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Pella (Ancient Greek Πέλλα, also known in Arabic as Tabaqat Fahl, طبقة فحل) is a village and the site of ancient ruins in northwestern Jordan. It is half an hour by car from Irbid, in the north of the country.
Pella is located in the Jordan valley some 130 km north of Amman, and the site has been continuously occupied since Neolithic times. First mentioned in the 19th century BC in Egyptian inscriptions, its name was Hellenised to Pella, perhaps to honour Alexander the Great's birthplace. The Roman city, of which some spectacular ruins remain, supplanted the Hellenistic city. During this period Pella was one of the cities making up the Decapolis. The city was the site of one of Christianity's earliest churches. According to Eusebius of Caesarea it was a refuge for Jerusalem Christians in the 1st century AD who were fleeing the Jewish–Roman wars. The city is also the site of the battle between Byzantine troops and Muslim invading forces in 635 CE (13 AH) at the Battle of Fahl.
The city proper was destroyed by the Golan earthquake of 749. A small village remains in the area. Only small portions of the ruins have been excavated.
The University of Sydney and the Jordanian Department of Antiquities have been conducting excavations at Pella since 1979. In recent years, led by Stephen Bourke, the focus has been on the site's Bronze Age and Iron Age temples and administrative buildings. A Canaanite temple was uncovered from 1994 to 2003. In May 2010 Stephen Bourke announced the discovery of a city wall and other structures, dating back to 3400BC, indicating that Pella was a formidable city-state at the same time the cities of Sumer were taking shape.
Just below the ancient site is a mosque which commemorates the death of one of the Companions of the Prophet Mohammed, who fell in battle here during the Battle of Fahl in January AD 635.
- Atlas Tours: Pella, Jordan
- Eusebius, History of the Church, 3.5.3
- The Near Eastern Archaeology Foundation, University of Sydney: Pella
- Ben Churcher, The Discovery of Pella's Canaanite temple
- Jordan Times 31 May 2010: Jordan Valley - cradle of civilisations?