|Other names||Pimbloy, Pemulvoy, Pemulwoy|
|Known for||Resistance to British occupation of Sydney area|
|Political movement||Aboriginal resistance|
Pemulwuy (aka Pimbloy, Pemulvoy, Pemulwoy, Pemulwye) (c1750 - 1802) was an Aboriginal Australian man born around 1750 in the area of Botany Bay in New South Wales. He is noted for his resistance to the European settlement of Australia which began with the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788. He is believed to have been a member of the Bidjigal (Bediagal) clan of the Eora people.
Clashes between Pemulwuy and the British settlers 
The account of Watkin Tench describes a clash between the British settlers and Pemulwuy in 1790. He relates how Governor Phillip's gamekeeper John McIntyre was speared by one Aboriginal man who was part of a group of five. The man who threw the spear was identified as having speck or blemish on his left eye, and having been recently shaved, which would indicate previous friendly contact with the British. The group was pursued by the settlers with muskets, but they escaped. The man who threw the spear was later identified by Colbee as Pemulwuy. Tench suspected that McIntyre had previously killed Aboriginal people, and noted the fear and hatred that the Aboriginal people, including Bennelong showed towards him.
Governor Phillip ordered two military expeditions against the Bidjigal led by Tench in retaliation for the attack on McIntyre. He regarded the Bidjigal as the most aggressive towards the British settlers and intended to make an example of them. He ordered that six of their people be captured or if they could not be captured that they be put to death. It was Phillip's intention to execute two of the captured people and to send the remainder to Norfolk Island. He also ordered that he "strictly forbids, under penalty of the severest punishment, any soldier or other person, not expressly ordered out for that purpose, ever to fire on any native except in his own defence; or to molest him in any shape, or to bring away any spears, or other articles which they may find belonging to those people." The Aboriginal people present in Sydney refused to assist in tracking, with Colbee feigning injury. The first expedition failed, with the heavy loads carried by the British military making them no match for the speed of the Aboriginal people. During the second they took women prisoners and shot at two men. One of whom, Bangai, was wounded and later found dead.
Pemulwuy persuaded the Eora, Dharug and Tharawal people to join his campaign against the newcomers. From 1792 Pemulwuy led raids on settlers from Parramatta, Georges River, Prospect, Toongabbie, Brickfield and Hawkesbury River.
In March 1797, following a pursuit by settlers, Pemulwuy led 100 men and confronted the British troops in Parramatta. Pemulwuy was shot seven times and taken to hospital. Five others were killed instantly. This incident has more recently become known as the Battle of Parramatta. Despite still having buckshot in his head and body, and wearing a leg-iron, Pemulwuy escaped from the hospital. This added to the belief that he was a carradhy (clever man).
Pemulwuy used guerrilla tactics in fighting similar to those used by other Aboriginal groups on the frontier. He was the first to show the British settlers that the Aboriginal peoples were going to resist colonisation. Pemulwuy was followed by other rebels, including Yagan in Perth, who have become well known.
Governor Philip Gidley King issued an order on 22 November 1801 for bringing Pemulwuy in dead or alive, with an associated reward. The order attributed the killing of two men, the dangerous wounding of several, and a number of robberies to Pemulwuy.
In 1802 Pemulwuy was shot and killed by British sailor Henry Hacking. Hacking was the first mate of the English sloop Lady Nelson.
Following the death of Pemulwuy Governor King wrote to Lord Hobart that on the death of Pemulwuy he was given his head by the Aboriginal people as Pemulwuy "had been the cause of all that had happened". The Governor issued orders with immediate effect to not "molest or ill-treat any native", and to re-admit them to the areas of Parramatta and Prospect from which they had been forcibly excluded.
Pemulwuy's head was preserved in spirits. It was sent to England to Sir Joseph Banks accompanied by a letter from Governor King, who wrote: "Although a terrible pest to the colony, he was a brave and independent character."
Skull controversy 
Pemulwuy's skull is believed by some to have been returned to Australia in the 1950s but was lost. In 1998 a skull was identified as Pemulwuy's, but a controversy has developed. A group of Aborigines from Taree believe that the skull is that of a Taree man. The Aboriginal undertaker Allan Murray, from Redfern, believes it is Pemulwuy's. He is working to have the skull reinterred and a memorial statue erected.
In 2010 Prince William announced he would return Pemulwuy's skull to his Aboriginal relatives. On 22 September 2011 Hon. Christopher Pyne spoke in Australian Parliament regarding the "Repatriation of Pemulwuy's Skull." In his speech he said "Alex Hartman is leading a team of people in London from Australia who are trying to bring back the remains of Pemulwuy. I know that Prince William will work with Mr Hartman and Mr Willmot to ensure these remains are returned to Australia, where they belong. I think it would be an act that would be very much welcomed by Aboriginal people. I also note that Michael Mundine was one of the very first people that Prince William made this pledge to, and I know that Mr Hartman has been meeting this week with representatives of the British Natural History Museum. He has been assisted ably by our High Commission in London, and I wish him the very best of luck with this quest."
In 2012, the Digital Museum of Australia announced it would partner with Matilda Media to produce a high-resolution, high-fidelity virtual experience of the story and life of Pemulwuy and other key figures in the story of first contact between Europeans and Aboriginal Australians. Digital Museum of Australia will use Matilda's "3DVRX" virtual experience platform to provide free access through the web and mobile devices to a three-dimensional virtual reality environment produced from the descriptions in Eric Willmot's novel and derived from the limited accounts available from the historic record.
Australian composer Paul Jarman composed a choral work entitled Pemulwuy. It has become an Australian choral standard, and was performed by the Biralee Blokes in their victory in the ABC Choir of the Year 2006.
In 1987 Weldons published "Pemulwuy: The Rainbow Warrior" by Eric Willmot, a best-selling novel providing a fictionalised account using early colonial documents as source. On 8 March 2012 Matilda Media announced a Film Development Agreement with See Pictures under which the two companies will collaborate and co-produce "Pemulwuy" as a feature film.
- Wendy Lewis, Simon Balderstone and John Bowan (2006). Events That Shaped Australia. New Holland. ISBN 978-1-74110-492-9.
- "Pemulwuy". Biography of Pemulwuy. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- Keith Vincent Smith (2010). "Pemulwuy". Dictionary of Sydney. Dictionary of Sydney Trust. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- Tench, Watkin, "Chapter viii", A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson
- Collins, David. An account of the English colony in New South Wales 2. p. 27.
- Dale, David (16 February 2008). "WHO WE ARE: The man who nearly changed everything". "The Sun Herald".
- F. M. Bladen (ed.), "Government and General Order. 22 November 1801.", Historical Records of New South Wales, IV — HUNTER AND KING, p. 629
- F. M. Bladen (ed.), "Governor King to Lord Hobart. 30 October 1802", Historical Records of New South Wales, IV — HUNTER AND KING, p. 868
- F. M. Bladen (ed.), "Governor King to Sir Joseph Banks. 5 June 1802.", Historical Records of New South Wales, IV — HUNTER AND KING, p. 783
- "Prince William takes up search for lost Aboriginal skull". The Times]. 2010-02-04.
- "House of Representatives Hansard 22 September 2011". Australian Parliament]. 2011-09-22.
- Pemulwuy, New South Wales Geographical Names Board
- "Pemulwuy Park, Redfern". City of Sydney. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- Youtube Redgum - Water and Stone
- Hub, Screen (9 March 2012). "Brief: details on Pemulway proposition". "Screen Hub".
- "Redevelopment News". Aboriginal Housing Company. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
- Pemulwuy, Cambridge University Press (3 May 2000) ISBN 978-0-521-77625-7
Further reading 
Willmot, E., 1987, Pemulwuy – The Rainbow Warrior, Weldons. A fictionalised recount using early colonial documents as source.
Dark, Eleanor, 1947, The Timeless Land, also uses early colonial documents as source, including a recount of unsuccessful search for Pemulwuy by Arthur Phillip's officers.