Peliganes

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Peliganes (Greek: Πελιγᾶνες Peliganes, singular: Πελιγάν Peligan) is the word used to refer to the Ancient Macedonian Senators. The term is attested to in Hesychius,[1] Strabo[2] and two inscriptions (in dative peligasi),[3] one from Dion[4][5] and one from Laodicea.[6][7] From the description of Hesychius and the epigraphy,it is evident that Peliganes played a more significant role in Seleucids than Macedon. In Ptolemaic Kingdom the term is unattested. The Seleucid cliché phrase was:

δεδόχθαι τοῖς πελιγᾶσιν (dedochthai tois peligasin), "having been resolved by the peliganes"

The Macedonian supreme body was called Synedrion.[8] Other Seleucid institutions were the Archontes, Demos, Proboule, Boule, Epistatai (supervisors) and Dikastai (judges).[9]

Etymology[edit]

Strabo cites the word as Peligones, meaning the senators of both Macedonians, Thesprotians and Molossians and compares them to Gerontes (Gerousia) of Laconians and Massaliotes. He further remarks that πελιοί pelioi in the dialects of Epirus and Macedonia, means old men.[10] Πεληός pelêos[11] or pelios is the common Doric form, while in Attic πολιός polios means also grey, grey from age, venerable, bright. The suffix -gan is the Attic suffix -genes (genos).[citation needed] There are many more Macedonian inscribed eponyms such as Epigan,[12] Peleigenes,[13] Peleigines,[14] Peligenes.[15] Pelignas was finally a Macedonian or Epirote chef sent by Olympias to Alexander.[16] Polybius[17] mentions Adeiganes for the council, magistrates of Seleucia, (who were banished, fined and exiled by the minister Hermeias); a word unattested in epigraphy and other sources. Editor P. Roussel[18] has emended to Peleiganes, while Hammond suggests that it might be an original West Macedonian word.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Hes.) Peliganes: the endoxoi (honourable); among the Syrians the bouleutai (chancellors).
  2. ^ Strabo, Fragments 7.2.
  3. ^ Grammatically, as pelekan (pelican) Third declension-Nasal single-stem
  4. ^ Macedonia (Greece)-PieriaDion (ca. 180 BC) τοῖς πελειγᾶσι peleigasi Epigraphical Database 3.
  5. ^ Philip V salutes Eurylochos,the epistate(resident representative in Kyzikos), the Peleiganes and the rest Politai (citizens).
  6. ^ Syria Laodicea (Latakia) - ca. 174 BC - τοῖς πελιγᾶσιν peligasin Epigraphical Database 22.
  7. ^ The Hellenistic World from Alexander to the Roman Conquest by M. M. Austin The Decree of Laodicea
  8. ^ Attested numerous times and passed into Hebrew as Sanhedrin
  9. ^ The Decrees of the Greek States by Peter John Rhodes, David Malcolm Lewis.
  10. ^ Hesychius cites also Peleioi, old men by Epirotes and Doric-speaking Koans.
  11. ^ Hes. πέλη[τ]ος old man πελήαρ doves (Laconian).
  12. ^ Beroia Leukopetra 252/253 AD [1]
  13. ^ Mieza - [2] and Elimeia - [3]
  14. ^ Thessalonica, ca. 2nd century BC [4]
  15. ^ Beroia: Leukopetra, ca. 230 AD [5] [6] last line
  16. ^ Athenaeus Deipnosophists - 14.78 659F
  17. ^ Polybius - 5.54.10.
  18. ^ The Cities of Seleukid Syria by John D. Grainger
  19. ^ Hammond NGL (1979) "Internal organization of Macedonia and of Macedonian conquests in the Balkans".