cup Gods! Our look at the best of the best in World Cup history Mail Online. Retrieved 10 May 2011
- "Intercontinental Cups 1962 and 1963". FIFA.com.19 November 2012
- "Pele". Encyclopædia Britannica Online
"Pele's Santos go global". FIFA.com. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Bell, Jack (1 August 2010). "Cosmos Begin Anew, With Eye Toward M.L.S". New York Times. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
- "Pele Speaks of Benefits of Futebol de Salão". International Confederation of Futebol de Salão. 24 May 2006. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- Robert L. Fish; Pelé (1977). My Life and The Beautiful Game: The Autobiography of Pelé, Chapter 2. Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, New York. ISBN 0-385-12185-7
- Anibal Massaini Neto (Director/Producer), (2004). Pelé Eterno [Documentary film]. Brazil: Anima Produções Audiovisuais Ltda. International: Universal Studios Home Video.
- "Un siglo, diez historias". BBC (in Spanish). BBC. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
- "Edson Arantes Do Nascimento Pelé". UNESCO. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
- "From Edson to Pelé: my changing identity". Article by The Guardian (London). 13 May 2006. Retrieved 1 October 2006.
- Winterman, Denise (4 January 2006). "Taking the Pelé". Article by BBC Online. Retrieved 1 July 2010. "word had no meaning in Portuguese so he presumed it was an insult, but recently he has found out that it means miracle in Hebrew."
- "Pelé biography". Article by Soccerpulse.com. Retrieved 1 October 2006.
- Pelé; Orlando Duarte; Alex Bellos (2006). Pelé: the autobiography. London: Simon & Schuster UK Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7432-7582-8.
- "Pelé". Vivendo Bauru. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- Joe Marcus (1976). The world of Pele. New York: Mason/Charter. ISBN 978-0884053668.
- The PELE Treasury – IOC Athlete of the 20th century – The King of Football Retrieved 5 May 2011
- Diário Lance – www.lancenet.com.br. "// O Campeão da Rede". Lancenet. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- "Biography — Edson Arantes "Pelé" Nascimento". Article on frontfoot.co.za. Retrieved 1 October 2006.
- Artilheiros da história Folha Online. Retrieved 6 May 2011
- Matches which decided Rio-São Paulo Tournament RSSSF. Retrieved 6 May 2011
- Torneio Rio-São Paulo 1960 RSSSF. Retrieved 6 May 2011
- Santos revive spirit of Pelé BBC Sport Retrieved 5 May 2011
- "What they said about Pele" FIFA.com.
- Intercontinental Cups 1962 and 1963 FIFA Retrieved 5 May 2011
- Extraordinary Pele crowns Santos in Lisbon FIFA.com. Retrieved 22 October 2012
- Will South Africa 2010 produce a new Pele? BBC Sport. Retrieved 5 May 2011
- Copa Libertadores – Topscorers Rsssf.com. Retrieved 10 May 2011
- Remembering Pele's gol de placa FIFA. Retrieved 10 May 2011
- Bellos, Alex (2002). Futebol: The Brazilian Way of Life. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 244. ISBN 0-7475-6179-6.
- Pelé (Brazilian Athlete) Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 May 2011
- "Ultimate Feats of Fitness". Men's Fitness. 2006. Retrieved 1 October 2006.
- Santos – Pelé edges Eusebio as Santos defend title FIFA. Retrieved 5 May 2011
- Tom Dunmore (2011). "Historical Dictionary of Soccer". p. 198. Scarecrow Press,
- Lew H. Freedman (2014). "Pele". p. 165. ABC-CLIO
- Seven the number for Pele FIFA. Retrieved 5 May 2011
- Williams, Bob (28 October 2008). "Top 10: Young sporting champions". Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Pele: The greatest football player ever MSN. Retrieved 5 May 2011
- "World Cup 2002 - ABC Sport". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- (Portuguese) "Copa 1958". Consulted on 23 October 2010.
- The mark was surpassed by Northern Ireland's Norman Whiteside in the 1982 FIFA World Cup.
- Sweden 1958: Pele's genius propels Brazil to first title The Independent Retrieved 5 May 2011
- FIFA World Cup Goal of the Century FIFA Retrieved 5 May 2011
- Pelé – I was there FIFA. Retrieved 5 May 2011
- 1958 FIFA World Cup Sweden FIFA.com. Retrieved 6 May 2011
- (Portuguese) Copa do Mundo de 1958 na Suécia. Consulted on 23 October 2010.
- "The King of Football". FIFA.com. Retrieved 15 July 2014
- "Nasce Uma Lenda". Accessdate 23 October 2010. (Portuguese)
- "PELE - International Football Hall of Fame". Ifhof.com. 23 October 1940. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- "Pele Great Goal – Video". Metacafe.com. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- Glenn Moore (3 June 2006) Pele: The Greatest The Independent Retrieved 5 May 2011
- Portrait of Pele – Never-Seen: Pelé's 1966 World Cup LIFE. p.1,7. Retrieved 8 May 2011
- [dead link]
- 1966 FIFA World Cup England FIFA Retrieved 8 May 2011
- "Brazil in the 1966 World Cup - England". V-brazil.com. 1949-08-06. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Brazil in the 1966 World Cup – England". V-brazil.com. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- World Cup final: 10 top World Cup refereeing errors The Telegraph Retrieved 8 May 2011
- "PELE – International Football Hall of Fame". Ifhof.com. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- Roberto Mamrud. "Edson Arantes do Nascimento "Pelé" – Goals in International Matches". RSSSF. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- Brazil 'best ever' says Five Live BBC Sport. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- The boys from Brazil: On the trail of football's dream team The Independent. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- Mexico 1970: Brazilians show all how beautiful game should be played Sky Sports. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- 1970 Brazilian Soccer Team Voted Best Ever The New York Times. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- The greatest teams of all time The Telegraph. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- The 10 greatest football teams of all time Daily Mail. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "1970 FIFA World Cup Mexico". FIFA.com. Retrieved 30 May 2014
- The Greatest? For Century, Pele Eclipses Muhammad Ali The New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- Hattenstone, Simon (30 June 2003). "And God created Pelé". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- The 100 greatest World Cup moments: (No.18) The Independent Retrieved 13 May 2011.
- "FIFA World Cup Group 3 Results". ESPN. Retrieved 28 May 2014
- Benson, Andrew (2 June 2006) The perfect goal BBC Sport. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- Football First XI: Best goals ever CNN. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
- Brazil's heroes of 1970 relive their days of glory FIFA.com. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- Pelé, King of futbol, ESPN. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "Remembering the genius of Garrincha". BBC. Retrieved 8 December 2013
- "The Copa América Archive - Trivia". Rsssf.com. 2007-07-19. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- South American Championship 1959, Scorers' List RSSSF. Retrieved 6 May 2011
- "The Best of the Best". RecSportSoccerStatisticsFoundation.
- Malley, Frank (23 December 1999). "Pele, the perfect player". The Independent (London).
- "Pele - I was there". FIFA.com.
- "Pele and Mourinho win BBC awards" BBC.
- "Alfredo Di Stefano: Pele is better than Messi and Ronaldo - ESPN FC". Soccernet.espn.go.com. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- ""Speech by Nelson Mandela at the Inaugural Laureus Lifetime Achievement Award" Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory". Db.nelsonmandela.org. 2000-05-25. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "PELE: The Phenomenon". Time.
- "Pele, King of Futbol". ESPN
- Pelé Away From the Pitch LIFE. Retrieved 5 May 2011
- Xuxa, Pelé e a Playboy Muita Pimenta Retrieved 12 July 2011
- Pele's daughter dies of cancer at 42 Retrieved 3 February 2014
- Pele misses funeral of "daughter he never wanted" Retrieved 3 February 2014
- Daughter who sued Pele dies of cancer at 42 Retrieved 3 February 2014
- Pele sued by grandchildren for child support Retrieved 3 February 2014
- ""'Minha primeira paixão foi uma japonesa e a última também vai ser', afirma Pelé" ("'My first love was a Japanese and will also be the last,' says Pele")". BOL.com. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "Football legend Pele to marry". Daily Express. Retrieved 19 August 2014
- "Pelé foi investigado pela ditadura na década de 1970". .folha.uol.com.br. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Estranho, conservador, desastroso e 'de outro planeta'; comentaristas analisam declarações de Pelé". Espn.uol.com.br. 2013-06-19. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Estátua de Pelé é "amordaçada" na cidade natal do jogador". Noticias.terra.com.br. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Pelé e as manifestações". Veja.abril.com.br. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Ronaldo e Pelé podiam ter passado sem mais essa". Diariodocentrodomundo.com.br. 2013-06-20. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Pelé vaiado nas redes devido a declarações sobre protestos no Brasil". Jn.pt. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Pele in hospital, hip operation a success, report says - ESPN FC". Soccernet.espn.go.com. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Pele’s son Edinho jailed for 33 years for Drug Trafficking". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "Legends 10 Secures Exclusive License to Represent Pele Worldwide". PR Newswire. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- World Sport Humanitarian Hall of Fame Inductees – Pelé Retrieved 5 May 2011
- Reasons why Rio is the right Olympic choice CBC Retrieved 5 May 2011
- UNICEF denies Pele corruption reports Reuters Retrieved 6 May 2011
- Pelé slips from Brazil pedestal, The Observer, 25 November 2001.
- Education: Sir Pele lends his support The Independent Retrieved 6 May 2011
- Pelé scouts for Fulham, BBC Sport. Retrieved 10 June 2006.
- More than just a draw, FIFAWorldCup.com, 9 December 2005. Retrieved 27 March 2007.
- Paul Darby (2002). Africa, football, and FIFA: politics, colonialism, and resistance. F. Cass. pp. 110–. ISBN 978-0-7146-4968-9. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- Bellos, Alex (2003). Futebol. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-6179-8.
- "Pelé: The Autobiography". Simon and Schuster 2006
- "Pelé signs deal...to raise the profile of viagra!". The Age (Melbourne). 8 February 2005.
- Rawcliffe, Jonathan (9 November 2007). "Pelé joins Sheffield celebrations". BBC Sport. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
- "Pelé in Academy of Champions Wii game". IncGamers News. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
- Tamoor Hussain Features Editor, CVG UK Follow @tamoorh (2013-08-20). ""FIFA 14 Ultimate Team Legends is exclusive to Xbox consoles" at CVG.com". Computerandvideogames.com. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Maradona, Pelé and Zidane for Vuitton". GQ Magazine. Retrieved 14 May 2014
- "Santos hope for Pele comeback". ESPN. Retrieved 22 May 2014
- "Pelé to receive honorary degree" (Press release). University of Edinburgh. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "Going out in a blaze of golden glory: Awe-inspiring shots from the fantastic fireworks show which closed London's 2012 Olympics". Daily Mail. Retrieved 14 December 2012
- "Copa Oswaldo Cruz". Rsssf.com. 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Copa Bernardo O'Higgins". Rsssf.com. 1998-09-30. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Copa del Atlбntico". Rsssf.com. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Recopa Sudamericana 1968". Rsssf.com. 1999-06-23. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- Pelé – Títulos Santos Futebol Clube. Retrieved 6 May 2011
- The 1964 Torneio Rio-São Paulo was held jointly with Botafogo.
- "Santos Futebol Clube – Site Oficial". Santos.globo.com. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- The 1973 Paulista was held jointly with Portuguesa.
- [dead link]
- "Pelé - Todos os Títulos". Campeoesdofutebol.com.br. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Pelé still in global demand". CNN Sports Illustrated. 29 May 2002. Retrieved 30 May 2008.
- Pelé: ENGLAND ARE WORLD CUP THREAT, Sportinglife.com. Retrieved 27 March 2007.
- "Todos os Artilheiros do Torneio Rio-São Paulo". Campeoesdofutebol.com.br. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Pelé honoured with two Guinness World Records achievements in London". Guinness World Records. (October 30, 2013).
- [dead link]
- http://goldenfoot.com/pele-the-king-to-be-crowned-in-monte-carlo-at-10th-edition-of-the-golden-foot-awards Retrieved 8 January 2013/
- To Honour Football's greatest player: "O Rey" Pelé Golden Foot. Retrieved 8 January 2013 /
- South American Player of the Year 1973 RSSSF. Retrieved 6 May 2011
- "Hall of Famer Spotlight ... Pelé". Soccerhall.com. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- KBE#Notable honorary recipients
- USSR Philately (in Russian) (Moscow) (1): 1. January 1990. ISSN 0130-5689. – photo of this postage stamp
- Henry Kissinger (14 June 1999) Time 100 – PELE: The Phenomenon Time. Retrieved 22 May 2010
- "PELÉ (Edson Arantes do Nascimento) - The King of football". FIFA.com. In section 'Individual' of the right hand sidebar: FIFA. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- The 20th century boys BBC Sport. Retrieved 6 May 2011
- Split Decision – Pele, Maradona each win FIFA century awards after feud CNN Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 6 May 2011
- "Pelé to receive honorary degree" (Press release). University of Edinburgh. 6 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- [dead link]
- Various sources accept that Pelé scored 1281 goals in 1363 games. See, for example, the FIFA website. Some sources, however, claim that Pelé scored 1282 goals in 1366 games.
- For a full list of Pelé's goals which details the teams he played for, see . The international tours Pelé took part in for Santos and Cosmos are detailed at http://www.rsssf.com: http://paginas.terra.com.br/esporte/rsssfbrasil/historical.htm#friendli, and the American Soccer History Archives: http://www.sover.net/~spectrum/index.html (click on a year and then scroll down to the bottom of the page to see friendly tournaments), respectively.
- This number was inferred from a Santos fixture list from rsssf.com and this list of games Pelé played.
- As friendly matches are not counted in official statistics, this is what Pelé's goal total should be after friendly matches are disregarded.
- Pelé's first two matches for Santos are assumed here to be friendlies. No record of them exists in any of the tournaments listed at rsssf.com.
- "Resultados Históricos". RSSSF Brasil. 2014-05-14. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- All statistics relating to Pelé's goalscoring record between 1957 and 1974 in the SPS, RSPS, and Campeonato Brasileiro are taken from http://soccer-europe.com/Biographies/Pele.html. Soccer Europe compiled this list from http://www.rsssf.com (The Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation). For a full list of Pelé's goals see http://pele.m-qp-m.us/english/pele_statistics.shtml.
- [dead link]
- "Brazil Cup History". Rsssfbrasil.com. 2008-06-11. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- Totalised statistics relating to Pelé's record between 1957 and 1974 in the Taça de Prata, Taça Brasil and Copa Libertadores are taken from http://soccer-europe.com/Biographies/Pele.html. Soccer Europe compiled this list from http://www.rsssf.com (The Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation), but do not give a season-by-season breakdown. For a full list of Pelé's goals see http://pele.m-qp-m.us/english/pele_statistics.shtml.
- "Brazilian clubs in Copa Libertadores da América". Rsssfbrasil.com. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- In 1957 the São Paulo championship was split into two halves, Série Azul and Série Branca. In the first half Pelé scored 19 goals in 14 games, and then in Série Azul he scored 17 goals in 15 games. See http://paginas.terra.com.br/esporte/rsssfbrasil/tables/sp1957.htm
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "Brazil Cup 1959". Rsssfbrasil.com. 2009-02-09. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- [dead link]
- "Brazil Cup 1960". Rsssfbrasil.com. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "Brazil Cup 1963". Rsssfbrasil.com. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
-  (in Portuguese)
- [dead link]
- "BOLA N@ ÁREA - Taça Libertadores da América 1967". Bolanaarea.com. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- [dead link]
- "Brazilian clubs in Copa Libertadores da Amжrica". Rsssfbrasil.com. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Pele helps Brazil to World Cup title — History.com This Day in History — 6/29/1958". History.com. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- Jan Alsos (1936-11-05). "Legends - Uwe Seeler". Planet World Cup. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Prolific Scorers Data". Rsssf.com. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- Jogos e goals de Pelé pelo Santos
- [dead link]
- Edward Willett (2010). "Andy Warhol: Everyone Will Be Famous for 15 Minutes" p.112. Publishers, Inc.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pelé.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Pelé|
- Official website
- Pelé on Twitter
- Pelé on Facebook
- Pelé – FIFA competition record
- National Soccer Hall of Fame – Pelé
- Pelé: A Legend Looks Back – slideshow by Life magazine
- List of Goals for Brazil
- Pelé at the Internet Movie Database
- Play Soccer with Pele
- Santos Official Website - Pelé
- International Football Hall of Fame
- Planet World Cup