Pellendones

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The Pellendones (also Pelendones or Cerindones[1]) were an ancient people living on the Iberian Peninsula. From the early 4th century BC they inhabited the region near the source of the river Duero in what today is north-central Spain. The area comprises the north of Soria, the southeast of Burgos and the southwest of La Rioja provinces.

Origins[edit]

The Romans thought them of mixed Illyrian and Celtic origin and that the Pellendones migrated to the Iberian Peninsula around the 4th Century BC[2][3] and it is believed[by whom?] that they were related to the Belendi or Pelendi of the middle Sigmatis (today's Leyre) river valley (approximately today's Belin-Béliet territory) in Gallia (Gaul). They spoke a 'Q-Celtic' language.

Culture[edit]

A predominantely stock-raising people that practiced transhumance in the grazing lowlands of the Ebro valley, they had their capital at Visontium (VinuesaSoria), and are credited as being the original founders of Numantia (Muela de GarraySoria) and Savia (Soria?). They also controlled the towns of Aregrada (Ágreda? – Sória; Celtiberian mints: Areicoraticos/Arecorataz), Arenetum (Arnedo, near InestrillasLa Rioja), Quelia/Quelium (Quel, near ArnedoLa Rioja; Celtiberian mint: Cueliocos) and Contrebia Leukade (Aguillar del Rio AlhamaLa Rioja). To these was added the Roman colony of Augustobriga (Muro de Ágreda), founded in the late 1st Century BC; though the location of the towns Lutia (Cantalucia?), Olibia and Varia remains either incertain or unknown.

History[edit]

Closely related with both the Arevaci – to whom they were a dependant tribe – and Vettones, they threw off the Arevaci yoke with Roman help in the late 2nd century BC.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Livy, Frag. Libr., 91
  2. ^ Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 3, 29
  3. ^ Strabo, Geographika, III, 4, 12

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ángel Montenegro et alii, Historia de España 2 - colonizaciones y formación de los pueblos prerromanos (1200-218 a.C), Editorial Gredos, Madrid (1989) ISBN 84-249-1386-8
  • Francisco Burillo Mozota, Los Celtíberos, etnias y estados, Crítica, Barcelona (1998) ISBN 84-7423-891-9